Citra, Citrā: 45 definitions
Citra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chitra.
Images (photo gallery)
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Citrā (चित्रा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Citrānakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Citrā means “the bright one” and is associated with the deity known as Tvaṣṭā (God of design). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Maṅgala (Mars).
Indian zodiac: |23°20' Kanyā| – |6°40' Tulā|
Kanyā (कन्या, “girl”) corresponds with Virgo and Tulā (तुला, “balance”) corresponds to Libra.
Western zodiac: |19°20' Libra| – |2°40' Scorpio|
Libra corresponds with Tulā (तुला, “balance”) and Scorpio corresponds with Vṛścika (वृश्चिक, “scorpion”).
Citra (चित्र) refers to a “variegated-colored sun”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If, when the rays are turned away from the earth the colour of the sun be that of copper the commander-in-chief [i.e., senāpati] dies; if it be green or yellow the king’s son dies; if it be white the royal chaplain dies. If the sun (āditya) be variegated in colour [i.e., citra] or of the colour of smoke there will be either immediate rain or mankind will suffer from robbers and from weapons”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Citra (चित्र) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Citrā (चित्रा) is another name for Ākhukarṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Ipomoea reniformis, synonym of Merremia emarginata (kidney leaf morning glory) from the Convolvulaceae or “morning glory family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.67-68 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Citrā and Ākhukarṇī, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Citrā (चित्रा) is another name for Dravantī an unidentified medicinal plant, possibly identified with either (1) Jaipal—Croton tiglium, (2) Baliospermum sinuatum Muell or (3) Ratanjota—Jatropha glandulifera Roxb., according to verse 5.134-136. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Citrā and Dravantī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Citrā (चित्रा).—One of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. It is also known by the name Kṛṣṇā. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Citra (चित्र).—A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra killed in war by Bhīmasona. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 136, Verse 20).
2) Citra (चित्र).—A gajarāja (king elephant) with whom Subrahmaṇya, as a child, used to play. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 225, Verse 23).
3) Citra (चित्र).—A hero who fought on the Kaurava side against the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by Prativindhya. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 32).
4) Citra (चित्र).—A hero from the Cedi Kingdom who fought on the Pāṇḍava side against the Kauravas. Karṇa killed him. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 46).
5) Citrā (चित्रा).—A celestial maiden. When once Aṣṭāvakra went to the court of Kubera this maiden gave a dance in honour of his visit. (Śloka 44, Chapter 14, Anuśāsana Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Citra (चित्र).—A son of Vasudeva and Madirā.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 172.
1b) A son of Agāvata.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 257.
1c) A commander of Bhaṇḍa killed by Citrā.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 25. 99.
1d) A son of Citrasena.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 248.
1e) A Nakṣatra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 49.
1f) Of different kinds on the walls and pillars of the houses erected by Jamadagni's cow.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 26. 60.
1h) A daughter of Madirā.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 170.
2a) Citrā (चित्रा).—A rock on the Himalayas near the river Puṣpabhadrā; sacred to Lalitā.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 8. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 97.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 165; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 163.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [67 (v) 50]; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 12.
Citra (चित्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.8, II.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Citra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Citra is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Citra (चित्र, “portrait”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.
2) Citra (चित्र) refers to a musical instrument with nine strings to be played with a plectrum, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Accordingly, “the citra is a vīṇā with seven strings, and the vipañcī is that with nine strings. And the latter (vipañcī) is to be played with the plectrum (koṇa), and the citrā with the fingers only”.
3) Citra (चित्र, “variegated”) refers to one of the three types of gativṛtti (styles of procedure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Gativṛtti gives quality to give quality to the instrumental music and songs and is influenced by tāla (time-measure), laya (tempo), gīti (rhythm), yati and grahamārga (way of beginning).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “in the citra, the Māgadhī is the gīti, the instrumental music is concise (i.e. not elaborate), the unit of time-measure is one kalā, tempo is quick, and yati is level (samā) and the Anāgata grahas preponderate”.
5) Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the twenty prakāras: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the playing which is performed with various karaṇas such as nirvartita etc., by many kinds of hands, and which has the three tempos and the three pāṇis, is called Citra”.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 4 śabdālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by sound, as opposed to the sense).—When the letters under a particular disposition take the shape of a sword etc. it is termed citra.
