Kinnara, Kiṃnara, Kinnarā, Kiṃnarā: 30 definitions
Kinnara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Kinnar.
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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Kinnara (किन्नर) refers to “a kind of demigod who plays musical instruments and sings with the Gandharvas”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Kinnara (किन्नर).—A sect of Devas all of whom hold Vīṇās in their hands. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Kinnara (किन्नर), like Yakṣas, are the attendants of Kubera. They are represented as mythical beings with a human figure and the head of a horse or with a horse’s body and the head of a man. They are described as celestial choristers and musicians who dwell in the paradise of Kuvera on Kailāsa. They are called Aśvamukhas, Turaṅgavaktras, “horse-faced” and Mayus.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Kinnara (किन्नर).—The son of Sunakṣatra, and father of Antarikṣa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 285; IV. 22. 4-5.
1b) A group of divine singers.1 Born of Brahmā's shadow; these frequent Kailāsa;2 celebrate Puruṣa, Indra and Hari.3 Went to Dvārakā to see Kṛṣṇa,4 and learnt the dharma from the seven sages;5 worship pitṛs.6
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 10. 38.
- 2) Ib. III. 20. 45; IV. 6. 9; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 25. 28; III. 7. 176; 8. 71.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 30. 6; VI. 7. 4; VII. 8. 38; X. 3. 6; 4. 11.
- 4) Ib. XI. 6. 3.
- 5) Ib. XI. 14. 6; 31-2.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 38 and 111; 22. 59; 37. 19; IV. 20. 49; 33. 27; 39. 56.
1c) Born of Ariṣṭā and Kaśyapa: Citraratha is their overlord. Live in Himālayas; help Indra; kingdom of.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 45; 8. 6; 13. 16; 23. 39; 117. 8; 121. 48; 148. 92.
Kiṃnara (किंनर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kiṃnara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
1) In Buddhist mythology and Hindu mythology, a kinnara is a paradigmatic lover, a celestial musician, half-human and half-horse (India) or half-bird (south-east Asia). Their character is clarified in the Adi parva of the Mahabharata, where they say:
We are everlasting lover and beloved. We never separate. We are eternally husband and wife; never do we become mother and father. No offspring is seen in our lap. We are lover and beloved ever-embracing. In between us we do not permit any third creature demanding affection. Our life is a life of perpetual pleasure.
They are also featured in a number of Buddhist texts, including the Lotus Sutra. An ancient Indian string instrument is known as the Kinnari Veena.
2) In Southeast Asian mythology, Kinnaris, the female counterpart of Kinnaras, are depicted as half-bird, half-woman creatures. One of the many creatures that inhabit the mythical Himavanta. Kinnaris have the head, torso, and arms of a woman and the wings, tail and feet of a swan. She is renowned for her dance, song and poetry, and is a traditional symbol of feminine beauty, grace and accomplishment.
3) In Cambodia, the kinnaras are known in the Khmer language as kenar. The female counterpart, the kinnari, are depicted in Cambodian art and literature more often than the male counterparts.
4) In Tibet the Kinnara is known as the 'shang-shang' (ཤང་ཤང; Sanskrit: civacivaka). This chimera is depicted either with just the head or including the whole torso of a human including the arms with the lower body as that of a winged bird. In Nyingma Mantrayana traditions of Mahayoga Buddhadharma, the shang-shang symbolizes 'enlightened activity' (Wylie: phrin las).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Wife of Kandari, king of Benares. See Kandari Jataka.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Kiṃnara (किंनर) refers to “divine artists” depending on the gods according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “The Kiṃnaras also are divine artists who depend on the gods. Gandharvas and Kiṃnaras habitually reside in two places: their usual residence is on the Ten-Jewel Mountain (daśaratnagiri); but sometimes in the heavens, they play music for the gods. These two types of beings are not subject to the alternations of high and low”.
