The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes Synonyms denoting the celestial region and the nether world which is chapter 360 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 360 - Synonyms denoting the celestial region and the nether world

[Full title: The synonyms of group of words denoting the celestial region and the nether world (svarga-pātāla-vargā)]

[Note: The Purāṇa summarises the Amarakośa in eight chapters. This chapter is an abridgement of the Kāṇḍa I, Svargavarga 6-79 verses and Pātālavarga 239-347 verses.]

Fire-god said:

1. I shall describe to you (the synonyms) of heaven etc. of which lord Hari is the indication. Svaḥ [sva], svargaḥ [svarga], nākaḥ [nāka], tridivaḥ [tridiva], dyauḥ [dyau], triviṣṭapa are synonyms (denoting heaven).

2-3a. Devas, Vṛndārakas and Lekhas (are the names for the celestials). Rudra and others (are) the chief ofgroup of gods. Vidyādharas, Apsaras, Yakṣas, Rakṣas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Piśācas, Guhyakas, Siddhas and Bhūtas had celestial origin.

3b. The enemies of the Devas, Asuras and Daityas (born of Diti) (are the names of the demons). Sugataḥ [sugata] and Tathāgataḥ [tathāgata] (denote Buddha).[1]

4. Brahmā, Ātmabhūḥ [ātmabhū] (self-born), Surajyeṣṭha (chief of the Devas) (are the synonyms of Brahmā). Viṣṇu, Nārāyaṇa and Hari (are the names of Viṣṇu). Revatīśa (husband of Revatī), Halīrāma (Rāma with with plough) (are the words denoting Balarāma) (elder brother of Kṛṣṇa). Kāma, Pañcaśara (having five shafts) and Smara (are the names of God of love).

5. Lakṣmī, Padmālayā (having the lotus as abode), and Padmā (are the names of Goddess Lakṣmī). Sarva (all things), Sarveevara (lord of all beings), and Śiva (auspicious) (are the names of Śiva). Kaparda is his matted hair. Pināka is the bow (of lord Śiva) also known as Ajagava.

6. His attendants are (known as) Pramathas. Mṛḍānī (compassionate), Caṇḍikā (fierce) and Ambikā (mother) (are the names of Goddess Pārvatī). Dvaimātura[2] (having two mothers) and Gajāsya (having an elephant face) (are the names of lord Gaṇeśa). Senānī (leader of an army), Agnibhū (fire-born) and Guha (reared in a secret place) (are the names of Skanda).

7. Ākhaṇḍala (breaker), Sunāsīra (favourable for the growth of grain), Sūtrāman (guarding well) and Divaspati (lord of the heaven) (are the names of Indra). Pulomajā (duaghter of Puloman, a demon), Śacī (powerful) and Indrāṇī are the names of wife (of Indra).

8. His (Indra’s) mansion (is known as) Vaijayanta. Jayanta (victorious) (is the name of) Pākaśāsani (son of Pākaśāsana, Indra). Airāvata, Abhramātaṅga (elephantine cloud), Airāvaṇa and Abhramuvallabha (mate of the female elephant of the east) (are the names of the elephant of Indra).

9. Hlādinī (that which delights), Vajra, that it not a feminine (word), Kuliśa, Bhidura (neuter words) and Pavi (masculine) (are the words denoting Indra’s club). Indra’s chariot is called) Vyomayāna and Vimāna (the vehicle of the sky). (The latter word is) not feminine. Pīyūṣa, Amṛta and Sudhā (denote ambrosia).

10. Sudharmā is the council of gods. Svargaṅgā and Suradīrghikā (denote the celestial Ganges). The celestial women such as Urvaśī and others (are denoted by the words) Svarveśyā and Apsarasaḥ [apsaras]. (Here the latter word is always) feminine and plural.

11-12. Hāhā and Hūhū (are the names of) Gandharvas (semi-divine beings). Agni, Vahni, Dhanañjaya (conqueror of wealth), Jātavedas (knower of all things), Kṛṣṇavartman (whose way is black), Āśrayāśa (consuming everything with which it comes into contact), Pāvaka (purifier), Hiraṇyaretas (having golden seed), Saptārcis (having seven rays), Śukra (white). Āśuśukṣaṇi (shining forth), Śuci (pure) and Appittam [appitta] (bile of water) (are the words denoting fire). Aurva, Vāḍava and Vaḍavānala (denote the submarine fire).

