Mangala, Maṅgalā, Maṅgala, Mamgala, Maṅgāla: 48 definitions


Mangala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला, “welfare, happiness”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ मङ्गलायै नमः
oṃ maṅgalāyai namaḥ.

A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) or Maṅgalāvvā is the Goddess associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: We observe that the Goddess in each seat is a Śavarī and the god a Śavara. The Śavaras are one of a number of tribes who are commonly associated with the deities, major and minor, in many Tantric traditions of this sort, both Śaiva and Buddhist. Implicit in these associations is that these deities [i.e., Maṅgalāvvā], in this case those of the sacred seats, are related to tribal ones.

2) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) refers to the North-Eastern Nityā (Yoginīs particularly concerned with Kāma), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, “[...] Elsewhere in the Yogakhaṇḍa the Nine Nityās are presented as guardians of the quarters. They are as follows: 1) East: Kulavidyā 2) North-west: Nityamadadravā 3) Southeast: Vajreśvarī 4) South: Tvaritā 5) South-west: Kurukullā 6) West: Lalitā Nityā 7) North: Bheruṇḍā 8) North-east: Maṅgalā 9) Vyomavyāpinī”.

3) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the consort of Meṣeśa: one of the Yuganāthas (Lords of the ages), according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—The teachers [e.g., Meṣeśa] and their consorts [e.g., Maṅgalā] who brought the Kulāgama into the world in the four Ages [e.g., Dvāpara] are related to the four sacred seats [e.g., Jālandhara] in each of which grows a sacred tree [e.g., Tāḍa]. The text also lists the first disciples [e.g., Acintyavidhuka (son)] of these teachers who then go on to have many more.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to a “felicitous”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] Her body is beautiful and bears the hue of vermillion. Its middle part is slim, [and] she is the repository of beauty. She is slightly bent like a young elephant because of her pitcher-like breasts, resembling the temples of a young elephant. Her eyes are moving and wide like those of a deer. She is moon-faced, her smiles are gentle, and she serves as the felicitous banner (maṅgala-vaijayantī) of the Love-god. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

1) Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

2) Maṅgala (मङ्गल, “tuesday”) corresponds with mars and refers to the third of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (e.g., maṅgala) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to one of the hundred types of Temples (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is quite difficult to say about a definite number of varieties of Hindu temples but in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa hundred varieties of temples have been enumerated. For example, Maṅgala. These temples are classified according to the particular shape, amount of storeys and other common elements, such as the number of pavilions, doors and roofs.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Maṅgala (मङ्गल, “auspicious”) refers to the planet mars. The corresponding day of the week is tuesday (maṅgalavāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to the “success” (of an undertaking), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. [...] He must be able to interpret the language and gestures of fighting men and the like; he must be learned in the Ṣaḍguṇa and Upāya policies; he must be able to predict the success [i.e., maṅgala] or failure of an undertaking; he must be able to interpret omens; he must have a knowledge of favourable halting places for the king’s army; he must be able to interpret the colour of ceremonial fires; he must know when to employ the ministers, spies, messengers and forest men; he must be able to give directions touching the captures of the enemy’s fortress”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Maṅgalā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—A deity in the form of Kuja or Planet Mars. There are different versions in the Purāṇas regarding the birth of Maṅgala.

Satī committed suicide at the Dakṣayāga and Śiva greatly griefstricken at the loss of his wife started penance. A sweat drop fell from the forehead of Śiva doing severe penance and Maṅgala was the son born of that drop. Śiva then installed Maṅgala among the Navagrahas and according to the science of astrology this Graha is considered the protector of the landed property and the wife of a person. (Śiva Purāṇa, Rudra Saṃhitā 1-10 and Skanda Purāṇa 4-1-17).

Śiva married Vikeśī daughter of Hiraṇyākṣa. One day while they were engaged in sexual plays Agni came to their presence. Enraged at this the eyes of Śiva blazed with anger and a drop of hot water from his eyes fell on the face of Vikeśī and she became pregnant. After some days Vikeśī found it impossible to bear the embryo of Śiva thus formed and she aborted it. A child was born and the goddess of earth took it and fed it with breast milk. It was that child who later on became Maṅgala. (Skanda Purāṇa).

Maṅgala was born of the blood drops of Śiva. (Bhaviṣya Purāṇa).

Maṅgala was the son of Bharadvāja. (Gaṇeśa Purāṇa).