Example of the citra-alaṃkāra:—
sā’namā navabhā rāmā mārābhā vanamānasā |
yāti cāruvibhāmābhā bhāmābhāvirucā’ tiyā ||
“The damsel who has sulky pride, who is shining with fresh radience, who is full of amorous desire, who is in a mind to go to forest for bringing water, who is blazing with extreme lusture like the goddess of fortune and whose beauty is of the nature of that of Satyabhāma is passing by”.
Notes: Here the first line is read in straight way first and if the same line is read in a reverse way we will get the second line. Similarly the reading of the third foot in a reverse way will give rise to the forth foot. So this is an example of citra.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Citrā (चित्रा) refers to the fourteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (e.g., citrā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Citra (चित्र) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Citra (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is in the right hand and a water pot (jar) in the left hand.
The illustrations (of, for example Citra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Painting: A Survey
Citra (चित्र) or Citrakalā refers to the ancient Indian art of “painting”.—Vātsyāyana, author of Kāmasūtra, a text dated to the 2nd century CE, enumerates the ṣaḍaṅga or “six limbs” of painting. The ṣaḍaṅga evolved into a series of canons that laid down the principles of painting.
The six limbs of painting (citra-kāla) are:
- rūpabheda, the perception of difference in appearance;
- pramāṇa, valid perception, measure and structure;
- bhāva, feelings expressed in forms;
- lāvaṇya-yojana, infusion of grace in artistic representation;
- sādṛśya, similarities;
- varṇikabhaṅga, identification and analysis of colour and hue.
These “six limbs” (ṣaḍaṅga) were the basis of the Indian art of painting. Indian paintings can be broadly classified as murals and miniatures. Murals are large works executed on walls of solid structures. These may be cave walls, as in Ajanta (Maharashtra), or walls of temples, as in the Kailāsanātha temple of Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu).Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Citra (चित्र) refers to a “depiction of a painting-two dimensional” and represents a classification of Hindu images, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—There is another classification of images into three kinds—chitra (depiction of a painting-two dimensional), chitrārdha/ardha-chitra (high relief sculpture) and chitrabhāsa (relief sculpture). Chitra denotes images in the full round representation with all their limbs completely worked out. It is also known sarvāṅga-dṛśyakaraṇa (having all its parts visible).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Citrā (चित्रा) is a type of mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) described in the Mātrāsamakaprakaraṇa section of the second chapter of Kedārabhaṭṭa’s Vṛttaratnākara. The Vṛttaratnākara is considered as most popular work in Sanskrit prosody, because of its rich and number of commentaries. Kedārabhaṭṭa (C. 950-1050 C.E.) was a celebrated author in Sanskrit prosody.
2) Citrā (चित्रा) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Citrā corresponds to Maṇḍukī, Cañcalā. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.
3) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Citrā) in 20 verses.
4) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the thirty mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the 331st chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (e.g., the citrā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.
5) Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (e.g., the citrā) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Citra (चित्र) means “picture”. Vāsudeva (18th century) uses this term in 55th verse of the Vṛttagajendramokṣa in the section of Samavṛtta. He describes that the King of the elephant becomes happy to see the pond and gets ready to take bath in that pond with the help of Kareṇu. The picture of the pond is the main episode of this verse and the elephant becomes happy to see the water of the pond.Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)
Citrā (चित्रा) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Citrā has 16 mātrās in each of their four lines, with its 5th, 8th and the 9th mātras represented by short letters.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
Citrā (चित्रा) is explained in terms of kuṇḍalinīyoga by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—The body is described, starting from the “bulb” (kanda), the place in which the subtle channels (nāḍī) originate, located between anus and penis (28–9). The three principal channels are iḍā (left), piṅgalā (right) and suṣumṇā (in the centre of the spine and the head). Inside the suṣumṇā is citrā, a channel connecting to the place on the top of the skull called the brahmarandhra (30–4).
Note: The citrā, also called the citriṇī, is inside the suṣumṇā. It is in fact the citrā which resembles a string of lotuses, since the lotuses are strung on it (cf. Ṣaṭcakranirūpaṇa, verse 2).
