Hridaya, aka: Hṛdaya; 12 Definition(s)


Hridaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Hṛdaya can be transliterated into English as Hrdaya or Hridaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Hṛdaya: unsteady, flurried, the pupils moving somewhat (anaglulita), the lids recurved; it is used for mediocre things.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

According to the Matsya Purāṇa, Hṛdaya (heart) from neck to heart is 12 aṅgulas.

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

The name Hṛdaya (हृदय, “for heart”) is quite meaningful as it indicates the three phasas—receiving, supplying and movement of the cardiac cycle. Heart is the source of life as none can live if it stops. That is why it has been said by earlier sages as the seat of consciousness. Heart is the receptacle of rasa and rakta (blood) which it distributes to the whole body for nourishment and also draws out impurities from the same. This goes on incessantly like a cycle. The lotus-like heart is situated in chest, flanked by lungs on both sides. Below on the right side is liver and on the left is spleen.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Structure and Functioning of Heart: Appearance of heart is similar to that of an inverted bud of lotus. When the individual is ‘awake’, this lotus blossoms forth and when he is ‘asleep’, it closes up (Suśrutasaṃhitā Śārirasthāna 4/32). The narrow apex of the heart is directed downwards and broader base is directed upwards when the individual is standing. This observation is reflected in this explanation saying that the heart looks like an inverted bud of lotus. To indicate ‘life’ and ‘death’, the terms ‘awake’ and ‘asleep’ are often used in Sanskrit literature. So, meaning of this statement is that functioning of heart continues till the death of an individual.

Source: Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Hridaya in Purana glossary... « previous · [H] · next »

Hṛdaya (हृदय).—The horse of Bhoja which would go at a stretch 100 yojanas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 71-2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Hṛdaya (हृदय, “heart”).—Mānasāra LXX, 111 exhorts the sthapati and the sthāpaka to install the image in the sanctuary of their hearts (hṛdaya) as well. In fact, the “radiance” of the duo stem from having installed the radiant deity in their he arts. The heart is the “center of being”, so to speak, where the cognitive and affective faculties meet. Thus. the act of installing the deity therein perspicuously connects divine seeing and knowing.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Hṛdaya (हृदय).—Circum-radius. Note: Hṛdaya is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Hṛdaya (हृदय, “heart”) (Pali, Hadaya) refers to one of the thirty-substances of the human body according to the Visuddhimagga, as mentioned in an appendix of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra mentions thirty-six substances [viz., hṛdaya]; the Sanskrit sources of both the Lesser and the Greater Vehicles, physical substances are 26 in number while the Pāli suttas list thirty-once substances.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Hridaya in Marathi glossary... « previous · [H] · next »

hṛdaya (हृदय).—n (S) The heart or the mind; the faculty or the seat of feeling and thought. 2 The bosom or the breast, lit. fig. 3 fig. Mind, meaning, intent, design or drift of the mind: also the scope, purport, or significance (of a speech, a sentence, an action).

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hṛdaya (हृदय).—n The heart or the mind. The bosom. Intent. The scope, purport.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛdaya (हृदय).—

1) The heart, soul, mind; हृदये दिग्धशरैरिवाहतः (hṛdaye digdhaśarairivāhataḥ) Ku.4.25; so अयोहृदयः (ayohṛdayaḥ) R.9.9; पाषाणहृदय (pāṣāṇahṛdaya) &c.

2) The bosom, chest, breast; बाणभिन्नहृदया निपेतुषी (bāṇabhinnahṛdayā nipetuṣī) R.11.19.

3) Love, affection.

4) The interior or essence of anything.

5) The secret science; अश्व°, अक्ष° (aśva°, akṣa°) &c.; ऋतुपर्णो नलसखो योऽश्वविद्यामयान्नलात् । दत्वाऽक्षहृदयं चास्मै सर्वकामस्तु तत्सुतः (ṛtuparṇo nalasakho yo'śvavidyāmayānnalāt | datvā'kṣahṛdayaṃ cāsmai sarvakāmastu tatsutaḥ) || Bhag.9.9.17.

6) True or divine knowledge.

7) The Veda.

8) Wish, intention; एवं विरिञ्चादिभिरीडितस्तद्विज्ञाय तेषां हृदयं तथैव (evaṃ viriñcādibhirīḍitastadvijñāya teṣāṃ hṛdayaṃ tathaiva) Bhāg.8.6.16.

9) = अहंकारम् (ahaṃkāram) q. v.; मनो विसृजते भावं बुद्धिरध्यवसायिनी । हृदयं प्रियाप्रिये वेद त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना (mano visṛjate bhāvaṃ buddhiradhyavasāyinī | hṛdayaṃ priyāpriye veda trividhā karmacodanā) Mb.12.248.1.

Derivable forms: hṛdayam (हृदयम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛdaya (हृदय).—n.

(-yaṃ) 1. The mind, the seat or faculty of thought and feeling. 2. Knowledge. 3. Science. 4. The essence of anything. E. hṛ to take, kayan Unadi aff., duk augment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 130 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Suhṛdaya (सुहृदय).—mfn. (-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Good hearted. E. su excellent, hṛdaya the heart.
Pāṣāṇahṛdaya (पाषाणहृदय).—Adj. Stone-hearted, cruel.
Hṛdayastha (हृदयस्थ).—a. being or cherished in the heart. Hṛdayastha is a Sanskrit compound con...
Aśvahṛdaya (अश्वहृदय).—A mantra (sacred incantation) for controlling the horse. (See under 'Akṣ...
Hṛdayarajju (हृदयरज्जु).—Circum-radius. Note: Hṛdaya-rajju is a Sanskrit technical term used in...
Viṣahṛdaya (विषहृदय).—mfn. (-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Malicious, malignant, cherishing hatred or hostility. ...
Durhṛdaya (दुर्हृदय).—mfn. (-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Evil-minded, bad-hearted. E. dur bad, ill, hṛdaya the ...
Dvihṛdayā (द्विहृदया).—f. (-yā) A pregnant woman. E. dvi two, hṛdaya a heart; having, one of he...
Hṛdayavṛtti (हृदयवृत्ति).—f. (-ttiḥ) Disposition of the heart.
Hṛṣṭahṛdaya (हृष्टहृदय).—a. joyous-hearted, cheerful, merry.Hṛṣṭahṛdaya is a Sanskrit compound ...
Vajrahṛdaya (वज्रहृदय).—an adamantine heart.Derivable forms: vajrahṛdayam (वज्रहृदयम्).Vajrahṛd...
Sūryahṛdaya (सूर्यहृदय) or Sūryyahṛdaya.—n. (-yaṃ) Name of a hymn to the sun.
Śūnyahṛdaya (शून्यहृदय).—a. 1) absent-minded; V.2; कस्मिन्नपि पूजार्हेऽपराद्धा शून्यहृदया शकुन्...
hṛdayakamala (हृदयकमल).—n S The heart. See hṛtkamala.
Hṛdayāvidh (हृदयाविध्).—a. heart-rending, heart-piercing; रोचनैर्भूषितां पम्पामस्माकं हृदयाविधम...

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