Citra, Citrā: 64 definitions


Citra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chitra.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Citrā (चित्रा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Citrānakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Citrā means “the bright one” and is associated with the deity known as Tvaṣṭā (God of design). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Maṅgala (Mars).

Indian zodiac: |23°20' Kanyā| – |6°40' Tulā|
Kanyā (कन्या, “girl”) corresponds with Virgo and Tulā (तुला, “balance”) corresponds to Libra.

Western zodiac: |19°20' Libra| – |2°40' Scorpio|
Libra corresponds with Tulā (तुला, “balance”) and Scorpio corresponds with Vṛścika (वृश्चिक, “scorpion”).

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Citra (चित्र) refers to a “variegated-colored sun”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If, when the rays are turned away from the earth the colour of the sun be that of copper the commander-in-chief [i.e., senāpati] dies; if it be green or yellow the king’s son dies; if it be white the royal chaplain dies. If the sun (āditya) be variegated in colour [i.e., citra] or of the colour of smoke there will be either immediate rain or mankind will suffer from robbers and from weapons”.

2) Citra (चित्र) refers to “painting”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 10).—Accordingly, “If the course of Saturn (śanaiścara) should lie through the constellation of Hasta, barbers, mill-men, thieves, physicians, weavers, elephant keepers, prostitutes, the Kośalas and garland makers will suffer. If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Citrā, women, writers, painters [i.e., citra-jña], various utensils will suffer; if through Svāti, the people of Magadha, reporters, messengers, charioteers, sailors, dancers and the like will suffer miseries”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Citrā (चित्रा) is another name for Ākhukarṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Ipomoea reniformis, synonym of Merremia emarginata (kidney leaf morning glory) from the Convolvulaceae or “morning glory family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.67-68 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Citrā and Ākhukarṇī, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Citrā (चित्रा) is another name for Dravantī an unidentified medicinal plant, possibly identified with either (1) Jaipal—Croton tiglium, (2) Baliospermum sinuatum Muell or (3) Ratanjota—Jatropha glandulifera Roxb., according to verse 5.134-136. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Citrā and Dravantī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Citrā (चित्रा) (Nakṣatra) is considered negative for the recovery for a person to be bitten by snake, as taught in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The malignant asterisms and baneful lunar phases and astral combinations, with reference to snake-bite, are discussed in the tail-end of the fourth Adhyāya. [...] The Kāśyapasaṃhitā mentions the following details regarding the Nakṣatras:—The stars of a malignant nature that determine the virulence of the poison of the snake bite are [e.g., Citrā] (Cf. verse IV.108)

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Citra (चित्र) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Citrā (चित्रा).—One of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. It is also known by the name Kṛṣṇā. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Citra (चित्र).—A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra killed in war by Bhīmasona. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20).

2) Citra (चित्र).—A gajarāja (king elephant) with whom Subrahmaṇya, as a child, used to play. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 23).

3) Citra (चित्र).—A hero who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by Prativindhya. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 32).

4) Citra (चित्र).—A hero from the Cedi Kingdom who fought on the Pāṇḍava side against the Kauravas. Karṇa killed him. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 46).

5) Citrā (चित्रा).—A celestial maiden. When once Aṣṭāvakra went to the court of Kubera this maiden gave a dance in honour of his visit. (Śloka 44, Chapter 14, Anuśāsana Parva).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Citra (चित्र) refers to a “picture”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.50 (“Description of fun and frolic”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “On hearing these words of the women, lord Śiva, who was free from aberrations and was the supreme preceptor of great Yogins spoke to them. [Śiva said]—‘O dignified ladies, do not utter such words to me. You are the chaste mothers of the worlds, how do you speak so trivially in regard to your son?’ On hearing the words of Śiva, the celestial ladies were ashamed. In their excitement they became motionless like dolls in a picture (citra). Eating the sweets and performing Ācamana lord Śiva was much delighted. In the company of His wife He chewed the betal with camphor”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Citra (चित्र).—A son of Vasudeva and Madirā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 172.

1b) A son of Agāvata.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 257.

1c) A commander of Bhaṇḍa killed by Citrā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 25. 99.

1d) A son of Citrasena.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 248.

1e) A Nakṣatra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 49.

1f) Of different kinds on the walls and pillars of the houses erected by Jamadagni's cow.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 26. 60.

1g) A name of a constellation;1 śrāddha on that day gets good children.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 8.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 18. 7.

1h) A daughter of Madirā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 170.