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Citra (चित्र) refers to an “ornamental dot on the forehead (a Tilaka)” and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 15.62.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Citrā (चित्रा, ‘bright’) is the beautiful star, α Virginis. It is mentioned in a legend of Indra in the Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa, and in that of the ‘two divine dogs’ (divyau śvānau) in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Citra (चित्र): A son of Dhritarashtra killed in the war.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
The name of certain Supannas. D.ii.259.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Citrā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Kio, Tibetan Nag-pa and modern Virginis.
Citrā is classified in the fourth group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the nine following constellations (e.g., Citrā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as Devendra. Then peace (yogakṣema) is plentiful, rain favors the growth of the five grains, the emperor is kind (śiva), the great ministers are virtuous and everyone is peaceful”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the various Nakṣatras mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Citrā).Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Citrā (चित्रा) refers to the fourteenth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Citrā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Citrā is given the colour green].Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Citra (चित्र) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Citrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Citra] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Citra (चित्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Citra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Citrā (चित्रा) refers to one of the four Dikkumārīs living on the intermediate points of the compass of the Rucaka Mountains, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
“[...] Four Dikkumārīs [viz., Citrā], came from the intermediate points of the compass of the Rucaka Mountains. When they had bowed to the Jina and the Jina’s mother and had introduced themselves in the same way, they stood in the northeast, etc., directions, holding lights, singing. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Citra.—(ASLV), a kind of poetry. Note: citra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
citra : (nt.) mind; thought; (m.), name of a month: March-April. (adj.), variegated; manifold; beautiful. (nt.), a painting; picture.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Citra, =citta3, the month Chaitra, KhA 192 (°māsa). (Page 268)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
citra (चित्र).—n (S) A drawing, etching, painting; a sketch or figure. 2 At cards. A picture-card. 3 Variegated color. 4 The mirage. 5 A puppet or little image. citrāsārakhā Still and mute (like a picture). 2 Beautiful or pretty (i. e. like a puppet or image). citrāsārakhā -cālaṇēṃ -bōlaṇēṃ -hāsaṇēṃ To walk-speaklaugh or smile finely, gracefully, prettily (i. e. to act like a well-managed puppet).
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citra (चित्र).—a (S) Variegated or various. Ex. disōṃ lāgalīṃ citra cinhēṃ sukhācīṃ.
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citrā (चित्रा).—f pl (S) The fourteenth lunar mansion.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
citra (चित्र).—n A drawing. The mirage. A pup- pet. a Various. citrāsārakhā Still and mute; beautiful or pretty.
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citrā (चित्रा).—f The fourteenth lunar mansion.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Citra (चित्र).—a. [citr-bhāve ac; ci-ṣṭran vā Uṇ.4.163]
1) Bright, clear.
2) Variegated, spotted, diversified.
3) amusing, interesting, agreeable; Māl.1.4.
4) Various, different, manifold; Pt.1.136; Ms.9.248; Y.1.288.
5) Surprising, wonderful, strange; किमत्र चित्रम् (kimatra citram) R.5.33; Ś.2.15.
6) Perceptible, visible.
7) Conspicuous, excellent, distinguished; न यद्वचश्चित्रपदं हरेर्यशो जगत्पवित्रं प्रगृणीत कर्हिचित् (na yadvacaścitrapadaṃ hareryaśo jagatpavitraṃ pragṛṇīta karhicit) Bhāg.1.5.1.
8) Rough, agitated (as the sea, opp sama).
9) Clear, loud, perceptible (as a sound).
-traḥ 1 The variegated colour.
2) A form of Yama.
3) The Aśoka tree.
4) = चित्रगुप्त (citragupta) q. v. below.
-tram 1 A picture, painting, delineation चित्रे निवेश्य परिकल्पितसत्त्वयोगा (citre niveśya parikalpitasattvayogā) Ś.2.9; पुनरपि चित्रीकृता कान्ता (punarapi citrīkṛtā kāntā) Ś.6.2,13,21 &c.
2) A brilliant ornament or ornament.
3) An extraordinary appearance, wonder.
4) A sectarial mark on the forehead.
5) Heaven, sky.
6) A spot.
7) The white or spotted leprosy.
8) (In Rhet.) The last of the three main divisions of Kāvya (poetry). (It is of two kinds śabdacitra and artha-vācya-citra, and the poetical charm lies mainly in the use of figures of speech dependent on the sound and sense of words. Mammaṭa thus defines it :-śabdacitraṃ vājyacitramavyaṅgyaṃ tvavaraṃ smṛtam K. P.1. As an instance of śabdacitra may be cited the following verse from R. G. mitrātriputranetrāya trayīśātravaśatrave | gotrārigotrajaitrāya gotrātre te namo namaḥ ||
9) Anything bright which strikes the eye.
