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Mangala, aka: Maṅgalā, Maṅgala; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Mangala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purāṇa

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Maṅgalā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

1a) Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—The Matsya king, slain by Paraśurāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 38. 49, 51.

1b) A commander of Bhaṇḍa, vanquished by Svapneśī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 85; 28. 41.

1c) A Yāmadeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.

2a) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला).—A servant maid of Pārvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 25.

2b) A goddess enshrined at Gangā; a mother goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35; 179. 21.

2c) Gaurī;1 prayer to.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 58.
  • 2) Ib. 112. 58.

2d) Lakṣmī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 109. 24.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana IndexPurāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Jyotiṣa (astronomy and astrology)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल, “auspicious”) refers to the planet mars. The corresponding day of the week is tuesday (maṅgalavāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
context information

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or ‘astrology’. It is one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
context information

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

Śāktism (Śākta philosophy)

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला, “welfare, happiness”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ मङ्गलायै नमः
oṃ maṅgalāyai namaḥ.

A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं  (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.

Source: Wisdom Library: ŚāktismŚāktism book cover
context information

Śākta (शाक्त, shakta) or Śāktism (shaktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devī) is revered and worshipped. Śākta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

In Jyotish astrology, Mangala (मंगल, Maṅgala) is the name for Mars, the red planet. Mars is also called Angaraka ('one who is red in colour' also called Rakta varna whose color is like blood  or Bhauma ('son of Bhumi') in Sanskrit. He is the god of war and is celibate. He is considered the son of Prithvi or Bhumi, the Earth Goddess. He is the owner of the Aries and Scorpio signs, and a teacher of the occult sciences (Ruchaka Mahapurusha Yoga).

He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a trident (Sanskrit: trishūla), mace (Sanskrit: gadā), lotus (Sanskrit: Padma) and a spear (Sanskrit: shūla). His mount (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over 'Mangala-varam' (Tuesday).

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Pali

Maṅgala, (adj.) (cp. Vedic maṅgala. Expld by Dhtp 24 with root maṅg, i.e. lucky; see also mañju) auspicious, prosperous, lucky, festive Nd1 87, 88; KhA 118 sq.; SnA 273, 595; Sdhp. 551.—nt. maṅgalaṃ good omen, auspices, festivity Sn. 258; Vin. II, 129; PvA. 17. A curious popular etymology is put forth by Bdhgh at KhA 123, viz. “maṃ galanti imehi sattā ti” maṅgalāni.—maṅgalaṃ karoti lit. to make an auspicious ceremony, i.e. to besprinkle with grains etc. for luck (see on this PvA. 198), to get married DhA. I, 182; maṅgalaṃ vadati to bless one J. IV, 299; DhA. I, 115. Three (auspicious) wedding-ceremonies at DhA. I, 115 viz. abhiseka° consecration, geha-ppavesana° entering the house, vivāha° wedding.—Certain other general signs of good luck or omina kat) e)coxήn are given at J. IV, 72, 73 and KhA 118 sq. (see also maṅgalika).—Several ceremonious festivities are mentioned at DhA. II, 87 with regard to the bringing up of a child, viz. nāma-karaṇa-maṅgala the ceremony of giving a name; āhāra-paribhoga° of taking solid food; kaṇṇa-vijjhana° of piercing the ears; dussa-gahaṇa° of taking up the robe: cūḷā-karaṇa° of making the top-knot.—Cp. abhi°.

—usabha an auspicious bull SnA 323.—chaṇa a merry time, fair J. II, 48; DhA. I, 392.—kicca auspicious function, festivity SnA 175, 323.—kiriyā festivity, wedding SnA 69; finding good omens J. IV, 72.—kolāhala the lucky, or most auspicious, foreboding, one of the 5 kolāhalas (q. v.) KhA 121.—pañha see maṅgalika.—divasa a lucky day J. IV, 210; DhA. III, 467.—vappa ploughing festival SnA 137. Cp. vappa-maṅgala.—sindhava state horse J. I, 59.—silāpaṭṭa auspicious slab (of stone) J. I, 59; VI, 37; PvA. 74.—supina lucky dream J. VI, 330.—hatthi state elephant Mhvs 35, 21; DhA. I, 389. (Page 513)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

maṅgala : (adj.) auspicious; royal; lucky; festive. (nt.), festivity; good omen; ceremony; prosperity.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English DictionaryPali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

means, in general usage, anything regarded as 'auspicious' 'lucky', or a 'good omen'.

Against the contemporary superstitions notions about it, the Buddha, in the Mahā-mangala Sutta (Sn., w. 258 ff.), set forth 36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious, i.e. conducive to happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of bad company' and ending with a 'serene mind'.

It is one of the most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a fundamental text on Buddhist lay ethics.

Tr. in Everyman's Ethics (WHEEL 14). See Life's Highest Blessings, by Dr. R. L. Soni. (WHEEL 254/256).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the mother of Sumati, the fifth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Maṅgalā is Megha according to Śvetāmbara but Meghaprabha according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

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