13-14. Among the words denoting the flames of fire, Jvāla and Kīla (are masculine and feminine), Arcis (feminine and neuter) and Heti and Śikhā (are) feminine. Sphuliṅga and Agnikaṇa (denote a spark of fire). (These words are used) in all the three (genders). Dharmarāja (lord of virtue), Paretarāṭ (master of the dead), Kāla (the Time), Antaka (Destroyer), Daṇḍadhara (Wielder of a staff) and Srāddhadeva (lord of the ancestral rite) (are the synonyms of God of Death). Rākṣasa, Kauṇapa (coming from a corpse), Asrapa (blood drinker), Kravyāda (flesh eater), Yātudhāna and Nairṛti (are the words denoting a demon).

15. Pracetas, Varuṇa and Pāśī (having a noose) (denote Varuṇa, the upholder of moral laws). Śvasana (who breathes), Sparśana (who touches), Anila, Sadāgati (always moving), Mātariśvan, Prāṇa (life breath), Marut and Samīraṇa (denote wind).

16. Java, raṃha and tara (denote speed). Laghu, kṣipram [kṣipra], aram [ara], drutam [druta], satvaram [satvara], capalam [capala], tūrṇam [tūrṇa], avilambitam [avilambita] and āśu (denote haste).

17-18. Satatam [satata], anāratam [anārata], aśrāntam [aśrānta], santatam [santata], avīratam [avīrata], aniśam [aniśa], nityaṃ [nitya], anavaratam [anavarata] and ajasram [ajasra] (mean eternally). Atiśaya, bhara, ativelam [ativela], bhṛśam [bhṛśa], atyartham [atyartha], atimātram [atimātra], udgāḍham [udgāḍha], nirbharam [nirbhara], tīvram [tīvra], ekāntam [ekānta], nitāntam [nitānta], gāḍham [gāḍha], bāḍham [bāḍha], and dṛḍham [dṛḍha] (denote excess).

19. Guhyakeśa, Yakṣarāja (chief of Yakṣas), Rājaraja and Dhanādhipa (lord of riches) (denote Kubera). Kinnara, Kimpuruṣa, Turaṅgavadana (horse-faced) and Mayu (denote the Kinnaras, a class of semidivine beings).

20. Nidhi and śevadhi (mean treasure). (Both the words are) masculine. Vyoma, abhram [abhra], puṣkaram [puṣkara], ambaram [ambara], dyo, divam [diva], antarikṣam [antarikṣa] and kham [kha] (denote the sky).

21-22a. Kāṣṭhā, āśā and kakubha (denote) the direction. Abhyantara and antarāla mean the interspace (between the heaven and earth). Cakravāla and maṇḍala (mean a range or orb of things). Taḍitvān (having lightning), vārida (giver of water), megha, stanayitnu (that which makes sound) and balāhaka (stand for cloud). Kādambinī and meghamālā (denote a row of clouds). Stanita and garjita (mean the rumbling of thunder clouds).

22b-23. Śampā, Śatahradā, hrādinī, airāvatī, kṣaṇaprabhā, taḍit, saudāminī, vidyut, cañcalā and capalā (denote lightning).

23b-24. Sphūrjathuḥ [sphūrjathu] and vajranirghoṣa (mean the peel of thunder). The cessation of rain (is denoted by the word) avagraha. Dhārāsampāta and āsāra (denote incessant rain). Śīkara (is known to be) drops of water (carried by wind). Varṣopala and karakāḥ (are the first rain drops falling like a stone). A cloudy day (is known as) durdinam [durdina] (a bad day).

25. Antardhā, vyavadhā (feminine), antardhi (masculine), apavāraṇam [apavāraṇa], apidhānam [apidhāna], tirodhānam [tirodhāna], pidhānam [pidhāna], and ācchādanam [ācchādana] (mean concealing or covering).