1) Playing upon words, punning, using conundrums, riddles &c.
11) A lotus. ...... maṅgale tilake hemni vyomni padme napuṃsakam | Nm. -tram ind. Oh !, how strange !, what a wonder ! citraṃ badhiro nāma vyākaraṇamadhyeṣyate Sk.
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1) Name of the fourteenth lunar mansion consisting of one star; हिमनिर्मुक्तयोर्योगे चित्राचन्द्रम- सोरिव (himanirmuktayoryoge citrācandrama- soriva) R.1.46.
2) A kind of snake.
3) Worldly illusion, unreality.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Citra (चित्र).—(1) (= Pali Citta gahapati) name of a lay disciple of the Buddha, with the epithet gṛhapati: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.21.9 ff.; Jātakamālā 115.25; (2) name of a nāga king: Mahāvyutpatti 3268, v.l. Vicitra, which Mironov reads with v.l. Citta; Tibetan ris bkra (each word alone elsewhere renders Sanskrit citra); Mahā-Māyūrī 246.30.
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Citrā (चित्रा).—(1) (Sanskrit Lex. id.) name of a river: Divyāvadāna 451.1 ff.; 456.19 ff.; (2) name of an ogress: Mahā-Māyūrī 244.1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-traḥ-trā-traṃ) 1. Variegated, spotted, speckled. 2. Wonderful, surprising. m.
(-traḥ) A name of Yama. f.
(-trā) 1. A plant: see mūṣikaparṇī. 2. A kind of cucumber: see goḍumbā. 3. A plant, commonly Danti: see dantikā. 4. A name of Subhadra, the sister of Jagan- Natha. 5. A star in the virgin’s spike. 6. A kind of snake. 7. A name of river. 8. Illusion, wordly unreality. 9. The name of a nymph of Swarga. 10. A form of metre. (traṃ) 1. Wonder, surprize. 2. Painting, delineation, writting, &c. 3. Sky, heaven. 4. A circular ornament, a sectarial mark on the forehead. 5. White or spotted leprosy. 6. Facetious conversation, conundrums, riddles, &c. 7. Writing or arrangement of verses in mathematical or other fanciful figures. mn.
(-traḥ-traṃ) Variegated colour. E. ci to accumulate. Unadi affix kti, or cit the mind, and tra what preserves, from trai with ka affix, and the duplicate ta rejected, or citra-bhāve ac, ci-ṣṭran vā .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Citra (चित्र).—[cit + ra] 1., I. adj. 1. Visible (ved.). 2. Clear, shining,
Citra (चित्र).—[adjective] conspicuous, visible, bright, clear, loud, variegated, manifold, various, excellent, extraordinary, strange, wonderful. [feminine] ā [Name] of a lunar mansion. [neuter] anything bright or shining, [especially] jewel, ornament, picture; extraordinary appearance, wonder (often as exclamation).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Citra (चित्र):—[from cit] a mf(ā)n. conspicuous, excellent, distinguished, [Ṛg-veda]
2) [v.s. ...] bright, clear, bright-coloured, [Ṛg-veda]
3) [v.s. ...] clear (a sound), [Ṛg-veda]
4) [v.s. ...] variegated, spotted, speckled (with [instrumental case] or in [compound]), [Nalopākhyāna iv, 8; Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
5) [v.s. ...] agitated (as the sea, opposed to sama), [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 39, 12]
6) [v.s. ...] various, different, manifold, [Manu-smṛti ix, 248; Yājñavalkya i, 287; Mahābhārata] etc.