2a) Citrā (चित्रा).—A rock on the Himalayas near the river Puṣpabhadrā; sacred to Lalitā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 8. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 97.

2b) A daughter of Vasudeva and Rohiṇī;1 came to see Kṛṣṇa and Satyabhāma returning from Indra's court.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 165; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 163.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [67 (v) 50]; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 12.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Citra (चित्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.8, II.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Citra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Citra is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Citra (चित्र, “portrait”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

2) Citra (चित्र) refers to a musical instrument with nine strings to be played with a plectrum, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Accordingly, “the citra is a vīṇā with seven strings, and the vipañcī is that with nine strings. And the latter (vipañcī) is to be played with the plectrum (koṇa), and the citrā with the fingers only”.

3) Citra (चित्र, “variegated”) refers to one of the three types of gativṛtti (styles of procedure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Gativṛtti gives quality to give quality to the instrumental music and songs and is influenced by tāla (time-measure), laya (tempo), gīti (rhythm), yati and grahamārga (way of beginning).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “in the citra, the Māgadhī is the gīti, the instrumental music is concise (i.e. not elaborate), the unit of time-measure is one kalā, tempo is quick, and yati is level (samā) and the Anāgata grahas preponderate”.

4) Citrā (चित्रा) is the name of a meter belonging to the Dvipadā-caturasra class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.

5) Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the twenty prakāras: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the playing which is performed with various karaṇas such as nirvartita etc., by many kinds of hands, and which has the three tempos and the three pāṇis, is called Citra”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Citrā (चित्रा) refers to the fourteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (e.g., citrā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Citra (चित्र) refers to “various” (e.g., ‘various calxes of brass’), according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] scratches his foot, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing related to an elephant [, i.e. a born of an elephant]. He should remove the extraneous thing, i.e. a thorn [at a depth of] twelve digits [underground]. If [someone] scratches his big toe, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing, i.e. a piece of chalk. Alternatively, he should prognosticate a piece of iron mixed with various calxes of brass there (rītikā-citra-saṃmiśra). [...] ”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Citra (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is in the right hand and a water pot (jar) in the left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Citra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Painting: A Survey

Citra (चित्र) or Citrakalā refers to the ancient Indian art of “painting”.—Vātsyāyana, author of Kāmasūtra, a text dated to the 2nd century CE, enumerates the ṣaḍaṅga or “six limbs” of painting. The ṣaḍaṅga evolved into a series of canons that laid down the principles of painting.

The six limbs of painting (citra-kāla) are:

  1. rūpabheda, the perception of difference in appearance;
  2. pramāṇa, valid perception, measure and structure;
  3. bhāva, feelings expressed in forms;
  4. lāvaṇya-yojana, infusion of grace in artistic representation;
  5. sādṛśya, similarities;
  6. varṇikabhaṅga, identification and analysis of colour and hue.

These “six limbs” (ṣaḍaṅga) were the basis of the Indian art of painting. Indian paintings can be broadly classified as murals and miniatures. Murals are large works executed on walls of solid structures. These may be cave walls, as in Ajanta (Maharashtra), or walls of temples, as in the Kailāsanātha temple of Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu).

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Citra (चित्र) refers to a “depiction of a painting-two dimensional” and represents a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—There is another classification of images into three kinds—chitra (depiction of a painting-two dimensional), chitrārdha/ardha-chitra (high relief sculpture) and chitrabhāsa (relief sculpture). Chitra denotes images in the full round representation with all their limbs completely worked out. It is also known sarvāṅga-dṛśyakaraṇa (having all its parts visible).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shilpa)

Citra (चित्र) refers to “painting”, according to the Citrasūtra section (on painting) from the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—The Citrasūtra primarily defines four categories of painting: Satya, Deśika, Nāgara and Miśra.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Citra (चित्र) or Citrakalā refers to the ancient Indian Art of Painting, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, like Dance, in Painting also, the observation of expression of eyes, limbs and all the body parts are very important during portraying a picture on a canvas.

In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, four kinds of Painting have been accepted. These are—

  1. satya,
  2. vaiṇika,
  3. nāgara and
  4. miśra.

In the Kāmasūtra, Vātsyāyaṇa mentions about the six limbs (ṣaḍaṅga) of Painting (citra) through the combination of which an art could be complete and flawless.