Maṅgala was the son of Bhūmidevī. Devas, sages, Brāhmaṇas, Manus and Gandharvas all worshipped Bhūmi at the time of Varāhakalpa. It is also said in the Vedas that Bhūmidevī is the wife of Mahāviṣṇu’s incarnation as Varāha. Maṅgala alias the planet Mars was born to Bhūmidevī of Mahāviṣṇu as Varāha. (9th Skandha. Devī Bhāgavata).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to “(activities of) auspicious nature”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] O great lord, the lord of the gods and the prescriber of worldly conventions, we know you to be Śiva and Brahman, thanks to your favour. [...] O lord, the activities of auspicious nature (i.e., maṅgala) result in happiness to the doer whereas inauspicious activities end in adverse, or in partially good and bad results”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—The Matsya king, slain by Paraśurāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 38. 49, 51.

1b) A commander of Bhaṇḍa, vanquished by Svapneśī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 85; 28. 41.

1c) A Yāmadeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.

2a) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला).—A servant maid of Pārvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 25.

2b) A goddess enshrined at Gangā; a mother goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35; 179. 21.

2c) Gaurī;1 prayer to.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 58.
  • 2) Ib. 112. 58.

2d) Lakṣmī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 109. 24.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Maṅgala (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a peacock. The fruit is in his right hand and a viṇā in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Maṅgala) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Mangala in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is one of the epithets of Durgā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 53. Accordingly, as Vīravara praised Durgā: “... thou art the principle of life in creatures; by thee this world moves. In the beginning of creation Śiva beheld thee self-produced, blazing and illuminating the world with brightness hard to behold, like ten million orbs of fiery suddenly produced infant suns rising at once, filling the whole horizon with the circle of thy arms, bearing a sword, a club, a bow, arrows and a spear. And thou wast praised by that god Śiva in the following words ... [Maṅgalā, etc...]”.

Also, “... when Skanda, and Vasiṣṭha, and Brahmā, and the others heard thee praised, under these [eg., Maṅgalā] and other titles, by Śiva well skilled in praising, they also praised thee. And by praising thee, O adorable one, immortals, Ṛṣis and men obtained, and do now obtain, boons above their desire. ”

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Maṅgalā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—A ācārya of Sāhityaśāstra, who has been cited at five different places in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā. In the first chapter of Mammaṭa’s KPrefer Maṅgala’s view as Abhāsya (practices) is the Kāvyahetu (causes of poetry). Therefore we found two ślokas in the „Saduktikasnamṛita‟ named „Sūktisaṃgraha‟ works.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of the consort of Kūrma or Kūrmanātha: one of the “four Lords (teachers) of the Ages” (Yuganātha), according to the Kulakrīḍāvatāratantra.—Matsyendranātha is worshipped as the teacher of this Age along with three other teachers and their consorts who brought the Kaula Tantra into the world in the previous three Ages. These four Lords of the Ages (yuganātha) are highly revered in the Kālīkrama and came to be considered to be embodiments of the basic states of consciousness. Consort of Kūrmanātha: According to the Kulakrīḍāvatāra-tantra: Maṅgalā; According to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya: Maṅgalājyoti; according to the Devīpañcaśatikā: Maṅgalāmbā.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) or Maṅgalāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Sahasrāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Maṅgala Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Sahasra-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to the “auspicious”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.110-113, while describing the king’s consecration]—“[The mantrin] who is free from doubt should consecrate [the king] in a solitary place at night and on a day of auspicious protection. With auspicious cries like ‘victory!’ and the sounds of the auspicious Veda (veda-maṅgala-niḥsvana), he should consecrate [the king] with water and make oblations of white mustard seeds [while he] proclaims the name [of the king] [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to an “auspicious occasion” and can be used as an appendage to metres, as mentioned by Hemacandra (38a, 2-8) and in the Svayambhūchandas (IV.41).—When a particular metre is employed to praise or favourably describe a hero (Dhavala) in the popular language i.e. the Apabhraṃśa, it gets the appendage Dhavala attached to it. Thus an Utsāha metre when thus employed will be called Utsāha-dhavala, a Dohā will be Dohā-dhavala and so on. When on the other hand, the same metres are employed in describing some auspicious occasion, they will get the appendage of the name Maṅgala attached to them at the end. Thus we may have an Utsāha-maṅgala, a Dohā-maṅgala and so on.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) represents the number 8 (eight) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 8—maṅgala] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jyotish astrology, Mangala (मंगल, Maṅgala) is the name for Mars, the red planet. Mars is also called Angaraka ('one who is red in colour' also called Rakta varna whose color is like blood or Bhauma ('son of Bhumi') in Sanskrit. He is the god of war and is celibate. He is considered the son of Prithvi or Bhumi, the Earth Goddess. He is the owner of the Aries and Scorpio signs, and a teacher of the occult sciences (Ruchaka Mahapurusha Yoga).