7) [v.s. ...] (execution) having different varieties (of tortures), [Manu-smṛti ix, 248; Daśakumāra-carita vii, 281]
8) [v.s. ...] strange, wonderful, [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi, 227]
9) [v.s. ...] containing the word citra, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vii, 4, 1, 24; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xvii]
10) [v.s. ...] leaping to and fro, [Jātakamālā]
11) [from cit] m. variety of colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
12) [v.s. ...] Plumbago zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] Jonesia Aśoka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] a form of Yama, [Tithyāditya]
16) [v.s. ...] Name of a king, [Ṛg-veda viii, 21, 18] (citra)
17) [v.s. ...] of a Jābāla-gṛhapati (with the [patronymic] Gauśrāyaṇi), [??? xxiii, 5]
18) [v.s. ...] of a king (with the [patronymic] Gāṅgyāyani), [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad i]
19) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata i, vii]
20) [v.s. ...] of a Draviḍa king, [Padma-purāṇa v, 20, 1] ([varia lectio] trākṣa)
21) [v.s. ...] of a Gandharva, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
22) Citrā (चित्रा):—[from citra > cit] f. Spica virginis, the 12th (in later reckoning the 14th) lunar mansion, [Atharva-veda xix, 7, 3; Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii, iv, vii; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, etc.]
23) [v.s. ...] a kind of snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) [v.s. ...] Name of a plant (Salvinia cucullata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Cucumis maderaspatanus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a kind of cucumber, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Croton polyandrum or Tiglium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the Myrobalan tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Rubia Munjista, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the grass Gaṇḍadūrvā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Caraka vii, 12] (= dravanti), [Suśruta]
25) [v.s. ...] a metre of 4 x 16 syllabic instants
26) [v.s. ...] another of 4 x 15 syllables
27) [v.s. ...] another of 4 x 16 syllables
28) [v.s. ...] a kind of stringed instrument
29) [v.s. ...] a kind of Mūrchanā (in music)
30) [v.s. ...] illusion, unreality, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
31) [v.s. ...] ‘born under the asterism Citrā ([Pāṇini 4-3, 34], [vArttika] 1)’, Name of Arjuna’s wife (sister of Kṛṣṇa = subhadrā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Harivaṃśa 1952]
32) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Gada (or Kṛṣṇa [varia lectio]), 9194
33) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
34) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Divyāvadāna xxx]
35) [v.s. ...] Name of a rock, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 8, 17]
36) [v.s. ...] f. [plural] the asterism Citrā, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xi, 57]
37) Citra (चित्र):—[from cit] n. anything bright or coloured which strikes the eyes, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xviii, 9]
38) [v.s. ...] a brilliant ornament, ornament, [Ṛg-veda i, 92, 13; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, xiii]
39) [v.s. ...] a bright or extraordinary appearance, wonder, [ii; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra; Bhartṛhari] etc.
40) [v.s. ...] (with yadi [Śakuntalā; iii, 9/10] or yad [Harivaṃśa 9062; Śakuntalā; Kathāsaritsāgara xviii, 359] or [future] [Pāṇini 3-3, 150 f.]) strange, curious (e.g. citraṃ badhiro vyākaraṇam adhyeṣyate ‘it would be strange if a deaf man should learn grammar’ [Kāśikā-vṛtti])
41) [v.s. ...] strange! [Harivaṃśa 15652; Kathāsaritsāgara v, vii; Rājataraṅgiṇī i, iv]
42) [v.s. ...] the ether, sky, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
43) [v.s. ...] a spot, [Mahābhārata xiii, 2605]
44) [v.s. ...] a sectarial mark on the forehead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
45) [v.s. ...] = kuṣṭha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
46) [v.s. ...] n. a picture, sketch, delineation, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa 4532] (sa-citra mfn. = -ga), [Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Meghadūta 64])
47) [v.s. ...] n. variety of colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
48) [v.s. ...] a forest (vana for dhana?) of variegated appearance [Scholiast or Commentator] on [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xxi, 3, 23 and; ṢaḍvBr. ii, 10]
49) [v.s. ...] various modes of writing or arranging verses in the shape of mathematical or other fanciful figures (syllables which occur repeatedly being left out or words being represented in a shortened form), [Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa, by Bhoja ii, 16; Kāvyaprakāśa ix, 8; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
50) [v.s. ...] punning in the form of question and answer, facetious conversation, riddle, iv, 14/v, [Pratāparudrīya; Kuvalayānanda]
51) [v.s. ...] cf. aand, su-citra, dānu-, vi-
52) [v.s. ...] caitra.
53) b traka, traṭa, etc. See √4. cit.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Citra (चित्र):—(ka, t) citrayati 10. a. To paint; to wonder; to glance at.