These are—

  1. rūpabheda,
  2. pramāṇa,
  3. bhāva,
  4. lāvaṇyayojana,
  5. sādṛśya and
  6. varṇikābhaṅga.
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Citrā (चित्रा) is a type of mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) described in the Mātrāsamakaprakaraṇa section of the second chapter of Kedārabhaṭṭa’s Vṛttaratnākara. The Vṛttaratnākara is considered as most popular work in Sanskrit prosody, because of its rich and number of commentaries. Kedārabhaṭṭa (C. 950-1050 C.E.) was a celebrated author in Sanskrit prosody.

2) Citrā (चित्रा) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Citrā corresponds to Maṇḍukī, Cañcalā. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Citrā is also the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Pramitākṣarā.

3) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Citrā) in 20 verses.

4) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the thirty mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the 331st chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the citrā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

5) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (e.g., the citrā) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Citra (चित्र) means “picture”. Vāsudeva (18th century) uses this term in 55th verse of the Vṛttagajendramokṣa in the section of Samavṛtta. He describes that the King of the elephant becomes happy to see the pond and gets ready to take bath in that pond with the help of Kareṇu. The picture of the pond is the main episode of this verse and the elephant becomes happy to see the water of the pond.

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Citrā (चित्रा) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Citrā has 16 mātrās in each of their four lines, with its 5th, 8th and the 9th mātras represented by short letters.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the eight Heroes (vīra-aṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha (also called Oḍḍiyāna, Ādipīṭha or Uḍapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight heroes (vīrāṣṭaka): Karāla, Kanda, Vimala, Rudrāṅga, Kamalekṣaṇa, Vicitra, Citra, Bhānu.

2) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the Sixteen Nityās associated with Śrīvidyā described in the Tantrarājatantra.—Accordingly, “The Sixteen Nityās associated with Śrīvidyā described in the Tantrarājatantra are as follows. 1) Lalitā 2) Kāmeśvarī, 3) Bhagamālinī, 4) Nityaklinnā 5) Bheruṇḍā 6) Vahnivāsinī 7) Vajreśvarī 8) Śivadūtī 9) Tvaritā (also called Totalā) 10) Kulasundarī 11) Nityā 12) Nīlapatākā 13) Vijayā 14) Sarvamaṅgalā 15) Jvālāmālīi and 16) Citrā”.

3) Citra (चित्र) is the name of a Prince associated with the Pīṭha named Kāmada, according to the Kulakriḍāvatāra, a text paraphrased by Abhinavagupta in his Tāntrāloka.—The lineage (ovalli) Pāda is associated with the following:—Prince: Citra; Master: Kaulasiṃha-muni; Pīṭha: Aṭṭahāsa; Ghara (house): Ambilla; Pallī (village): Billa; Town: Daṇḍaratna; Direction: north; Grove: Bilva; Vow-time: 12 years; Mudrā: right middle; Chummā: “Between eyebrows”.

Source: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga

Citrā (चित्रा) is explained in terms of kuṇḍalinīyoga by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—The body is described, starting from the “bulb” (kanda), the place in which the subtle channels (nāḍī) originate, located between anus and penis (28–9). The three principal channels are iḍā (left), piṅgalā (right) and suṣumṇā (in the centre of the spine and the head). Inside the suṣumṇā is citrā, a channel connecting to the place on the top of the skull called the brahmarandhra (30–4).

Note: The citrā, also called the citriṇī, is inside the suṣumṇā. It is in fact the citrā which resembles a string of lotuses, since the lotuses are strung on it (cf. Ṣaṭcakranirūpaṇa, verse 2).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Citra (चित्र) [=Vaicitrya?] refers to “manifold” (creation), according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] O goddess, I praise you with mind and speech. [...] Dwelling originally in the abode of Śiva, you multiply yourself sixfold and prepare the path of existence where you nurture wonderful and manifold creation (vaicitrya-citra-racana-udbhava) with your own six forms. You shed moonlight on the path of Suṣumṇā that is charming due to the beautiful appearance of the six lotuses serving as [your] bases”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 4 śabdālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by sound, as opposed to the sense).—When the letters under a particular disposition take the shape of a sword etc. it is termed citra.

Example of the citra-alaṃkāra:—

sā’namā navabhā rāmā mārābhā vanamānasā |
yāti cāruvibhāmābhā bhāmābhāvirucā’ tiyā ||

“The damsel who has sulky pride, who is shining with fresh radience, who is full of amorous desire, who is in a mind to go to forest for bringing water, who is blazing with extreme lusture like the goddess of fortune and whose beauty is of the nature of that of Satyabhāma is passing by”.