26-27. (The words) Abja, Jaivātṛka, Soma, Glauḥ [glau], Mṛgāṅka, Kalānidhi, Vidhu and Kumudabandhu (denote the Moon). Bimba and maṇḍala (are the words denoting the orb of the moon, the former is) feminine (and the latter is used in) all (the genders). A sixteenth digit (of the moon) is kalā. Bhitta, śakala and khaṇḍaka (denote a part). Candrikā, kaumudī and jyotsnā (denote the lustre of the moon). Prasāda and prasannatā (denote clear lustre).

28-29a. Lakṣaṇam [lakṣaṇa], lakṣmakam [lakṣmaka] and cihnam [cihna] (stand for a mark). Śobhā, kānti, dyuti and chavī (denote lustre). Suṣamā (denotes) exquisite lustre. Tuṣāra, tuhinam [tuhina], himam [hima], avaśyāya, nīhāra, prāleyaṃ [prāleya], śiśira and himam [hima] denote snow).

29b. Nakṣatram [nakṣatra], ṛkṣam [ṛkṣa], bham [bha], tārā, tārakā and uḍu (denote an asterism). There the last word may also be feminine.

30. Guru, Jīva and Āṅgirasa (are the words standing for Jupiter). Uśanas, Bhārgava and Kavi (denote Venus). Vidhuntuda (afflicting Moon) and Tama (denote) Rāhu. The rise of the constellations is known to be lagna.

31. Sages such as Marīci, Atri and others[3] are the seven sages. (They are known collectively as) Citraśikhaṇḍins. Haridaśva, Bradhna, Pūṣā, Dyumaṇi, Mihira and Ravi (denote the Sun).

32-34a. (The halo around the Sun is known as) pariveṣa, paridhi, upasūryakam [upasūryaka] and maṇḍalam [maṇḍala]. (The ray of the Sun is denoted by the words) kiraṇa, usra, mayūkha, aṃśu, gabhasti, ghṛmi, dhṛṣṇi[4], bhānu, kara, marīci, and dīdhiti where marīci is feminine and masculine (while) dīdhiti is feminine. (The lustre is denoted by the words) prabhā, ruk, ruci, tviṭ, bhā, bhāḥ, chavi, dyuti, dīpti, roci and śoci, where the last two are neuter, (while the other words are feminine). (The lustre of the Sun is denoted by the words) prakāśa, dyota and ātapa.

34b-38a. (The words) koṣṇam [koṣṇa], kavoṣṇam [kavoṣṇa], mandoṣṇam [mandoṣṇa] and kaduṣṇam [kaduṣṇa] (denote little heat). They take neuter when referring to a quality and take all genders as attributes. Similarly (the words) tigmam [tigma], tīkṣṇam [tīkṣṇa] and kharam [khara] (denoting excessive heat) take neuter or all the genders. (The words) diṣṭa, anehā and kālaka (denote time). (The words) ghasra, dinam [dina] and ahas (denote day). Sāyaṃ [sāya], sandhyā and pitṛprasūḥ [pitṛprasū] (denote the evening). Pratyūṣas [pratyūṣa], aharmukham [aharmukha], kalyaṃ [kalya], uṣas and pratyūṣas (denote dawn). The three twilights (are known as) prāhṇa (morning), aparāhṇa (evening) are madhyāhna. (midday). Night is denoted by the words) śarvarī, yāmī and tamī. (The night endowed with darkness is) tamisrā and (that with moonlight is) jyotsnī. The night together with the preceding and succeeding days (is known as) pakṣiṇī. The two (words) ardharātri and niśītha (denote) midnight. Pradoṣa and rajanīmukham [rajanīmukha] (is the period preceding the night).

38b-40. The intervening period between the pratipat (first lunar day) and the fifteenth (lunar day) is parvan. There are two fifteenth (days) at the end of each one of the fortnights. Paurṇamāsī and pūrṇimā (denote the last days of the bright lunar fortnight). (If that full moon) is a digit less (it is known as) anumati. If it is full, (it is) rākā. Amāvāsyā, is being near; darśa and sūryendu-saṅgama (union of Sun and Moon) (denote the last days of the dark lunar fortnight). If the moon is perceived (on the new moon day), (it is) sinīvāli and if the same (is seen) a digit less, (it is) kuhū.