He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a trident (Sanskrit: trishūla), mace (Sanskrit: gadā), lotus (Sanskrit: Padma) and a spear (Sanskrit: shūla). His mount (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over 'Mangala-varam' (Tuesday).

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

means, in general usage, anything regarded as 'auspicious' 'lucky', or a 'good omen'.

Against the contemporary superstitions notions about it, the Buddha, in the Mahā-mangala Sutta (Sn., w. 258 ff.), set forth 36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious, i.e. conducive to happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of bad company' and ending with a 'serene mind'.

It is one of the most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a fundamental text on Buddhist lay ethics.

Tr. in Everyman's Ethics (WHEEL 14). See Life's Highest Blessings, by Dr. R. L. Soni. (WHEEL 254/256).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Maṅgalā).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to the planet Mars and represents one of the nine planets (Navagraha), commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is red; his Symbol is a human head; his Vehicle is the goat; he has two arms.

Maṅgala is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Maṅgala rides on a Goat. He is red in colour. In the right hand he holds the kaṭṭāra (cutter) and in the left a severed human head in the act of devouring”.

[Maṅgala is not found in the Chinese collection].

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the mother of Sumati, the fifth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Maṅgalā is Megha according to Śvetāmbara but Meghaprabha according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

1) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of the mother of Sumatinātha: the fifth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The Sumatinātha’s native place and his parents have been mentioned in the Jaina traditional history. His birth place was Ayodhyā (Sāketa), his father was called Megharatha and mother Maṅgalā. When and how he attained the Kevala knowledge and what palanquin carried him, all these are given in the Uttarapurāṇa.

2) Maṅgala (मङ्गल) (planet Mars) represents a deity from the Jyotiṣka-Devas or Navagraha group of deities.—Maṅgala or the Planet Mars, as described in the Śvetāmbara texts holds a shovel and stands upon the earth in one type and in another, he has four hands, lidding Varada, Śakti (spear), trident and club. He is known as the son of the earth and the ruler of the South. The Digambara text gives the planet no more attribute than a spear.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the wife of Megha: an ancient king from Vinītā, and father of Sumatinātha, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly: “In this city (i.e., Vinītā) there was a king, named Megha, the tilaka of the Ikṣvāku family, rejoicing all, like a great cloud. [...] His wife was named Maṅgalā, the abode of auspicious things, the banner of virtues, like a household Lakṣmī personified. She dwelt in the heart of her husband, and her husband in her heart; living in houses by the pair was unessential. Either when walking somewhere, in a garden, etc., or when in the house, she meditated on her husband more than on a divinity. [...]”.

2) Maṅgala (मङ्गल) is the son of Kalyāṇā and Lakṣmaṇa (son of Sumitrā and Daśaratha), according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.8 [The abandonment of Sītā].—Accordingly, “In Lakṣmaṇa’s household there were sixteen thousand women. Among them were eight chief-queens: [e.g., Kalyāṇā, ...]. There were two hundred and fifty sons and among these were eight born of the chief-queens: [e.g., Maṅgala, son of Kalyāṇā]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to “(all that is) auspicious” (connected with the doctrine), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[com.—Next he speaks about the cause (kāraṇatvam) of all that is auspicious (sarvamaṅgalānāṃ) connected with the doctrine (dharmasya)]—There is nothing like the doctrine which is productive of all prosperity, the root of the tree of bliss, beneficial, venerable and grants liberation. Snakes, fire, poison, tigers, elephants, lions, demons and kings, etc. do not hurt those whose selves are settled in the doctrine”.

