Kesara, Keśara, Keshara: 35 definitions


Kesara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Keśara can be transliterated into English as Kesara or Keshara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Kesara (केसर):—This Kesara-droṇi is situated between the Kumuda and Añjana mountains. Here is also the Śabala forest in which is a mansion of Viṣṇu, the guru of the Suras.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kesara (केसर).—A Mountain in Śākadvīpa (Śāka island). The air on this mountain was always filled with fragrance. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 23).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Keśara (केशर) refers to one of the various flowers conjured by Vasanta (spring) in an attempt to charm Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.9. Accordingly as Kāma related to Brahmā:—“[...] Spring (Vasanta) too did the needful in enchanting Him. O, listen to it, O fortunate Being. I tell you the truth, the truth alone. He caused the various kinds of flowers to bloom in the place where Śiva was stationed—flowers such as Campakas, Keśaras, Punnāgas, Ketakas, Mallikās, Kurabakas etc. etc.”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kesara (केसर).—The mountain from whose summits the Sītā descends.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 17. 6.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Kesara (केसर) is the name of a tree (Maulśrī) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Anurādhā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Kesara], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Kesara (केसर) is the name of an herbal ingredient which is included in a (snake) poison antidote recipe, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Several herbal formulations have been recommended in the segment exclusively for lepa or ointment to counter poison. According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse VIII.47), “Applying a combination of Tagaru, Kesara, kuṣṭha, Vacā and sandalwood mixed with rice-washed water also quells snake poison”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Keśara (केशर, “hair”) is a Sanskrit word referring to Ochrocarpus longifolius (fragrant poon), a plant in the Calophyllaceae family, and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The literal translation of Keśara is “hair”, and commonly refers to the hair of the brow. The plant is found throughout the Western Ghats (sahyadri), a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of India.

2) Kesara (केसर) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Physicochemical Screening and Shelf Life Evaluation of Kuṅkumādi Ghṛta

Kesara (केसर) refers to the medicinal plant known as Crocus sativus Linn., the stigma of which is employed in the medicinal formulation called kuṅkumādi-ghṛta.—Kesara (stigma of Crocus sativus Linn.) is a prime ingredient in the formulation. However, due to high cost and increased adulteration in Kesara, ‘Nāgakesara’ (Mesua ferrea Linn.) is suggested by Ayurvedic experts as a substitute. Nāgakesara is relatively lower in cost and possesses similar therapeutic attributes to that of Kesara.

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā

Keśara (केशर) refers to Crocus sativus Linn., and is the name of a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—(Cf. Indian Medicinal Plants 2:212, Arya Vaidya Sala, 1993-96.). Synonyms of Keśara: Keśarāhvaya, Kesara, or Nāgakesara.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 117-118, Singh and Chunekar, 1999)

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Kesara (केसर) refers to a variety of prāsāda (‘superstructure’, or, upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (5th-century guidebook on Dravidian architecture). It is part of the Ekatala (one-storey) group of prāsādas.

The Kesara variety has the following specifications and decorative motif components:

Number of talas (levels): 1;
Shape of grīva (neck) and śikhara (head): Circular or Square;
Number of śālas: 4;
Number of kūṭas: 4;

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Keśara (केशर) refers to one of the sacred trees mentioned in the Kaulāvalinirṇaya.—Trees, forests and groves close to human settlements have been venerated throughout the subcontinent up to the present day as the abodes of deities and a range of supernatural beings. [...] In the Kaula and related Tantras, such beings came to be identified with Yoginīs and so the trees they inhabited as Yakṣinīs came to be venerated as Kula trees (kulavṛkṣa) in which Yoginīs reside. The Kaulāvalinirṇaya enjoins that the adept should bow to the Kula and the Lord of Kula when he sees one of these trees [i.e., Keśara] and recollect that Yoginīs reside in them.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Kesara (केसर) refers to “saffron”: a product of flowers (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. It is also known as Kuṃkuma. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers and their products (e.g., Kesara ) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kesarā (केसरा) is an incarnation of the merchant Dhaneśvara, according to chapter 5.4 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Śānti-nātha narrated to king Kurucandra:—“In this very Jambūdvīpa in this same zone Bhārata in the country Kosala in the city Śrīpura there were four merchants’ sons of the same age, like full brothers, Sudhana, Dhanapati, Dhanada, Dhaneśvara. [...] In course of time Dhanapati and Dhaneśvara died. Both of them became merchants’ daughters, Madirā and Kesarā, one in Śaṅkhapura and the other in Jayantī. [...]”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Keśara (केशर) refers to the “filament of a plant”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Whatever difficulties arise from life, they are each endured here by the embodied soul, only having taken hold of the body powerfully. The body of men also defiles auspicious things [such as] camphor, saffron [com.—Saffron (kuṅkumaṃ) is the filament of a plant from Kashmir (kāśmīrakeśaram)] , aloe wood, musk, sandalwood because of [its] contact [with them]”.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

1) Kesara (केसर) or Kesaravimala is the author of the Pārśvanāthastavana (dealing with Pārśva in Jain literature), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—Kesara, the abbreviated form of Kesaravimala, belonged to the tapāgaccha. His lineage was: Kanakavimala—Śāntivimala (Jain gurjar Kavio5, pp. 134-137). Two dated works by him are from VS 1754 and 1756.