Notes: Here the first line is read in straight way first and if the same line is read in a reverse way we will get the second line. Similarly the reading of the third foot in a reverse way will give rise to the forth foot. So this is an example of citra.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (kavya)

Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the three types of Kāvya (“poetry”), according to Mammaṭabhaṭṭa, the author of the Kāvyaprakāśa.—There are three kinds of kāvya viz., dhvani-kāvya, guṇībhūtavyaṅga-kāvya and citra-kāvya.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Citra (चित्र) refers to an “ornamental dot on the forehead (a Tilaka)” and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 15.62.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Citra (चित्र) or Citravrata refers to the “colourful (observance)”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] One may perform the Block-of-Wood Observance in a forest full of bears, tigers and lions, conquering the urges to sleep and eat, [constantly] reciting. If one takes on the appearance of a woman and sings and dances, adorned with bracelets, with a winnowing fan, ball and plait, one observes the Colourful Observance (citra-vrata). With a weapon in hand, full of compassion, if one wanders like a saviour of creatures (?) focussed upon recitation, meditation and worship, one performs the Warrior Observance. [...]”.

2) Citra (चित्र) or Citrāmbara refers to “multi-coloured (garments)”, as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “[...] The Mantrin, intent on attaining all manner of special powers, should perform the observance for the pāśupatāstra resolutely dressed in multi-coloured garments (citra-ambara-dhara) and with multi-coloured (citra) garlands and unguents. And upon the completion of one or another of these observances, he should pour upon himself Śiva-water that has been consecrated by recitation of his mantra over it from a pot. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Citra (चित्र) or Citraka refers to the “variegated color” which were used as symbols for the unknowns, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Āryabhaṭa I (499) very probably used coloured shots to represent unknowns. Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta mentions varṇa as the symbols of unknowns. As he has not attempted in any way to explain this method of symbolism, it appears that the method was already very familiar. [...] In the case of more unknowns, it is usual to denote the first yāvattāvat and the remaining ones by alphabets or colours [e.g., citra].—Cf. Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta (628) and Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Kama-shastra (the science of Love-making)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (kama)

Citra (चित्र) [=citrāścayogāḥ] refers to the “application of secret formulas and mantras” and represents one of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The references of sixty four kinds of kalā are found in the Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Śaiva-Tantras, Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa etc.

Kamashastra book cover
context information

Kamashastra (कामशास्त्र, kāmaśāstra) deals with ancient Indian science of love-making, passion, emotions and other related topics dealing with the pleasures of the senses.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Citra (चित्र) refers to “various kinds” (of impurity), according to the Bhāṣya (commentary) on the Pātañjalayogaśāstra (i.e., The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali).—Accordingly: “Yoga is not perfected by one who does not practise Tapas. Impurity, which is of various kinds (citra) because of beginningless Karma, affliction and habitual tendencies and because of which the network of sense objects stands opposed [to Yoga], is not weakened without Tapas. Thus, the mention of Tapas [in the root text]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Citrā (चित्रा, ‘bright’) is the beautiful star, α Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa, and in that of the ‘two divine dogs’ (divyau śvānau) in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Citra (चित्र): A son of Dhritarashtra killed in the war.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The name of certain Supannas. D.ii.259.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Citrā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Kio, Tibetan Nag-pa and modern Virginis.

Citrā is classified in the fourth group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the nine following constellations (e.g., Citrā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as Devendra. Then peace (yogakṣema) is plentiful, rain favors the growth of the five grains, the emperor is kind (śiva), the great ministers are virtuous and everyone is peaceful”.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Citrā (चित्रा) is the name of a Nakṣatra mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Citrā] with a group of kingdoms for the sake of protection and prosperity.

The Citrānakṣatra comprises the following realms:

  1. Yu-mo (Yoma?),
  2. T'o-leou (Daru?),
  3. Si-tche-na (Sicina?),
  4. Nai-mo-t'o (Narmadā),
  5. T'o-lo-t'o (Darada),
  6. K'ia-cha (Khaṣa, Kachgar).
  7. Lo-k'ia (Rakha?),
  8. Chö-mo (Śama?),
  9. Heou-lo-p'o (Horava?),
  10. Chö-t'eou-kia (Śatuka?),
  11. Ngo-chö-p'o (Aṃjava?),
  12. Mou-tchö-po (Mocapa?).
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Citra (चित्र) or Citrakuṣṭhī refers to “spotted (leprosy)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “Having taken ashes from oblations, it should be mixed in rice gruel enchanted sixty times with the mantra. It should be thrown into the middle of the [Nāga] residence. Merely upon throwing all Nāgas become agitated. Then they send down rain showers. If it does not rain on the same day, the bodies of all those Nāgas will have spotted leprosy (citra-kuṣṭhī)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the various Nakṣatras mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Citrā).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Citrā (चित्रा) refers to the fourteenth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Citrā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Citrā is given the colour green].