Kiṃnaras, together with other deities constitute the Asuras, according to chapter XLVI.—Accordingly, “great gods such as the Asuras, Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kumbhāndas, Yakṣas, Rakṣasas, Bhūtas, etc., are Asuras, and when their troops increase, those of the Devas decrease. Their power (anubhāva) and their transformations (nirmāṇa) were exercised at will. The Asura destiny is called thus because the Asuras appear at the head of a list; the others, namely, the Kiṃnaras, Gandharvas, Kuṃbhāṇḍas, Yakṣas, Bhūtas, etc. constitute one and the same destiny with them”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Kinnara (किन्नर) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kinnara).Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Kinnara (किन्नर) refers to a group of deities commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The Kinnara king is reddish-white in colour and is engaged inplaying on the musical instrument called the vīṇā.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Kinnara (किन्नर) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kinnarī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kinnara] are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Kiṃnara (किंनर).—The kiṃnaras (or, kinnaras) are a group of deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).Source: Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Kinnara (किन्नर).—A class of vyantara gods;—According to the Tiloyapaṇṇatti they are divided into nine classes:
They are all black. Aśoka is the Caitya-tree of these gods.
According to Śvetāmbaras they are of ten kinds:
Black in complexion, they have especially charming faces, they wear crowns and have a peaceful appearance. Aśoka tree is their flag mark.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Kinnara (किन्नर) is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Dharmanātha: the fifteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The symbol by which an image of Dharmanātha is to be recognised is Vajradaṇḍa or thunder-bolt. The Yakṣa couple to attend upon him are respectively called Kinnara and Kandarpā (Digambara Mānasī). The position of a fanner has been taken up by Puṇḍarīka-Vāsudeva. The Kevala tree for him is called Dadhiparṇa or Saptacchada.
The texts of both the schools is unanimous in giving this [Kinnara] Yakṣa three faces and six arms. His vehicle differs from a tortoise with the Śvetāmbaras to a fish with the Digambaras. The former sect describes his attributes as a citrus, mace, Abhaya, mongoose, lotus and a rosary. The Digambaras, on the contrary, describe them as a disc, Vajra, goad, club, rosary and Vara Mudrā.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Kinnara (किन्नर) and Kimpuruṣa are the two Indras (i.e., lords or kings) of the Kinnaras who came to the peak of Meru for partaking in the birth-ceremonies of Ṛṣabha, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
2) Kinnara (किन्नर) is the name of a Yakṣa (i.e., Śāsanadevatās or ‘messenger-deities’) associated with Dharma-nātha, according to chapter 4.5 [dharmanātha-caritra].—Accordingly:—“Originating in that congregation, Kinnara, three-faced, with a tortoise for a vehicle, red in color, resplendent with right hands holding a citron and a club, and with one in the position bestowing fearlessness; and with left hands encircled with an ichneumon, lotus, and rosary, became Dharmanātha’s messenger-deity. Likewise originated, Kandarpā, fair in body, with a fish for a vehicle, adorned with right hands carrying a blue night-blooming lotus and goad, and with one left hand carrying a lotus and one in the position bestowing fearlessness, became the Lord’s messenger-deity always near at hand”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Kinnara (किन्नर) refers to the “music-obsessed” class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Who are the lords amongst the music-obsessed (kinnara) class of peripatetic (forest) celestial beings? Kinnara and Kimpuruṣa are the two lords in the music obsessed peripatetic celestial beings.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kinnara : (m.) a bird with a human head; name of a forest dwelling nation.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kinnara, (kiṃ+nara, lit. what-man, see kiṃ 3) a little bird with a head like a man’s) J. IV, 106, 254, 438, V. 47, 456; Mil 267. Canda kinnara Np. J. I, 91, VI, 283, VI, 74. ‹-› f. kinnarā Np. of a queen J. V, 437 sq. , and kinnarī Th. 2, 381 (cp. ThA. 255), J. II, 121 (matta-kinnarī viya), 230; IV, 432 sq. Cp. kimpurisa. (Page 215)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kinnara (किन्नर).—m S A celestial chorister or musician.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kinnara (किन्नर).—m A celestial musician.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kinnara (किन्नर).—See under किम् (kim). 1 kim ind. Used for कु (ku) only at the beginning of comp. to convey the senses of 'badness', 'deterioration', 'defect', 'blame' or 'censure'; e. g. किंसखा (kiṃsakhā) a bad friend; किन्नरः (kinnaraḥ) a bad or deformed man &c.; see comp. below.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kiṃnara (किंनर).—name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 40.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. A demigod attached to the service of Kuvera, a celestial quirister or musician. 2. A kind of flower or attendant on a Jina or Jaina saint. f. (-rī) A female Kinnara, or chorister. E. kiṃ what, used contemptuously, (what kind of) nara a man: the Kinnara having, with the human figure, the head of a horse.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kiṃnara (किंनर).—i. e. kim-nara, m. and f. rī, A class of demigods attached to the service of Kuvera, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 39. 2. A proper name, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 197.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kiṃnara (किंनर).—[masculine] a class of mythical beings (half man half animal).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kiṃnara (किंनर):—[=kiṃ-nara] a etc. See kim.