Synonyms: Abhyudaya.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

Maṃgala (मंगल) is the name of a work by Ṛṣi Jaymalla dealing with the Āvaśyaka section of Jain Canonical literature.—The Maṃgala is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The topic of the four maṅgalas goes back to the Āvaśyakasūtra, in particular. they are: 1. Arhants, 2. Siddhas, 3. Monks. 4. Doctrine. Jayamalla’s work takes upon the topic in detailed fashion. This manuscript deals only with the first maṅgala; the manuscript described in the next entry deals with nos. 2 to 4. Here the various lists of qualities are not expanded (differently from the printed version), e.g. the 34 miraculous powers, the 35 qualities of the voice, the 1008 characteristics, etc. So this is a rather different version than the printed one on the whole, although the same work.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Maṅgala.—(CII 1), a ceremony for one's good or for averting evil; cf. kalyāṇa. (SITI), a Brāhmaṇa village; shortened form of caturvedi- maṅgala. (ASLV), a small administrative unit. (IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: maṅgala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Mangala in Congo is the name of a plant defined with Abrus precatorius in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Abrus wittei Baker f. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Notulae Systematicae. Herbier du Museum de Paris (1951)
· Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris (1836)
· Annales des Sciences Naturelles (Paris) (1826)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1983)
· For. Fl. Punj. (1956)
· Economic Botany (1990)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Mangala, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, extract dosage, side effects, health benefits, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mangala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

maṅgala : (adj.) auspicious; royal; lucky; festive. (nt.), festivity; good omen; ceremony; prosperity.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Maṅgala, (adj.) (cp. Vedic maṅgala. explained by Dhtp 24 with root maṅg, i.e. lucky; see also mañju) auspicious, prosperous, lucky, festive Nd1 87, 88; KhA 118 sq.; SnA 273, 595; Sdhp. 551.—nt. maṅgalaṃ good omen, auspices, festivity Sn. 258; Vin. II, 129; PvA. 17. A curious popular etymology is put forth by Bdhgh at KhA 123, viz. “maṃ galanti imehi sattā ti” maṅgalāni.—maṅgalaṃ karoti lit. to make an auspicious ceremony, i.e. to besprinkle with grains etc. for luck (see on this PvA. 198), to get married DhA. I, 182; maṅgalaṃ vadati to bless one J. IV, 299; DhA. I, 115. Three (auspicious) wedding-ceremonies at DhA. I, 115 viz. abhiseka° consecration, geha-ppavesana° entering the house, vivāha° wedding.—Certain other general signs of good luck or omina kat) e)coxήn are given at J. IV, 72, 73 and KhA 118 sq. (see also maṅgalika).—Several ceremonious festivities are mentioned at DhA. II, 87 with regard to the bringing up of a child, viz. nāma-karaṇa-maṅgala the ceremony of giving a name; āhāra-paribhoga° of taking solid food; kaṇṇa-vijjhana° of piercing the ears; dussa-gahaṇa° of taking up the robe: cūḷā-karaṇa° of making the top-knot.—Cp. abhi°.

—usabha an auspicious bull SnA 323.—chaṇa a merry time, fair J. II, 48; DhA. I, 392.—kicca auspicious function, festivity SnA 175, 323.—kiriyā festivity, wedding SnA 69; finding good omens J. IV, 72.—kolāhala the lucky, or most auspicious, foreboding, one of the 5 kolāhalas (q. v.) KhA 121.—pañha see maṅgalika.—divasa a lucky day J. IV, 210; DhA. III, 467.—vappa ploughing festival SnA 137. Cp. vappa-maṅgala.—sindhava state horse J. I, 59.—silāpaṭṭa auspicious slab (of stone) J. I, 59; VI, 37; PvA. 74.—supina lucky dream J. VI, 330.—hatthi state elephant Mhvs 35, 21; DhA. I, 389. (Page 513)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

maṅgala (मंगल).—n (S) Good fortune, well-being, welfare. 2 A festive occasion in general, as marriage, impregnation-rite, thread investiture. 3 Elliptically for maṅgalācaraṇa q. v. maṅgala is sometimes divided into ārambhacēṃ maṃ0, madhyacēṃ maṃ0, śēvaṭacēṃ maṃ0, signifying Invocation or commemoration of a deity at the commencement, in the middle, and at the conclusion of a poem or literary work. 4 m The planet Mars. Mem. For compounds besides these occurring in order below see under maṅgaḷa.

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maṅgala (मंगल).—a (S) Fortunate, prosperous, faring well.

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maṅgaḷa (मंगळ).—n See maṅgala; and under that form see also for compounds other than these occurring in order here. maṅgaḷīcā (From maṅgala in the sense of The marriage ceremony; which, in emphatic and significant utterance, acquires the import of an unduly-conducted and consequently invalid marriage. Thus also maṅgaḷa mātaṇēṃ or mājaṇēṃ To be performed confusedly or laxly;--a marriage.) Applied abusively as Whoreson, byblow &c. maṃ0 gāta basaṇēṃ To sit singing the praises (of a departed person); i.e. to sit crying or grieving and fretting.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

maṅgala (मंगल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—m The planet Mars. Welfare. a Fortunate.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—a. [maṅg-alac; Uṇādi-sūtra 5.7]

1) Auspicious, lucky, propitious, fortunate; मङ्गलदिवसः, मङ्गलवृषभः (maṅgaladivasaḥ, maṅgalavṛṣabhaḥ) &c.