2) Kesara (केसर) is the author of the “Gavaḍecā-Pārśvajina-chaṃda”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Keshara [ಕೇಶರ] in the Tulu language is the name of a plant identified with Mesua ferrea L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family. For the possible medicinal usage of keshara, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Kesara [ಕೇಸರ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Crocus sativus L. from the Iridaceae (Iris) family.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Keshara in India is the name of a plant defined with Crocus sativus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Geanthus autumnalis Raf. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Irid. Gen. (1827)
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1840)
· Gard. Chron. (1879)
· Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains (1834)
· Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8 (1768)
· Fl. Ital. (1860)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Keshara, for example side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kesara : (nt.) hairy structures of flowers; name (of animal.).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Kesara, 2 (fr. kesa) filament of flowers, hairy structures of plants esp. of the lotus; usually of kiñjakkha PvA. 77; VvA. 12; 111;— sa-kesarehi padumapattehi lotusleaves with their hairs VvA. 32; nicula-k° fibres of the Nicula tree VvA. 134.

2) Kesara, 1 a mane, in —sīha a maned lion J. II, 244; SnA 127. (Page 227)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kēśara (केशर).—n (S) Saffron. 2 A shrub used in dyeing, Rottleria tinctoria.

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kēśarā (केशरा).—m (kēśara) A yellow garment put on (by a warrior &c.) in indication of his determination to conquer or die. v kara, ghē.

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kēsara (केसर).—m (S) pop. kēṃsara n A capillament or filament (of flowers &c.) 2 A lion's mane.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kēśara (केशर).—n Saffron. Fibre–esp. in mangoes.

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kēsara (केसर).—m kēmmara n Filament of flowers, &c. A lion's mane.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kesara (केसर).—1 The mane (as of a lion); न हन्त्यदूरेऽपि गजान्मृगेश्वरो विलोलजिह्वश्चलिताग्रकेसरः (na hantyadūre'pi gajānmṛgeśvaro vilolajihvaścalitāgrakesaraḥ) Ṛtusaṃhāra 1.14; Ś.7.14.

2) The filament of a flower; नीपं दृष्ट्वा हरितक- पिशं केसरैरर्धरूढैः (nīpaṃ dṛṣṭvā haritaka- piśaṃ kesarairardharūḍhaiḥ) Meghadūta 21; Ś.6.18; M.2.11; R.4.67; Śiśupālavadha 9.47.

3) The Bakula tree; रक्ताशोकश्चलकिसलयः केसर- श्चात्र कान्तः (raktāśokaścalakisalayaḥ kesara- ścātra kāntaḥ) Meghadūta 8; Kumārasambhava 3.55.

4) The Punnāga tree.

5) The fibre (as of a mango fruit).

6) Saffron.

7) The hair.

-ram 1 A flower of the Bakula tree; सुरभि- गन्धपराजितकेसरम् (surabhi- gandhaparājitakesaram) R.9.36.

2) Gold.

3) Sulphate of iron.

Derivable forms: kesaraḥ (केसरः), kesaram (केसरम्).

See also (synonyms): keśara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Keśara (केशर).—m. or nt., or oftener keśara-cūrṇa, nt. (compare AMg. kesara, pollen), a fragrant powder: keśara, bought of perfumers, Mahāvastu i.38.4, 6, 9; presumably prepared from pollen (rather than from the flowers called kesara or keś°, with Senart); otherwise always keśara- (mss. sometimes °la)-cūrṇāni, mentioned with candana-, tamāla(pattra)-, and aguru-cūrṇāni, Mahāvastu i.211.20; 212.8, 12; 230.17; 267.2; ii.15.20; 160.16 (mss. °la); 162.6 (mss. °la); 286.15 (here Senart keśala, but v.l. °ra!).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Keśara (केशर).—mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) The filament of a lotus or of any vegetable. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A plant, commonly Nageswar, (Mesua ferrea.) 2. A tree bearing a white strong smelling flower, (Mimusops elengi:) see vakula. 3. A shrub used in dying, (Rottleria tinctoria;) also punnāga. 4. A lion’s mane. n.