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Citra (चित्र) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Citrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Citra] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Citra (चित्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Citra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the four Dikkumārīs living on the intermediate points of the compass of the Rucaka Mountains, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“[...] Four Dikkumārīs [viz., Citrā], came from the intermediate points of the compass of the Rucaka Mountains. When they had bowed to the Jina and the Jina’s mother and had introduced themselves in the same way, they stood in the northeast, etc., directions, holding lights, singing. [...]”.

Source: Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture

Citra (चित्र) (Sanskrit; in Prakrit: Citta) refers to “images made of painting”.—Images of Tīrthaṃkaras were made of stones, metals, wood, clay, precious gems, jewels or semi-precious stones. Speaking about sthāpāna or installation of a symbol for a Guru during his absence, the Jaina canonical text Anuyogadvāra-sūtra says that it may be made of wood, stucco-work, painting (citra-karman / citta-kamma), plaster, flower-work or knitting, or prepared by wrapped cloth or stuffed cast, repousse or beaten metal work.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Citra (चित्र) refers to “different”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Why do the stupid, afflicted by the planet of [their] birth, not perceive the difference [between the body and the self] which is recognised everywhere in the occurrence of birth and death. Therefore, what is the connection of the self to that body which is made by atoms which are material, insentient, different (citra) [and] independent?”.

Synonyms: Nānā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Citra.—(ASLV), a kind of poetry. Note: citra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Citra (चित्र) (Prakrit) (in Sanskrit: Citta) refers to the “paintings” (on the walls of a Sleeping chamber), as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] Page 83.3-9: Here is the description of the house or the sleeping chambers of young ladies which were beautified for the reception of their husbands. The select items in this list are as follows: [e.g., cleansing the dust from the painted walls citra-śālikā (papphoḍesu citta-bhittīo);] [...]

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Citra in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. from the Euphorbiaceae (Castor) family having the following synonyms: Adenoropium roxburghii Kostel. [Illegitimate] . For the possible medicinal usage of citra, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Citra in India is the name of a plant defined with Citrullus colocynthis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cucumis colocynthis L. (among others).

2) Citra is also identified with Plumbago zeylanica It has the synonym Plumbago zeylanica var. glaucescens Boiss. (etc.).

3) Citra is also identified with Ricinus communis It has the synonym Cataputia major Ludw. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Kew Bulletin (1984)
· Species Plantarum
· Davidsonia (1981)
· Fontqueria (1987)
· Fieldiana, Botany (1966)
· FBI (1882)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Citra, for example side effects, diet and recipes, extract dosage, health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

citra : (nt.) mind; thought; (m.), name of a month: March-April. (adj.), variegated; manifold; beautiful. (nt.), a painting; picture.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Citra, =citta3, the month Chaitra, KhA 192 (°māsa). (Page 268)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

citra (चित्र).—n (S) A drawing, etching, painting; a sketch or figure. 2 At cards. A picture-card. 3 Variegated color. 4 The mirage. 5 A puppet or little image. citrāsārakhā Still and mute (like a picture). 2 Beautiful or pretty (i. e. like a puppet or image). citrāsārakhā -cālaṇēṃ -bōlaṇēṃ -hāsaṇēṃ To walk-speaklaugh or smile finely, gracefully, prettily (i. e. to act like a well-managed puppet).

--- OR ---

citra (चित्र).—a (S) Variegated or various. Ex. disōṃ lāgalīṃ citra cinhēṃ sukhācīṃ.

--- OR ---

citrā (चित्रा).—f pl (S) The fourteenth lunar mansion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

citra (चित्र).—n A drawing. The mirage. A pup- pet. a Various. citrāsārakhā Still and mute; beautiful or pretty.

--- OR ---

citrā (चित्रा).—f The fourteenth lunar mansion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Citra (चित्र).—a. [citr-bhāve ac; ci-ṣṭran vā Uṇādi-sūtra 4.163]

1) Bright, clear.