2) Prosperous, doing or faring well.

3) Brave.

-lam 1 (a) Auspiciousness, propitiousness; जनकानां रघूणां च यत् कृत्स्नं गोत्रमङ्गलम् (janakānāṃ raghūṇāṃ ca yat kṛtsnaṃ gotramaṅgalam) Uttararāmacarita 6.42; R.6.9;1.67. (b) Happiness, good luck or fortune, bliss, felicity; भद्रं भद्रं वितर भगवन् भूयसे मङ्गलाय (bhadraṃ bhadraṃ vitara bhagavan bhūyase maṅgalāya) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.3; Uttararāmacarita 3.48. (c) Wellbeing, welfare, good; सङ्गः सतां किमु न मङ्गलमातनोति (saṅgaḥ satāṃ kimu na maṅgalamātanoti) Bv. 1.122; (also m. in these senses).

2) A good omen, anything tending to an auspicious issue.

3) A blessing, benediction.

4) An auspicious or lucky object.

5) An auspicious occasion or event, a festivity.

6) Any solemn or auspicious ceremony or rite (such as marriage).

7) Any ancient custom.

8) Turmeric.

9) (In music) A particular composition.

-laḥ 1 The planet Mars.

2) Name of Agni.

-lā, -lī 1 A faithful wife

2) Dūrvā grass.

3) Name of Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—(1) adj., greeting festively, honoring, ifc. (so Senart): buddha-dharma-saṃgha-maṅgalo Mahāvastu i.36.6; (2) name of a former Buddha (= Pali id., there third of the 24 Buddhas), the next after Dīpaṃkara according to Mahāvastu i.248.7 ff., where his story is told; a (perhaps the same) former Buddha, Lalitavistara 5.9; (3) name of a nāga-king: Mahāvyutpatti 3308.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Lucky, fortunate, prosperous, faring well or happily. 2. Brave. n.

(-laṃ) 1. Happiness, good-fortune. 2. Preserving property, taking care of what has been gained. 3. Prudence, carefulness. 3. A good woman. 4. Festivity. 5. Turmeric. 6. An ancient custom. m.

(-laḥ) 1. The planet Mars. 2. Burnt offering on various occasions of rejoicing. f.

(-lā) 1. A name of Uma, the wife of Siva. 2. A bent grass, (Panicum dactylon,) with white blossoms. 3. A virtuous and obedient wife. 4. The mother of the fifth Jina or Jaina teacher Sumati. 5. A species of Cæsalpinia. E. magi to go, alac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—I. adj. Lucky, propitions, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 34; brave, [Pañcatantra] 8, 15. Ii. m. and n. 1. Prosperity, welfare, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 34; bliss, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 89, 4. 2. Rejoicing, a festival, [Pañcatantra] 129, 17; solemnity, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 43 (sandhyā-, Evening service). 3. Blessing, Dāśak. in Chr. 201, 10; [Sundopasundopākhyāna] 2, 4; prayer, ib. 188, 22. Iii. m. 1. The planet Mars. 2. Burnt offering on various occasions of rejoicing. Iv. f. . 1. Umā, the wife of Śiva. 2. A sort of bent grass, Panicum dactylon. V. n. Turmeric, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 53 (Sch.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—[neuter] welfare, luck, prosperity; anything lucky, auspicious, or of good omen (also as adj. = maṅgalya), ancient or traditional usage; [masculine] the planet Mars, a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Maṅgala (मङ्गल) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] Padyāvalī. See Bilvamaṅgala.

2) Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—‘benedictory adress by the parents to the bride at the conclusion of the marriage ceremonies’. Oudh. Xx, 170.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—n. ([according to] to [Uṇādi-sūtra v, 70 fr.] √maṅg) happiness, felicity, welfare, bliss (also [plural]; ifc. f(ā). ), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) anything auspicious or tending to a lucky issue (e.g. a good omen, a prayer, benediction, auspicious ornament or amulet, a festival or any solemn ceremony on important occasions etc.; cf. mfn. below), [Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) a good old custom, [Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti]

4) a good work, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) (in music) a [particular] composition, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

6) Name of the capital of Udyāna, [Buddhist literature]

7) m. Name of Agni, [Gṛhyāsaṃgraha]

8) of the planet Mars, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) of a king belonging to the race of Manu, [Catalogue(s)]

10) of a Buddha, [Lalita-vistara]

11) of a poet, [Catalogue(s)]

12) of a chief of the Cālukyas, [ib.]