41-42a. Saṃvarta, pralaya, kalpa, kṣaya and kalpānta (denote deluge). (The words) kaluṣam [kaluṣa], vṛjinam [vṛjina], enaḥ, agham [agha], aṃhaḥ, durītam [durīta] and duṣkṛtam [duṣkṛta] (denote sin). (The words) dharmam [dharma], puṇyaṃ [puṇya], śreyas, sukṛtam [sukṛta] and vṛṣa (denote good deeds). The word dharmam [dharma] (is used) in the masculine and neuter.

42b-43a. (The words) mut, prīti, pramada, harṣa, pramoda, āmoda, sammada, ānandathuḥ [ānandathu], ānanda, śarma, sātam [sāta] and sukham [sukha] (denote rejoice).

43b-44a. (The words) śvaḥśreyasam [śvaḥśreyasa], śivam [śiva], bhadram [bhadra], kalyāṇam [kalyāṇa], maṅgalam [maṅgala], śubham [śubha], bhūvukam [bhūvuka], bhavikam [bhavika], bhavyaṃ [bhavya], kuśalam [kuśala] and kṣemam [kṣema] (denote only welfare). (There) kṣemam [kṣema] is used in masculine and neuter.

44b. Daivam [daiva], diṣṭam [diṣṭa], bhāgadheyam [bhāgadheya], bhāgyam [bhāgya], niyati and vidhi relate to (fruits of) previous birth. (The latter two) are feminine.

45a. Kṣetrajña, ātman and puruṣa relate to the soul in the body. Pradhānam [pradhāna] and prakṛti (relate to the state in which the three qualities are in the same proportion). (The latter is used) in the feminine.

45b-46a. Hetu, kāraṇam [kāraṇa] and bījam [bīja] (denote) cause. But nidāna is the primary cause. Cittam [citta], cetas, hṛdayaṃ [hṛdaya], svāntam [svānta], hṛt, mānasam [mānasa] and manas (denote mind).

46b-47a. Buddhi, manīṣā, dhiṣaṇā, dhīḥ, prajñā, śemuṣī, mati, prekṣā, upalabdhi, cit, saṃvit, pratipat, jñapti and cetanā (denote intellect).

47b-48. The intellect (dhī) which possesses retentive power (is known as) medhā. Saṅkalpa (resolve) is an activity of mind. Carcā (discussion), Saṅkhyā (deliberation) and vicāraṇā (inquiry) (relate to examination of an object by means of knowledge). Vicīkitsā and saṃśaya (relate to doubtful knowledge). Adhyāhāra (inference), tarka (logical reasoning) and ūha (conjecture) (relate to logic), Nirṇaya and niścaya mean conclusive knowledge.

49. (The words) mithyādṛṣṭi and nāstikatā (are used to denote knowledge arising from the argument that the other world does not exist). Bhrānti, mithyāmati and bhrama (mean false (knowledge). Aṅgikāra, abhyupagama, pratiśraya and samāśraya (denote acceptance).

50-5la. Knowledge relating to liberation from mundane existence (is) jñānam [jñāna]. (When it is used with reference to) architecture and scientific literature, (it is) vijñānam [vijñāna]. Mukti, kaivalyam [kaivalya], nirvāṇam [nirvāṇa], śreyas, niḥṣreyasam [niḥṣreyasa], amṛtam [amṛta], mokṣa and apavarga (denote liberation from mundane existence). (The words) ajñānam [ajñāna], avidyā and ahammati (stand for ignorance). (Among these, the last two words are used) in the feminine.

51b-52a. (The word) parimala (is used to denote) fragrance arising from pounding or rubbing which attracts men. That which attracts very much (is known as) āmoda. (The words) surabhi and ghrāṇatarpaṇa (denote an object possessing good fragrance).

52b-53. (The words) śukla, śubhra, śuci, śveta, viśada, śyeta, pāṇḍara, avadāta, sita, gaura, valakṣa, dhavala, arjuna, hariṇa, pāṇḍura and pāṇḍu (denote white). That which is little white (is denoted by the word) dhūsara.