2) [=kiṃ-nara] [from kiṃ > kim] b m. ‘what sort of man?’ a mythical being with a human figure and the head of a horse (or with a horse’s body and the head of a man, [Śiśupāla-vadha iv, 38]; originally perhaps a kind of monkey cf. vā-nara; in later times (like the Naras) reckoned among the Gandharvas or celestial choristers, and celebrated as musicians; also attached to the service of Kubera; (with Jains) one of the eight orders of the Vyantaras), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] Name of a prince, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
4) [v.s. ...] of Nara (a son of Vibhīṣaṇa), [Rājataraṅgiṇī i, 197]
5) [v.s. ...] of the attendant of the fifteenth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [Jaina literature]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a locality [gana] takṣaśilādi
7) Kiṃnarā (किंनरा):—[=kiṃ-narā] [from kiṃ-nara > kiṃ > kim] f. a kind of musical instrument, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. κινύρα)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kinnara (किन्नर):—[kinna-ra] (raḥ) 1. m. A demigod in the service of Kuvera. f. (rī) a demigoddess; a celestial musician.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Kiṃnara (किंनर):—(kim + nara)
1) m. f. ī Bez. eines mythischen Wesens, halb Mensch halb Thier (mit einem Pferdekopfe auf einem menschlichen Leibe nach dem [Scholiast] zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 194]); urspr. viell. eine best. Affenart (vgl. vānara Affe d. i. vā + nara), später wie die Nara zu den Gandharva gezählt und wie diese als Sänger gerühmt. [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 1, 6.] kiṃnarānvānarānmatsyānvividhāṃśca vihaṃgamān [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 1, 39.] rākṣasāśca pulastyasya vānarāḥ kiṃnarāstathā . yakṣāśca manujavyāghra putrāstasya dhīmataḥ .. [Mahābhārata 1, 2571] (von den kiṃpuruṣa unterschieden). ṛkṣīṣu ca tathā jātā vānarāḥ kiṃnarīṣu ca [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 16, 21.] kiṃnarā nāma gandharvā narā nāma tathāpare [Mahābhārata 2, 396.] kiṃnarāśca suvāsasaḥ [Harivaṃśa 11850.] śobhayanti ca tadveśma bhramamāṇā varastriyaḥ . yathā kailāsaśṛṅgāṇi śataśaḥ kiṃnarīgaṇāḥ .. [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 12, 48.] kiṃnarodgītabhāṣiṇī [Mahābhārata 1, 6569.] jayodāharaṇaṃ bāhvorgāpayāmāsa kiṃnarān [Raghuvaṃśa 4, 78.] [Kumārasaṃbhava 1, 8.] sahasraśo gandharvakiṃpūruṣakiṃnarā jaguḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 20, 20.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 197.] saṃraktābhistripuravijayo gīyate kiṃnarībhiḥ [Meghadūta 57. -] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 196.] [Mahābhārata 3, 10753.] [Harivaṃśa 11794. 12113.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 16, 6. 3, 38, 15.] [Viśvāmitra’s Kampf 1, 6. 5, 12.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 43.] [Rgva tch’er rol pa 12 u.s.w.] [Lot. de Lassen’s Anthologie b. l. 3.] Im Gefolge von Kuvera [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 1, 66.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 194.] kiṃnareśa ein Beiname Kuvera's [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 1, 64.] kiṃnareśvara dass. [Halāyudha im Śabdakalpadruma] Bilden bei den Jaina eine der acht Klassen der Vyantara [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 91.] Vgl. kiṃpuruṣa . —
2) m. Nomen proprium eines Fürsten [Viṣṇupurāṇa 463.] ein Beiname Nara's, eines Sohnes des Vibhīṣaṇa, [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 197.] Bei den Jaina Name des Dieners des 15ten Arhant's der gegenwärtigen Avasarpiṇī [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 42.] —
3) m. Nomen proprium einer Localität gaṇa takṣaśilādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 3, 93.] —
4) ein best. Saiteninstrument [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 286,] [Scholiast] kiṃnarī die Laute der Caṇḍāla [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 82.]