(-raṃ) Asafœtida. E. ka water, &c. in the seventh case ke, śṛ to go, ap affix; also with sṛ to go kesara.

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Kesara (केसर).—mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) A filament. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A lion. 2. A horse. 3. The name of a horse or lion, &c., see keśara. 4. A plant, (Mimusops elengi.) 5. A tree used in dying, (Rottleria Tinctoria.) nf. (-raṃ-rī) Asafœtida. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Gold. 2. Sulphate of iron. 3. The flower of the Nageswar. E. ke on the head, sṛ to go, ṭa aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Keśara (केशर).—[keśa + ra], also kesara kesara, I. n. A lion’s or horse’s mane, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 207. Ii. m. and n. The filament of a lotus, or of any vegetable, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 47. (with s). Iii. m. The name of several plants, Mesua ferrea, Mimusops elengi, Bottleria tinctoria; their flower, n., [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 96, 6.

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Kesara (केसर).—and kesarin kesarin; see keśara keśara, keśarin keśarin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kesara (केसर).—[neuter] (ā [feminine]) = keśa; also filament, [especially] of a lotus; [masculine] [Name] of a plant = bakula.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Keśara (केशर):—[from keśa] etc. See kesara.

2) Kesara (केसर):—n. the hair (of the brow), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xix, 91]

3) (in classical literature usually keśara) m. or n. (?), the mane (of a horse or lion), [Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra] etc.

4) Kesarā (केसरा):—[from kesara] f. idem, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra] (kes)

5) Kesara (केसर):—n. the tail of the Bos grunniens (used as a fan for driving away flies), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) mn. (as, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; am) the filament of a lotus or of any vegetable, [Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Śakuntalā] etc.

7) n. a fibre (as of a Mango fruit), [Suśruta]

8) m. the plants Rottleria tinctoria, Mimusops Elengi, and Mesua ferrea, [Mahābhārata xiii, 5042; Rāmāyaṇa; Lalita-vistara; Kumāra-sambhava; Meghadūta]

9) n. the flower of those plants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) mfn. (as, ā, am) Asa foetida, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) n. gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) sulphate of iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Name of a metre (of 4 x 18 syllables)

14) m. Name of a mountain, [Mahābhārata vi, 11, 23;]

15) cf. [Latin] eoesaries; [Anglo-Saxon] haer; [English] hair; [German] Haar.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Keśara (केशर):—[(raḥ-raṃ)] 1. m. n. The filament of a lotus; lion’s mane. m. Mesua ferrea or Mimusops elengi or Rottleria tinctoria. n. Asafoetida.

2) Kesara (केसर):—[(raḥ-raṃ)] 1. m. n. A filament of a lotus. m. A lion; a horse, or its mane; Mimusops or Rottleria tinctoria. (rī-raṃ) f. n. Asafoetida. n. Gold; sulphate of iron; flower of the Nāgesar.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kesara (केसर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kesara, Kesarā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kesara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kesara (केसर):—(nf) saffron; ~[riyā] saffron (coloured); •[bānā] donning of saffron robes (for sacrifice).

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Kesara (केसर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kavīśvara.

2) Kesara (केसर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kesara.

3) Kesara (केसर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kesara.

4) Kesarā (केसरा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kesarā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kēśara (ಕೇಶರ):—[noun] the dried, aromatic stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus of Iridaceae family, used in flavouring and colouring foods, and formerly in medicine; saffron powder.

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Kēsara (ಕೇಸರ):—

1) [noun] (bot.) the stalk of a stamen bearing the anther; the filament of a flower.

2) [noun] the fine, dust like mass of grains that are produced in the anthers or microspore sacs of seed plants, containing the male sexual cells (gametophytes) of the plant; pollen.

3) [noun] the long hair growing from the top or sides of the neck of certain animals, as the horse or lion; the mane.

4) [noun] the tree Mimusops elengi of Sapotaceae family.

5) [noun] the tree Mesua ferrea of Guttiferae family; Iron wood of Ceylon.

6) [noun] the perennial plant Crocus sativus of Iridaceae family with funnel-shaped, purplish flowers having orange stigmas; saffron plant.

7) [noun] the tree Bixa orellana of Bixaceae family.

8) [noun] the tree Mammea suriga ( = Ochrocarpus longifolius) of Clusiaceae family.

9) [noun] its flowers.

10) [noun] gold.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Keśara (केशर):—n. 1. the stigma/pistil of a flower; 2. Bot. wild rose; crocus; 3. mane;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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