54. (The words) nīla, asita, śyāma, kāla, syāmala and mecaka (denote) black. (The words) pīta, gaura and haridrābha (denote yellow). (The words) pālāśa, harita and harit (mean) the green colour.

55. (The words) rohita, lohita and rakta (denote red colour). (The word) śoṇa (denotes) the colour resembling red lotus. Little redness (is denoted by the word) aruṇa. (The word) pāṭala (stands for) red mixed with white.

56-57a. Śyāva and kapiśa (denote whitish red). Dhūmra and dhūmala (denote) red and black mixed. Kaḍāra, kapila, piṅga, piśaṅga, kadru and piṅgala (denote reddish brown). Citram [citra], kirmīra, kalmāṣa, sabala, eta and and karbura (denote variegated colours).

57b. (The words) vyāhāra, ukti and lapitam [lapita] (denote speech). Apabhraṃśa (means) a corrupted word.

58. A collection of tiṅ (verb) and subanta (noun) is a sentence. Or it may be an activity together with the case relation between a noun and a verb. Itihāsa is that which has happened in the past. Purāṇa has five characteristics.[5]

59. Ākhyāyikā is a narrative of a past event. Prabandha is an imaginary story. Samāhāra and saṅgraha (denote a collection of stories). Pravahlikā and prahelikā (are involving conjecture).

60. Samasyā is a puzzle that has to be completed. Smṛti is a collection of texts (composed for propagating) religious and moral duties. Ākhyā, āhvā and abhidhāna (denote name). Vārtā and vṛttānta are said (to denote) narration ofworldly course of events.

61. (The words) hūti, ākāraṇā and āhvānam [āhvāna] (denote calling). Upanyāsa and vāṅmukha (mean beginning of a speech). Vivāda and vyavahāra (are used in the sense of disputes relating debts, gifts etc.). (The words) prativākyam [prativākya] and uttaram [uttara] (are used in the sense of reply).

62. Upodghāta and udāhāra (are used to denote the thought relating to accomplishment of a contextual object). Mithyābhiśaṃsanam [mithyābhiśaṃsana] and abhiśāpa (mean insult or abuse). (The words) yaśas and kīrti (denote fame). (The words) praśna, pṛcchā and anuyogaka (mean a query).

63. (The word) āmreḍitam [āmreḍita] (means) repetition two or three (times). (The words) kutsā, nindā and garhaṇam [garhaṇa] (denote censure). (The words) ābhāṣaṇam [ābhāṣaṇa] and ālāpa would (mean conversation preceded by mutual call). Pralāpa is meaningless utterance.

64. Anulāpa and muhurbhāṣa (mean repeated coṇversation). Vilāpa and paridevana denote speech preceded by weeping. Vipralāpa and virodhokti (denote mutually contradictory utterances). Saṃlāpa is conversation between one another.

65. Supralāpa and suvacanam [suvacana] (mean good utterance). Apalāpa and nihnava (mean veiled statement). Ruśatī[6] means inauspicious utterance. Saṅgatam [saṅgata] and hṛdayaṅgamam [hṛdayaṅgama] (would denote well-constructed sentence).

66. That which is exceedingly sweet is sāntvam [sāntva]. Abaddham [abaddha] and anarthakam [anarthaka] would (mean absurd). Niṣṭhuram [niṣṭhura][7] and paruṣam [paruṣa] (mean harsh utterance). Aślīlam [aślīla] and grāmyam [grāmya] (mean unrefined utterance). The statement which is pleasing and true (is) sūnṛtam [sūnṛta].

67-69. Satyaṃ [satya], tathyaṃ [tathya], ṛtam [ṛta] and samyak (would mean truth). (The words) nāda, nisvāna, nisvana, ārava, ārāva, saṃrāva and virāva (denote ordinary sound). Marmara (denotes) the sound made by cloth and leaves. (The sound made) by the ornaments (is) śiñjitam [śiñjita]. Nikvaṇa and kvāṇa (denote the sound) of a lute. The sound made by birds (is) vāsitam [vāsita]. Kolāhala and kalakala (mean the clear sound made by many). The two (words) gītam [gīta] and gānam [gāna] mean the same (namely, a song). Pratiśrut and pratidhvāna (mean echo), where the former is feminine. (The sounds such as) niṣāda (and the like) arise from stringed instruments and throats (of singers).