--- OR ---
1) neben kiṃdevāḥ und kiṃpuruṣāḥ [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 11, 14, 6.] kiṃnarī = kiṃpuruṣī [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 89, 3.] —
4) kiṃnarā [Medinīkoṣa k. 188.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) m. — a) Bez. bestimmter mythischer Wesen , halb Mensch halb Thier (ursprünglich wohl eine Affenart). Sie werden zu den Gandharva gezählt und als Sänger gerühmt ; erscheinen auch im Gefolge Kubera's. Die Jaina ordnen sie den Viyantara unter. — b) Beiname undNomen proprium verschiedener Personen. — c) *Nomen proprium einer Oertlichkeit ; vgl. varṣa. —
2) *f. ā ein best. Saiteninstrument. Vgl. κινύρα. —
3) f. ī — a) f. zu
1) a). Auch = kiṃpuruṣī. — b) *die Laute der Cāṇḍāla.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Kinnara (किन्नर) [Also spelled kinnar]:—(nm) a mythical being with human figures and a head of horse or with a horse’s body and the head of a man; a race celebrated as musicians.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Kinnara Jataka, Kinnara Kingdom, Kinnaradasa, Kinnaragita, Kinnaraja, Kinnarakinnara, Kinnaranara, Kinnaraprabhu, Kinnarapurusha, Kinnararaja, Kinnararajan, Kinnarasakhi, Kinnarashva, Kinnaravivaksha.
Full-text (+245): Gitamodin, Kimnarakantha, Ashvamukha, Mahadharma, Drumaratnashakhaprabha, Martyamukha, Kimpurusha, Surenupushpadhvaja, Bhushanendraprabha, Manidharini, Turangavaktra, Drumakimnararaja, Kusumaketumandalin, Prahasita, Kimnaranagara, Ratnakiritin, Mayu, Kimnarapati, Vyantara, Sudarshanapritikara.
Search found 68 books and stories containing Kinnara, Kiṃnara, Kinnarā, Kiṃnarā, Kimnara, Kim-nara, Kiṃ-nara, Kiṃ-narā, Kinna-ra; (plurals include: Kinnaras, Kiṃnaras, Kinnarās, Kiṃnarās, Kimnaras, naras, narās, ras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Story of druma’s action on the śrāvakas < [Part 5 - The virtue of meditation]
Appendix 7 - The Legend of Druma (king of the Gandharvas) < [Chapter XV - The Arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Directions]
II. Beings to be established in the six perfections < [Part 3 - Establishing beings in the six perfections]
Village Folk-tales of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), vol. 1-3 (by Henry Parker)
Story 34 - The Kinnara and the Parrots < [Part I - Stories told by the Cultivating Caste and Vaeddas]
Story 75 - The Crocodile And The Jackal < [Part II (e) - Stories of the Kinnaras]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 19: The Vyantaras < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 19: Dharmanātha’s śāsanadevatās (messenger-deities) < [Chapter V - Śrī Dharmanāthacaritra]
Part 3: Description of Aṣṭāpada < [Chapter VI]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XIII - The Kinnarī Jātaka < [Volume II]
Chapter VII - The ten Bhūmis < [Volume I]
Chapter XXVII - Jātaka of Surūpa (king of the deer) < [Volume II]
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)
Jataka 485: Canda-Kinnara-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Jataka 536: Kuṇāla-jātaka < [Volume 5]
Jataka 481: Takkāriya-jātaka < [Volume 4]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 38 - Kusumeśvara (kusuma-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Chapter 103 - Greatness of Ānartaka Tīrtha Kūpikā < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Chapter 154 - The Greatness of Kalakaleśvara (kalakala-īśvara-tīrtha) < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]