13) the smell of jasmine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला):—[from maṅgala] a f. the whiteand blue-flowering Dūrvā grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a sort of Karañja, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] turmeric, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] a faithful wife, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of Umā, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

19) [v.s. ...] of Dākṣāyaṇī (as worshipped in Gayā), [Catalogue(s)]

20) [v.s. ...] of the mother of the 5th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—mf(ā)n. auspicious, lucky, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

22) having the scent of jasmine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला):—[from maṅgala] b f. of maṅgala in [compound]

24) Māṅgala (माङ्गल):—n. [plural] ([from] maṅgala) Name of [particular] verses addressed to Agni, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—[(laḥ-lā-laṃ) a.] Happy, good, prosperous. m. The planet Mars; thank-offering. f. Durgā; bent grass; a good wife. n. Happiness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maṃgala, Maṃgalā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mangala in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mangala in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Maṃgala (मंगल) [Also spelled mangal]:—(nm) (the planet) Mars; Tuesday; auspiciousness; well-being, welfare; (a) auspicious; -[kalaśa] see -[ghaṭa; -kāmanā] good wishes, benediction; ~[kāraka/kārī] good, auspicious; benedictory; -[kārya] a festive occasion, an auspicious ceremony/function; -[gāna/gīta] auspicious song/singing; -[graha] the Mars; a lucky star; -[ghaṭa] the water-filled pitcher placed in front of the deity on auspicious occasions; -[devatā] a tutelary deity; -[dhvani] the tumultous sound of auspicious songs etc.; marriage-music or singing; ~[prada] good, bestowing welfare, auspicious; benedictory; ~[maya] good, happy, auspicious; ~[vāra/vāsara] Tuesday; -[śabda] auspicious/benedictory utterance or word; -[samācāra] good news, happy news; ~[sūcaka] auguring good luck, auspicious; ~[sūtra] lit. the lucky thread—the sacred marriage thread worn by a woman as long as her husband lives; the thread wrapped round the wrist on auspicious occasions; -[gānā] to sing auspicious songs on festive occasions.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Maṃgala (मंगल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Maṅgala.

2) Maṃgalā (मंगला) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Maṅgalā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Maṃgala (ಮಂಗಲ):—[adjective] = ಮಂಗಳ [mamgala]1.

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Maṃgala (ಮಂಗಲ):—[noun] = ಮಂಗಳ [mamgala]2.

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Maṃgaḷa (ಮಂಗಳ):—[adjective] indicative of, bestowing, bringing favour; propitious; auspicious.

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Maṃgaḷa (ಮಂಗಳ):—

1) [noun] the state of being economically or socially developed.

2) [noun] good luck or chance; fortune.

3) [noun] welfare; well being.

4) [noun] happiness; joy; mirth.

5) [noun] the propitious, auspicious condition.

6) [noun] an auspicious ending of a chapter, book or a programme with a prayer to a god or with good wishes.

7) [noun] a good omen.

8) [noun] a rite performed at the commencment of an auspicious ceremony, praying for its uninterrupted performance.

9) [noun] an auspicious occasion, as mariage.

10) [noun] a social convention carried on by tradition and enforced by social disapproval of any violation; a custom.

11) [noun] Kuja, the diety of one of the nine astrological planets.

12) [noun] the planet Mars.

13) [noun] the quarters, region assigned to army troops.

14) [noun] a fortified place.

15) [noun] a song or prayer requesting the grace of god to avoid hindrances and to bestow favour.

16) [noun] a variety of horse.

17) [noun] beauty; charm; attractiveness.

18) [noun] a man whose work is cutting hair, shaving and trimming beards, etc.; a barber.

19) [noun] a term used to mention indirectly an inauspicious, evil thing, event, etc.

20) [noun] an auspicious ending of a programme, by waiving lamps before a deity, singing auspicious songs, etc.

21) [noun] (pros.) a metrical verse having sixteen syllables in each of the four lines, arranged in five groups first one having three single units, second one having one long followed by two short ones, third, fourth and fifth ones having two shorts ones with a long one in between, followed by a long unit.

22) [noun] ಮಂಗಳಹಾಡು [mamgalahadu] maṃgaḷa hāḍu to sing a song of good wishes or a song requesting a god to bestow welfare; 2. (fig.) to conclude; to bring to an end.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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