2) Variegated, spotted, diversified.

3) amusing, interesting, agreeable; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.4.

4) Various, different, manifold; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.136; Manusmṛti 9.248; Y.1.288.

5) Surprising, wonderful, strange; किमत्र चित्रम् (kimatra citram) R.5.33; Ś.2.15.

6) Perceptible, visible.

7) Conspicuous, excellent, distinguished; न यद्वचश्चित्रपदं हरेर्यशो जगत्पवित्रं प्रगृणीत कर्हिचित् (na yadvacaścitrapadaṃ hareryaśo jagatpavitraṃ pragṛṇīta karhicit) Bhāgavata 1.5.1.

8) Rough, agitated (as the sea, opp sama).

9) Clear, loud, perceptible (as a sound).

-traḥ 1 The variegated colour.

2) A form of Yama.

3) The Aśoka tree.

4) = चित्रगुप्त (citragupta) q. v. below.

-tram 1 A picture, painting, delineation चित्रे निवेश्य परिकल्पितसत्त्वयोगा (citre niveśya parikalpitasattvayogā) Ś.2.9; पुनरपि चित्रीकृता कान्ता (punarapi citrīkṛtā kāntā) Ś.6.2,13,21 &c.

2) A brilliant ornament or ornament.

3) An extraordinary appearance, wonder.

4) A sectarial mark on the forehead.

5) Heaven, sky.

6) A spot.

7) The white or spotted leprosy.

8) (In Rhet.) The last of the three main divisions of Kāvya (poetry). (It is of two kinds śabdacitra and artha-vācya-citra, and the poetical charm lies mainly in the use of figures of speech dependent on the sound and sense of words. Mammaṭa thus defines it :-śabdacitraṃ vājyacitramavyaṅgyaṃ tvavaraṃ smṛtam K. P.1. As an instance of śabdacitra may be cited the following verse from R. G. mitrātriputranetrāya trayīśātravaśatrave | gotrārigotrajaitrāya gotrātre te namo namaḥ ||

9) Anything bright which strikes the eye.

1) Playing upon words, punning, using conundrums, riddles &c.

11) A lotus. ...... maṅgale tilake hemni vyomni padme napuṃsakam | Nm. -tram ind. Oh !, how strange !, what a wonder ! citraṃ badhiro nāma vyākaraṇamadhyeṣyate Sk.

--- OR ---

Citrā (चित्रा).—[citr-ac]

1) Name of the fourteenth lunar mansion consisting of one star; हिमनिर्मुक्तयोर्योगे चित्राचन्द्रम- सोरिव (himanirmuktayoryoge citrācandrama- soriva) R.1.46.

2) A kind of snake.

3) Worldly illusion, unreality.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Citra (चित्र).—(1) (= Pali Citta gahapati) name of a lay disciple of the Buddha, with the epithet gṛhapati: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.21.9 ff.; Jātakamālā 115.25; (2) name of a nāga king: Mahāvyutpatti 3268, v.l. Vicitra, which Mironov reads with v.l. Citta; Tibetan ris bkra (each word alone elsewhere renders Sanskrit citra); Mahā-Māyūrī 246.30.

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Citrā (चित्रा).—(1) (Sanskrit Lex. id.) name of a river: Divyāvadāna 451.1 ff.; 456.19 ff.; (2) name of an ogress: Mahā-Māyūrī 244.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citra (चित्र).—mfn.

(-traḥ-trā-traṃ) 1. Variegated, spotted, speckled. 2. Wonderful, surprising. m.

(-traḥ) A name of Yama. f.

(-trā) 1. A plant: see mūṣikaparṇī. 2. A kind of cucumber: see goḍumbā. 3. A plant, commonly Danti: see dantikā. 4. A name of Subhadra, the sister of Jagan- Natha. 5. A star in the virgin’s spike. 6. A kind of snake. 7. A name of river. 8. Illusion, wordly unreality. 9. The name of a nymph of Swarga. 10. A form of metre. (traṃ) 1. Wonder, surprize. 2. Painting, delineation, writting, &c. 3. Sky, heaven. 4. A circular ornament, a sectarial mark on the forehead. 5. White or spotted leprosy. 6. Facetious conversation, conundrums, riddles, &c. 7. Writing or arrangement of verses in mathematical or other fanciful figures. mn.