70-71. A subtle (sound) is kākalī. That which is sweet and not explicit is kala. Mandara is a lofty sound. Tāra is a very loud sound. Where there is a resonance and well blending of the (last) three sounds it is said to be ekatāla. Vīṇā, vallakī and vipañcī (denote lute). That which is known to have seven strings is parivādinī.

72. Vīṇā and other instruments are spread out. Muraja and the like are bound. Vaṃśa (flute) and others have holes. An instrument made of bell-metal and the like is ghanam [ghana].

73. Thus there are four kinds of musical instruments having the appellation vāditram [vāditra] and ātodyam [ātodya]. Mṛdaṅga and Muraja (are synonyms). Aṅkyāḥ [aṅkya?], āliṅgyaḥ [āliṅgya] and ūrdhvaka are different kinds of Mṛdaṅgas.

74-75a. The drum that is sounded (at first) for the sake of fame (is known as) Ḍhakkā. Bherī and Dundubhi (are synonyms), the fo^er is feminine and the latter masculine.[8] Ānaka and Paṭaha (are synonyms). Jharjharī, Ḍiṇḍima, Mardala and Paṇava (are different kinds of percussion instruments).[9] Tāla is the measure of time relating to the performance.

75b. Laya is the equal proportion of the performance and time (relating to music, dance etc.) Tāṇḍavam [tāṇḍava], nāṭyaṃ [nāṭya], lāsyam [lāsya] and nartanam [nartana] (are synonyms).

76. Nṛtyam [nṛtya] (dance), gītam [gīta] (singing) and vādyam [vādya] (instrumental), the three (are known collectively as) tauryatrikam [tauryatrika]. The king is known as Bhaṭṭāraka and Deva. (The queen) who had been anointed is Devī.

77-81a. Śṛṅgāra (erotic), vīra (heroic), karuṇa (pathos), adbhuta (wonder), hāsya (mirth), bhayānaka (frightening), bībhatsa [vībhatsa] (disgust) and raudra (wrath) are the sentiments. The erotic (is also denoted by the words) śuci and ujjvala. The heroic sentiment (is also known as) utsāhavardhana. Kāruṇyam [kāruṇya], karuṇā, ghṛṇā, kṛpā, dayā, anukampā and anukrośa (denote the sentiment of pathos). Hasa, hāsa and hāsyam [hāsya] (mean the same). Bībhatsa (is also known as) vikṛta. These two are masculine (when denoting the sentiment). Vismaya, adbhutam [adbhuta], āścaryam [āścarya] and citram [citra] (denote wonder). Bhairavam [bhairava], dāruṇam [dāruṇa], bhīṣaṇam [bhīṣaṇa], bhīṣmam [bhīṣma], ghoram [ghora], bhīmam [bhīma], bhayānakam [bhayānaka], bhayankaram [bhayaṅkar] and pratibhayam [pratibhaya] (denote frightening). Raudra is ugra (terrible). (These fourteen beginning with adbhuta are masculine relating to a sentiment.) (Otherwise they take) the three (genders). Dara, trāsa, bhītiḥ [bhīti], bhīḥ [bhī], sādhvasam [sādhvasa] and bhayam [bhaya] (mean fear).

81b. The change relating to mind is bhāva. Anubhāva is the expression of the mental change.

82. (The words) garva, abhimāna and ahaṃkāra (denote pride). Māna is elevated thinking. Anādara, paribhava, paribhāva and tiraskriyā (mean disrespect).

83. (The words) vrīḍā, lajjā, trapā and hrī (would mean shyness). The desire for wealth (is) abhidhyānam [abhidhyāna][10]. (The words) kautūhalam [kautūhala], kautukam [kautuka], kutukam [kutuka] and kutūhalam [kutūhala] (denote curiosity).