2) (traṃ) 1. n. Wonder; painting; sky; sectarial mark. m. Yama. m. n. Variegated color. f. (trā) A plant; a star in Virgo; a nymph. a. Variegated; wonderful.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Citra (चित्र) [Also spelled chitra]:—(nm) picture; painting; illustration; figure; (still) film; -[karma] painting; -[kalā] (art of) painting; ~[kāra] a painter; an artist; ~[kāritā] painting; ~[kārī] (the profession or work of) painting; ~[paṭa] screen, cinema film; ~[phalaka] canvas; ~[lipi] pictograph, pictorial script; ~[lekha] pictograph; pictorial writing; ~[lekhaka] a painter; an artist; ~[lekhana] painting; -[vicitra] mottled; variegated; picturesque; ~[śālā] a picture-gallery; -[saṃgraha] an album; ~[sārī] a picture-gallery.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] easy to see or understand; clear; obvious; plain, apparent; evident.
2) [adjective] that is attractive; splendid; brilliant.
3) [adjective] having or marked with, varied colours or shades; variegated.
4) [adjective] that causes wonder; wonderful; marvellous.
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1) [noun] a picture a) an image or likeness of an object, person or scene produced on a flat surface, by painting, drawing; b) a printed reproduction of this; c) an image or picture made by photography.
2) [noun] something strange and surprising; a cause of surprise, astonishment or admiration; a wonder.
3) [noun] that which is or the quality of being, auspicious.
4) [noun] any of a class of chemical elements, as iron, gold or aluminum, gen. characterised by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductivity of heat and electricity; a metal.
5) [noun] a sectarian or decorative mark made on the forehead.
6) [noun] the herbaceous plant Plumbago zeylanica of Plumbaginaceae family.
7) [noun] air or wind.
8) [noun] a continuous series of motion pictures, in which events, fictions etc. have been filmed and usu. projected on a screen, so as to convey candid reality; a cinema.
9) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of verse composition in which letters, words are used in a tricky manner to give special sense.
10) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of figure of speech dependent on the sound of words.
11) [noun] a variety in the metre of tripadi (a verse having three lines).
12) [noun] ಚಿತ್ರದ ಬೊಂಬೆ [citrada bombe] citrada bombe a beautiful, innocent child, girl or woman; 2. the state of being stupefied, bewildered and hence motionless.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+375): Citrabahu, Citrabalagaccha, Citraballare, Citrabana, Citrabandharamayana, Citrabarha, Citrabarhin, Citrabarhis, Citrabarja, Citrabhanu, Citrabhanukavya, Citrabhanushataka, Citrabharata, Citrabhasa, Citrabhashya, Citrabheshaja, Citrabhinaya, Citrabhitti, Citrabhuta, Citrabija.
Ends with (+58): Acitra, Akadamacakracitra, Anakacitra, Apacitra, Ardhacitra, Arthacitra, Aticitra, Bahucitra, Bhadracitra, Bhakticitra, Bhavacitra, Bhitti-citra, Binducitra, Cakravicitra, Calacitra, Calanacitra, Candracitra, Carucitra, Chayacitra, Citravicitra.
Full-text (+549): Citta, Citrapupa, Upacitra, Citrayasa, Citratvac, Citragandha, Citrajalpa, Citranna, Citramagha, Citraga, Citramriga, Citrakambala, Citrakara, Citrakuta, Vicitra, Citratira, Citrakrit, Citrasamstha, Citrabhuta, Caitra.
Search found 61 books and stories containing Citra, Citrā; (plurals include: Citras, Citrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 139 - Greatness of Citrāditya (Citra-āditya) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 140 - Greatness of Citrapathā River < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 11 - Gift of a City to Brāhmaṇas < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 92 - Citrās Story < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 86 - Divyādevī As Citrā in Her Former Birth < [Section 2 - Bhūmi-khaṇḍa (section on the earth)]
Chapter 25 - The Vow of Ādityaśayana < [Section 1 - Sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍa (section on creation)]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 62 - The science of music < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 18 - Performance of Śrāddha under different Constellations (Nakṣatra) < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 71 - The Vṛṣṇi dynasty (vaṃśa) < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 10.100.12 < [Sukta 100]
Rig Veda 1.125.6 < [Sukta 125]
Rig Veda 5.63.5 < [Sukta 63]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)