(-traḥ-traṃ) Variegated colour. E. ci to accumulate. Unadi affix kti, or cit the mind, and tra what preserves, from trai with ka affix, and the duplicate ta rejected, or citra-bhāve ac, ci-ṣṭran vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citra (चित्र).—[cit + ra] 1., I. adj. 1. Visible (ved.). 2. Clear, shining, Chr. 293, 2 = [Rigveda.] i. 88, 2. 3. Variegated, Chr. 2, 21. 4. Spotted, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 48, 12. 5. Various, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 248. 6. Fluctuating, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 15. 7. Wonderful, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 35, 4. 8. Surprised, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 2. 9. Uncommon, rigorous, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 193, 4; adv. in a rigorous manner, ib. 198, 3. Ii. f. trā, The name of a lunar mansion, Spica virginis, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 23, 11. Iii. n. 1. A surprising appearance, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 110, 17; wonder, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 26. 2. A spot, Mahābhārata 13, 2605. 3. A picture, Mahābhārata 13, 7692. 4. Painting, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 90, 23 Gorr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citra (चित्र).—[adjective] conspicuous, visible, bright, clear, loud, variegated, manifold, various, excellent, extraordinary, strange, wonderful. [feminine] ā [Name] of a lunar mansion. [neuter] anything bright or shining, [especially] jewel, ornament, picture; extraordinary appearance, wonder (often as exclamation).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Citra (चित्र):—[from cit] a mf(ā)n. conspicuous, excellent, distinguished, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] bright, clear, bright-coloured, [Ṛg-veda]

3) [v.s. ...] clear (a sound), [Ṛg-veda]

4) [v.s. ...] variegated, spotted, speckled (with [instrumental case] or in [compound]), [Nalopākhyāna iv, 8; Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] agitated (as the sea, opposed to sama), [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 39, 12]

6) [v.s. ...] various, different, manifold, [Manu-smṛti ix, 248; Yājñavalkya i, 287; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] (execution) having different varieties (of tortures), [Manu-smṛti ix, 248; Daśakumāra-carita vii, 281]

8) [v.s. ...] strange, wonderful, [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi, 227]

9) [v.s. ...] containing the word citra, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vii, 4, 1, 24; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xvii]

10) [v.s. ...] leaping to and fro, [Jātakamālā]

11) [from cit] m. variety of colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

12) [v.s. ...] Plumbago zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Jonesia Aśoka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a form of Yama, [Tithyāditya]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of a king, [Ṛg-veda viii, 21, 18] (citra)

17) [v.s. ...] of a Jābāla-gṛhapati (with the [patronymic] Gauśrāyaṇi), [??? xxiii, 5]

18) [v.s. ...] of a king (with the [patronymic] Gāṅgyāyani), [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad i]

19) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata i, vii]

20) [v.s. ...] of a Draviḍa king, [Padma-purāṇa v, 20, 1] ([varia lectio] trākṣa)

21) [v.s. ...] of a Gandharva, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

22) Citrā (चित्रा):—[from citra > cit] f. Spica virginis, the 12th (in later reckoning the 14th) lunar mansion, [Atharva-veda xix, 7, 3; Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii, iv, vii; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] a kind of snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] Name of a plant (Salvinia cucullata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Cucumis maderaspatanus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a kind of cucumber, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Croton polyandrum or Tiglium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the Myrobalan tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Rubia Munjista, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the grass Gaṇḍadūrvā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Caraka vii, 12] (= dravanti), [Suśruta]

25) [v.s. ...] a metre of 4 x 16 syllabic instants

26) [v.s. ...] another of 4 x 15 syllables

27) [v.s. ...] another of 4 x 16 syllables

28) [v.s. ...] a kind of stringed instrument

29) [v.s. ...] a kind of Mūrchanā (in music)

30) [v.s. ...] illusion, unreality, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

31) [v.s. ...] ‘born under the asterism Citrā ([Pāṇini 4-3, 34], [vArttika] 1)’, Name of Arjuna’s wife (sister of Kṛṣṇa = subhadrā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Harivaṃśa 1952]

32) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Gada (or Kṛṣṇa [varia lectio]), 9194

33) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

34) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Divyāvadāna xxx]

35) [v.s. ...] Name of a rock, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 8, 17]

36) [v.s. ...] f. [plural] the asterism Citrā, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xi, 57]

37) Citra (चित्र):—[from cit] n. anything bright or coloured which strikes the eyes, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xviii, 9]

38) [v.s. ...] a brilliant ornament, ornament, [Ṛg-veda i, 92, 13; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, xiii]

39) [v.s. ...] a bright or extraordinary appearance, wonder, [ii; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra; Bhartṛhari] etc.