84. (The words) vilāsa, bibboka, vibhrama, lalitam [lalita], helā and līlā denoting the behaviour of women are known as hāva produced from erotic state.

85. (The words) drava, keli, parihāsa, krīḍā and līlā (denote only erotic sport). Kūrdanam [kūrdana] (means child’s play). A burst of laughter with a motive (is) ācchuritakam [ācchuritaka]. The same, if little, (is known as) smitam [smita].

86. Adhobhuvanam [adhobhuvana] and pātālam [pātāla] (denote the nether world). (The words) chidram [chidra], śvabhram [śvabhra], vapā and śuṣi (denote a hole in general). Garta and avaṭa (denote) a hole or pit in the earth. (The words) tamisram [tamisra], timiram [timira] and tama (denote darkness).

87. (The words) sarpa, pṛdākuḥ [pṛdāku], bhujaga, dantaśūka and bileśaya (denote a serpent). (The words) viṣam [viṣa], kṣveḍa and garalam [garala] (mean poison). (The words) niraya and durgati (mean hell). The latter is feminine.

88. (The words) payaḥ [payas], kilālam [kilāla], amṛtam [amṛta], udakam [udaka], bhuvanam [bhuvana] and vanam [vana] (are used in the sense of water). Bhaṅga, taraṅga and ūrmi denote waves. Kallola and ullola (denote mighty waves).

89. (The words) pṛṣanti, bindavaḥ [bindu?] and pṛṣataḥ [pṛṣata] (stand for drops of water). (The words) kūlam [kūla], rodhas and tīram [tīra] {or tīrakam [tīraka]} (denote banks). That which rises from water is pulinam [pulina] (sand). (The words) jambāla, paṅka and kardama (mean mire).

90-91. The overflow of floods is (denoted by the words) jalocchvāsāḥ [jalocchvāsa] and parīvāhāḥ [parīvāha]. (The words) kūpakāḥ [kūpaka] and vidārakāḥ [vidāraka] (are pits made in the dry bed of rivers). Ātara and tarapaṇyam [tarapaṇya] (are used in the sense of ferry charges). The wooden watercarrier is droṇī. Kaluṣa and āvila are (used to mean) impure and accha, pure. (The word) gabhīrakam [gabhīraka] (denotes deep). Agādham [agādha] (means very deep). (The words) dāśa and kaivarta (denote a fisherman). Jambūkas (bivalve shells) are oysters in the water.

92. Saugandhika and kalhāra (denote white lotus blossoming in the evening). Indīvara is a blue lotus. Utpala and kuvalaya denote blue lotus. Kumuda and kairava (are used to denote) white (lotus).

93. The root of these lotuses (is) śālūka. (The words) padmam [padma] and tāmarasam [tāmarasa] (denote a lotus). Nīlotpalam [nīlotpala] and kuvalayam [kuvalaya] (denote a lily). The red lotus is known as kokanadam [kokanada].

94-95. Karahāṭa and śiphākandam [śiphākanda] (denote the root of a lotus). Kiñjalka and kesara mean the filament, not in feminine.[11] (The words) khani and ākara (denote the place from where the gems are produced). The former is feminine. Pāda and pratyantaparvata (denote) smaller hills. That which is still nearer to the hill, (is said to be) upatyakā. The earth above the hill (is known as) adhityakā. The groups of words belonging to the heaven and hell have been described. Listen to me! I shall describe words having different meaning.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

The founder of Buddhism.

[2]:

Having a natural mother and a step-mother.

[3]:

Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasiṣṭha are the remaining five.

[4]:

The Amara 210 reads pṛśni.

[5]:

These are: creation, secondary creation, royal genealogies, Manu periods and genealogy of gods and sages.

[6]:

The printed text wrongly reads uṣatī.

[7]:

The Puranic text mixes this term and the next. This has been corrected on the basis of Amara.

[8]:

The textual reading is wrong.

[9]:

The reading tulye in the text is not correct; anye would be better.

[10]:

Amara 409 reads ‘abhidhyā’ meaning desire to covet another’s property.

[11]:

After summarising the first Kāṇḍa of Amara, the Purāṇa jumps to the middle of the second Kāṇḍa.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: