Mangala, aka: Maṅgalā, Maṅgala; 21 Definition(s)
Mangala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Maṅgalā (मङ्गला, “welfare, happiness”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.
Her mantra is as follows:
ॐ मङ्गलायै नमः
oṃ maṅgalāyai namaḥ.
A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
1) Maṅgala (मङ्गल):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
2) Maṅgala (मङ्गल, “tuesday”) corresponds with mars and refers to the third of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular day, or vāra (eg., maṅgala) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Maṅgala (मङ्गल, “auspicious”) refers to the planet mars. The corresponding day of the week is tuesday (maṅgalavāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Maṅgalā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—A deity in the form of Kuja or Planet Mars. There are different versions in the Purāṇas regarding the birth of Maṅgala.
Satī committed suicide at the Dakṣayāga and Śiva greatly griefstricken at the loss of his wife started penance. A sweat drop fell from the forehead of Śiva doing severe penance and Maṅgala was the son born of that drop. Śiva then installed Maṅgala among the Navagrahas and according to the science of astrology this Graha is considered the protector of the landed property and the wife of a person. (Śiva Purāṇa, Rudra Saṃhitā 1-10 and Skanda Purāṇa 4-1-17).
Śiva married Vikeśī daughter of Hiraṇyākṣa. One day while they were engaged in sexual plays Agni came to their presence. Enraged at this the eyes of Śiva blazed with anger and a drop of hot water from his eyes fell on the face of Vikeśī and she became pregnant. After some days Vikeśī found it impossible to bear the embryo of Śiva thus formed and she aborted it. A child was born and the goddess of earth took it and fed it with breast milk. It was that child who later on became Maṅgala. (Skanda Purāṇa).
Maṅgala was born of the blood drops of Śiva. (Bhaviṣya Purāṇa).
Maṅgala was the son of Bharadvāja. (Gaṇeśa Purāṇa).
Maṅgala was the son of Bhūmidevī. Devas, sages, Brāhmaṇas, Manus and Gandharvas all worshipped Bhūmi at the time of Varāhakalpa. It is also said in the Vedas that Bhūmidevī is the wife of Mahāviṣṇu’s incarnation as Varāha. Maṅgala alias the planet Mars was born to Bhūmidevī of Mahāviṣṇu as Varāha. (9th Skandha. Devī Bhāgavata).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—The Matsya king, slain by Paraśurāma.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 38. 49, 51.
1b) A commander of Bhaṇḍa, vanquished by Svapneśī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 21. 85; 28. 41.
1c) A Yāmadeva.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.
2a) Maṅgalā (मङ्गला).—A servant maid of Pārvatī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 25.
2b) A goddess enshrined at Gangā; a mother goddess.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35; 179. 21.
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 109. 24.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Maṅgala (मङ्गल) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Maṅgala (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a peacock. The fruit is in his right hand and a viṇā in his left hand.
The illustrations (of, for example Maṅgala) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Maṅgala (मङ्गल) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—A ācārya of Sāhityaśāstra, who has been cited at five different places in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā. In the first chapter of Mammaṭa’s KPrefer Maṅgala’s view as Abhāsya (practices) is the Kāvyahetu (causes of poetry). Therefore we found two ślokas in the „Saduktikasnamṛita‟ named „Sūktisaṃgraha‟ works.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Maṅgala (मङ्गल) or Maṅgalāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Sahasrāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Maṅgala Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Sahasra-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Katha (narrative stories)
Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is one of the epithets of Durgā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 53. Accordingly, as Vīravara praised Durgā: “... thou art the principle of life in creatures; by thee this world moves. In the beginning of creation Śiva beheld thee self-produced, blazing and illuminating the world with brightness hard to behold, like ten million orbs of fiery suddenly produced infant suns rising at once, filling the whole horizon with the circle of thy arms, bearing a sword, a club, a bow, arrows and a spear. And thou wast praised by that god Śiva in the following words ... [Maṅgalā, etc...]”.
Also, “... when Skanda, and Vasiṣṭha, and Brahmā, and the others heard thee praised, under these [eg., Maṅgalā] and other titles, by Śiva well skilled in praising, they also praised thee. And by praising thee, O adorable one, immortals, Ṛṣis and men obtained, and do now obtain, boons above their desire. ”
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Maṅgalā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
General definition (in Hinduism)
In Jyotish astrology, Mangala (मंगल, Maṅgala) is the name for Mars, the red planet. Mars is also called Angaraka ('one who is red in colour' also called Rakta varna whose color is like blood or Bhauma ('son of Bhumi') in Sanskrit. He is the god of war and is celibate. He is considered the son of Prithvi or Bhumi, the Earth Goddess. He is the owner of the Aries and Scorpio signs, and a teacher of the occult sciences (Ruchaka Mahapurusha Yoga).
He is painted red or flame colour, four-armed, carrying a trident (Sanskrit: trishūla), mace (Sanskrit: gadā), lotus (Sanskrit: Padma) and a spear (Sanskrit: shūla). His mount (Sanskrit: vahana) is a ram. He presides over 'Mangala-varam' (Tuesday).Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
means, in general usage, anything regarded as 'auspicious' 'lucky', or a 'good omen'.
Against the contemporary superstitions notions about it, the Buddha, in the Mahā-mangala Sutta (Sn., w. 258 ff.), set forth 36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious, i.e. conducive to happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of bad company' and ending with a 'serene mind'.
It is one of the most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a fundamental text on Buddhist lay ethics.
Tr. in Everyman's Ethics (WHEEL 14). See Life's Highest Blessings, by Dr. R. L. Soni. (WHEEL 254/256).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Maṅgalā (मङ्गला) is the mother of Sumati, the fifth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The husband of Maṅgalā is Megha according to Śvetāmbara but Meghaprabha according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Maṅgala.—(CII 1), a ceremony for one's good or for averting evil; cf. kalyāṇa. (SITI), a Brāhmaṇa village; shortened form of caturvedi- maṅgala. (ASLV), a small administrative unit. (IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: maṅgala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
maṅgala : (adj.) auspicious; royal; lucky; festive. (nt.), festivity; good omen; ceremony; prosperity.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Maṅgala, (adj.) (cp. Vedic maṅgala. Expld by Dhtp 24 with root maṅg, i.e. lucky; see also mañju) auspicious, prosperous, lucky, festive Nd1 87, 88; KhA 118 sq.; SnA 273, 595; Sdhp. 551.—nt. maṅgalaṃ good omen, auspices, festivity Sn. 258; Vin. II, 129; PvA. 17. A curious popular etymology is put forth by Bdhgh at KhA 123, viz. “maṃ galanti imehi sattā ti” maṅgalāni.—maṅgalaṃ karoti lit. to make an auspicious ceremony, i.e. to besprinkle with grains etc. for luck (see on this PvA. 198), to get married DhA. I, 182; maṅgalaṃ vadati to bless one J. IV, 299; DhA. I, 115. Three (auspicious) wedding-ceremonies at DhA. I, 115 viz. abhiseka° consecration, geha-ppavesana° entering the house, vivāha° wedding.—Certain other general signs of good luck or omina kat) e)coxήn are given at J. IV, 72, 73 and KhA 118 sq. (see also maṅgalika).—Several ceremonious festivities are mentioned at DhA. II, 87 with regard to the bringing up of a child, viz. nāma-karaṇa-maṅgala the ceremony of giving a name; āhāra-paribhoga° of taking solid food; kaṇṇa-vijjhana° of piercing the ears; dussa-gahaṇa° of taking up the robe: cūḷā-karaṇa° of making the top-knot.—Cp. abhi°.
—usabha an auspicious bull SnA 323.—chaṇa a merry time, fair J. II, 48; DhA. I, 392.—kicca auspicious function, festivity SnA 175, 323.—kiriyā festivity, wedding SnA 69; finding good omens J. IV, 72.—kolāhala the lucky, or most auspicious, foreboding, one of the 5 kolāhalas (q. v.) KhA 121.—pañha see maṅgalika.—divasa a lucky day J. IV, 210; DhA. III, 467.—vappa ploughing festival SnA 137. Cp. vappa-maṅgala.—sindhava state horse J. I, 59.—silāpaṭṭa auspicious slab (of stone) J. I, 59; VI, 37; PvA. 74.—supina lucky dream J. VI, 330.—hatthi state elephant Mhvs 35, 21; DhA. I, 389. (Page 513)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
maṅgala (मंगल).—n (S) Good fortune, well-being, welfare. 2 A festive occasion in general, as marriage, impregnation-rite, thread investiture. 3 Elliptically for maṅgalācaraṇa q. v. maṅgala is sometimes divided into ārambhacēṃ maṃ0, madhyacēṃ maṃ0, śēvaṭacēṃ maṃ0, signifying Invocation or commemoration of a deity at the commencement, in the middle, and at the conclusion of a poem or literary work. 4 m The planet Mars. Mem. For compounds besides these occurring in order below see under maṅgaḷa.
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maṅgala (मंगल).—a (S) Fortunate, prosperous, faring well.
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maṅgaḷa (मंगळ).—n See maṅgala; and under that form see also for compounds other than these occurring in order here. maṅgaḷīcā (From maṅgala in the sense of The marriage ceremony; which, in emphatic and significant utterance, acquires the import of an unduly-conducted and consequently invalid marriage. Thus also maṅgaḷa mātaṇēṃ or mājaṇēṃ To be performed confusedly or laxly;--a marriage.) Applied abusively as Whoreson, byblow &c. maṃ0 gāta basaṇēṃ To sit singing the praises (of a departed person); i.e. to sit crying or grieving and fretting.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
maṅgala (मंगल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—m The planet Mars. Welfare. a Fortunate.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—a. [maṅg-alac; Uṇ.5.7]
1) Auspicious, lucky, propitious, fortunate; मङ्गलदिवसः, मङ्गलवृषभः (maṅgaladivasaḥ, maṅgalavṛṣabhaḥ) &c.
2) Prosperous, doing or faring well.
-lam 1 (a) Auspiciousness, propitiousness; जनकानां रघूणां च यत् कृत्स्नं गोत्रमङ्गलम् (janakānāṃ raghūṇāṃ ca yat kṛtsnaṃ gotramaṅgalam) U.6.42; R.6.9;1.67. (b) Happiness, good luck or fortune, bliss, felicity; भद्रं भद्रं वितर भगवन् भूयसे मङ्गलाय (bhadraṃ bhadraṃ vitara bhagavan bhūyase maṅgalāya) Māl.1.3; U.3.48. (c) Wellbeing, welfare, good; सङ्गः सतां किमु न मङ्गलमातनोति (saṅgaḥ satāṃ kimu na maṅgalamātanoti) Bv. 1.122; (also m. in these senses).
2) A good omen, anything tending to an auspicious issue.
3) A blessing, benediction.
4) An auspicious or lucky object.
5) An auspicious occasion or event, a festivity.
6) Any solemn or auspicious ceremony or rite (such as marriage).
7) Any ancient custom.
9) (In music) A particular composition.
-laḥ 1 The planet Mars.
2) Name of Agni.
-lā, -lī 1 A faithful wife
2) Dūrvā grass.
3) Name of Durgā.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Maṅgala (मङ्गल).—(1) adj., greeting festively, honoring, ifc. (so Senart): buddha-dharma-saṃgha-maṅgalo Mv i.36.6; (2) n. of a former Buddha (= Pali id., there third of the 24 Buddhas), the next after Dīpaṃkara acc. to Mv i.248.7 ff., where his story is told; a (perhaps the same) former Buddha, LV 5.9; (3) n. of a nāga-king: Mvy 3308.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 208 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Aṣṭamaṅgala (अष्टमङ्गल).—m. (-laḥ) A horse with a white face, tail, mane, breast, and hoofs. n....
Sumaṅgalā (सुमङ्गला) is the name of a woman mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 124. Acc...
Jayamaṅgala (जयमङ्गल) is the name of an elephant, according to in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter...
Maṅgalācaraṇa (मङ्गलाचरण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) An auspicious introduction in the shape of a prayer at the...
Maṅgalākṣata (मङ्गलाक्षत).—m. (-taḥ) Rice thrown by Brahmans upon people in bestowing a blessin...
Maṅgalavāra (मङ्गलवार).—Tuesday. Derivable forms: maṅgalavāraḥ (मङ्गलवारः).Maṅgalavāra is a San...
Maṅgalasūtra (मङ्गलसूत्र).—see मङ्गलप्रतिसर (maṅgalapratisara). Derivable forms: maṅgalasūtram ...
Maṅgalakārya (मङ्गलकार्य).—any festive occasion, a religious or auspicious ceremony. Derivable ...
Sarvamaṅgalā (सर्वमङ्गला).—an epithet of Pārvatī. Sarvamaṅgalā is a Sanskrit compound consistin...
Maṅgalapokkharaṇī (मङ्गलपोक्खरणी) is the name of a river situated in Majjhimadesa (Middle Count...
maṅgalasnāna (मंगलस्नान).—n Ablution in oil and after- wards in water.
Maṅgalapura (मङ्गलपुर) was sacred to Abhinandana, the fourth Tīrthaṅkara as mentioned by Jinapr...
Maṅgalaprastha (मङ्गलप्रस्थ).—Name of a mountain. Derivable forms: maṅgalaprasthaḥ (मङ्गलप्रस्थ...
Maṅgalavādya (मङ्गलवाद्य).—see मङ्गलतूर्य (maṅgalatūrya). Derivable forms: maṅgalavādyam (मङ्गल...
Maṅgalapratisara (मङ्गलप्रतिसर).—m. (-raḥ) 1. An auspicious string worn by married women round ...
Search found 59 books and stories containing Mangala, Maṅgalā or Maṅgala. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 14: Sumatinātha’s conception < [Chapter III - Sumatināthacaritra]
Part 16: Sumatinātha’s birth < [Chapter III - Sumatināthacaritra]
Part 13: Sumatinātha’s parents < [Chapter III - Sumatināthacaritra]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 47 - On Manasā’s story < [Book 9]
Chapter 39 - On the story of Mahā Lakṣmī < [Book 9]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 51 - Padmāvatī Returns to Her Husband’s Place < [Section 2 - Bhūmi-khaṇḍa (section on the earth)]
Chapter 52 - Sudevā Goes to Heaven < [Section 2 - Bhūmi-khaṇḍa (section on the earth)]
Chapter 29 - The vow (vrata) called Saubhāgyaśayana < [Section 1 - Sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍa (section on creation)]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Buddha Chronicle 2: Koṇḍañña Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Buddha Chronicle 3: Maṅgala Buddhavaṃsa < [Chapter 9 - The chronicle of twenty-four Buddhas]
Part 1 - Five Kolāhalas < [Chapter 1 - The Story of Sataketu Deva, The Future Buddha]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Guide to Tipitaka (by U Ko Lay)