40) [v.s. ...] (with yadi [Śakuntalā; iii, 9/10] or yad [Harivaṃśa 9062; Śakuntalā; Kathāsaritsāgara xviii, 359] or [future] [Pāṇini 3-3, 150 f.]) strange, curious (e.g. citraṃ badhiro vyākaraṇam adhyeṣyate ‘it would be strange if a deaf man should learn grammar’ [Kāśikā-vṛtti])

41) [v.s. ...] strange! [Harivaṃśa 15652; Kathāsaritsāgara v, vii; Rājataraṅgiṇī i, iv]

42) [v.s. ...] the ether, sky, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

43) [v.s. ...] a spot, [Mahābhārata xiii, 2605]

44) [v.s. ...] a sectarial mark on the forehead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

45) [v.s. ...] = kuṣṭha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

46) [v.s. ...] n. a picture, sketch, delineation, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa 4532] (sa-citra mfn. = -ga), [Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Meghadūta 64])

47) [v.s. ...] n. variety of colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

48) [v.s. ...] a forest (vana for dhana?) of variegated appearance [Scholiast or Commentator] on [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xxi, 3, 23 and; ṢaḍvBr. ii, 10]

49) [v.s. ...] various modes of writing or arranging verses in the shape of mathematical or other fanciful figures (syllables which occur repeatedly being left out or words being represented in a shortened form), [Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa, by Bhoja ii, 16; Kāvyaprakāśa ix, 8; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

50) [v.s. ...] punning in the form of question and answer, facetious conversation, riddle, iv, 14/v, [Pratāparudrīya; Kuvalayānanda]

51) [v.s. ...] cf. aand, su-citra, dānu-, vi-

52) [v.s. ...] caitra.

53) b traka, traṭa, etc. See √4. cit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Citra (चित्र):—(ka, t) citrayati 10. a. To paint; to wonder; to glance at.

2) (traṃ) 1. n. Wonder; painting; sky; sectarial mark. m. Yama. m. n. Variegated color. f. (trā) A plant; a star in Virgo; a nymph. a. Variegated; wonderful.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Citra (चित्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Citta, Cittā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Citra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Citra (चित्र) [Also spelled chitra]:—(nm) picture; painting; illustration; figure; (still) film; -[karma] painting; -[kalā] (art of) painting; ~[kāra] a painter; an artist; ~[kāritā] painting; ~[kārī] (the profession or work of) painting; ~[paṭa] screen, cinema film; ~[phalaka] canvas; ~[lipi] pictograph, pictorial script; ~[lekha] pictograph; pictorial writing; ~[lekhaka] a painter; an artist; ~[lekhana] painting; -[vicitra] mottled; variegated; picturesque; ~[śālā] a picture-gallery; -[saṃgraha] an album; ~[sārī] a picture-gallery.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Citra (ಚಿತ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] easy to see or understand; clear; obvious; plain, apparent; evident.

2) [adjective] that is attractive; splendid; brilliant.

3) [adjective] having or marked with, varied colours or shades; variegated.

4) [adjective] that causes wonder; wonderful; marvellous.

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Citra (ಚಿತ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a picture a) an image or likeness of an object, person or scene produced on a flat surface, by painting, drawing; b) a printed reproduction of this; c) an image or picture made by photography.

2) [noun] something strange and surprising; a cause of surprise, astonishment or admiration; a wonder.

3) [noun] that which is or the quality of being, auspicious.

4) [noun] any of a class of chemical elements, as iron, gold or aluminum, gen. characterised by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductivity of heat and electricity; a metal.

5) [noun] a sectarian or decorative mark made on the forehead.

6) [noun] the herbaceous plant Plumbago zeylanica of Plumbaginaceae family.

7) [noun] air or wind.

8) [noun] a continuous series of motion pictures, in which events, fictions etc. have been filmed and usu. projected on a screen, so as to convey candid reality; a cinema.

9) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of verse composition in which letters, words are used in a tricky manner to give special sense.

10) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of figure of speech dependent on the sound of words.

11) [noun] a variety in the metre of tripadi (a verse having three lines).

12) [noun] ಚಿತ್ರದ ಬೊಂಬೆ [citrada bombe] citrada bombe a beautiful, innocent child, girl or woman; 2. the state of being stupefied, bewildered and hence motionless.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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