Brahma, Brahmā, Brāhma: 68 definitions


Brahma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) was generated from a lotus, called Hiraṇmaya, which sprang from the lake of the navel of Viṣṇu (or para-puruṣa) (sahasra-śirasa or sahasra-śīrṣā). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.14.2)

From the navel of para-puruṣa was generated a golden lotus, on which the four-faced Lord Brahmā took his birth. (Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.1.8-9)

From the mind of Lord Brahmā, Marīci took birth.

Source: The Garuda puranam

Brahma stone has a small mouth and is of thick blue colour.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—

One of the trimūrtis of the Hindu Pantheon The trimūrtis are Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. (See full article at Story of Brahmā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Brahma (ब्रह्म).—See Parabrahma.

3) Brāhma (ब्राह्म).—A kind of marriage. The bride is adorned with all kinds of ornaments and is taken to bridegroom; and given to him as wife. This is called Brāhma marriage. Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 73, Stanza 8 states that this mode of marriage was allowed to all the four castes of ancient Bhārata.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to a deity that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Brahmā who along with Viṣṇu and Śiva forms the Hindu Triad, occupies an important place in the Nīlamat.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of a deity born of the lotus (paṅkaja) that sprang from the navel of Nārāyaṇa while sleeping, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.7:—“[...] exerting himself as before, Śiva, the great lord, with Pārvatī as his better half created me [viz., Brahmā] from His right limb. O sage, having deluded me with His illusion immediately, Śiva in the course of His sport, produced me through the umbilical lotus of Viṣṇu. Thus it was that I came to be known as Lotus-born and conceived in a golden womb (hemagarbha). I had four faces (caturmukha), red complexion (raktavarṇa) and Tripuṇḍra-marked forehead. Deluded by His illusion and weakened in knowledge, O dear one, I did not know who the progenitor of my body was, other than the lotus”.

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to a “special officiating deity” (of a sacrifice), as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, [...] In that sacrifice that was being performed in that holy place of Kanakhala, Bhṛgu and other sages were made Ṛtviks by him (Dakṣa). Viṣṇu himself was the presiding officer along with the Maruts. I was the Brahmā (a special officiating deity) the director and guide for Vedic rituals”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—Pitāmaha, (Lokapitāmaha)—appeared on the lotus from the navel of Hari at the end of the Kalpa; the Lord with four faces: origin of five faces connected with his daughter and wife Śatarūpā;1 Born of Hari's grace: expression of rajas By Yoga saw the one Puruṣa lying on Śeṣa: Praised Him, who instructed him in the art of creation: nine-fold creation from Prakṛti; created the vedas and human society: created also a mind-born son to Śambhu who attained Brahmalokam: a second son of his, was Bhuva, who was sent to the mother—earth: the third son Bhūrbhuva and his son became Gopati. From his body was created Gāyatrī, who became his wife: then came Prajāpatis, oceans. etc.2

Known for impartiality, Parīkṣit compared to him;3 obliged to Viṣṇu;4 knew the dharma of Hari; a Parameṣṭhin;5 resident at Gayā and guards Benares;6 his golden city being in Meru;7 his curses and blessings moderate.8 A day of, is a thousand cycles of the 4 yugas; Pralaya, the night of Brahmā; period of his life is dvīparārdha. All the fourteen Manus flourish during his day.9 Author of the Atharva mantras; learnt the Veda from Hari and taught it to Manu;10 his sons were Marīci and Atri whose son was Soma. The last was made the lord of Brahmanas, stars, etc. Influenced Soma to restore Tārā to Bṛhaspati. Found out that Budha was Soma's son. Punished Soma as a sinful planet for enjoying Tārā.11 Made Dakṣa the overlord of the Prajāpatis;12 called on Kailāsa.13 Presented Pṛthu with armour and prevented him from slaying Indra.14 Visited Manu and Priyavrata and addressed her on home life.15 gifts to Māya.16 Did not help Durvāsa pursued by the cakra of Viṣṇu;17 was unable to answer the question of his son, Sanaka and others on the subtlity of yoga; remembered Hari who explained it in the form of a Haṃsa.18 Praised Viṣṇu for killing Kālanemi.19 Met Hari-Ajita to restore the fortune of Indra; cursed by Durvāsa and his prayer.20 Performed yajña in Janaloka;21 was displeased at Bhṛgu's behaviour;22 went with Bhṛgu and Dakṣa to Hiraṇyakaśipu engaged in austerities; granted boons to him and disappeared.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 2; III. 8. 13-16; IX. 1. 8-10; XI. 4. 5; XII. 5. 1; Matsya-purāṇa 1. 14; 2. 36; 3. 1, 37, 40.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 18. 14. III. 8. 22-32; 9. 1-24, 29-44; 10. 3-6, 8, 13-26; 12. 37-56.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 171. 8-14, 17, 21; 183. 84.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 23.
  • 5) Ib. IV. 21. 29; 29. 42.
  • 6) Ib. VI. 3. 20.
  • 7) Ib. IV. 8. 20.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 22. 4; 184. 28.
  • 9) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 28.
  • 10) Ib. X. 88. 12.
  • 11) Ib. XII. 4. 2-5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 15-24; IV. 1. 5; VI. 3. 11-12.
  • 12) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 14. 3-4; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 4. 12.
  • 13) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 1. 8-10; 14. 2-3, 8, 12 [1] and 13. XII. 8. 12; Matsya-purāṇa 23. 10, 44-6.
  • 14) Matsya-purāṇa 201. 17; 225. 12; 249. 13, 58.
  • 15) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 3. 2.
  • 16) Ib. IV. 6. 2.
  • 17) Ib. XI. 13. 16-41.
  • 18) Matsya-purāṇa 178. 56, 64, 79.
  • 19) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 5. 18-50; 6. 1-15.
  • 20) Ib. X. 87. 9.
  • 21) Ib. X. 89. 3-4.
  • 22) Ib. VII. 3. 14-38; 4. 2-3; 8. 40; 10. 26-29, 33; Matsya-purāṇa 161. 17.

1b) A division of the night.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 44.

1c) Son of Brahmadana.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 132.

1d) One of the 16 Ṛtviks for a yajña; issued from the mouth of Nārāyaṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 167. 7.

1e) One of the authors on architecture.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 252. 3.

1f) Image of; four faces and sitting on a lotus; on the swan; on either side Sāvitrī and Sarasvatī.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 260. 40; 266. 42; 285. 6.

2a) Brāhma (ब्राह्म).—A muhūrta, early in the morning of the day.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 40; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 39; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 11. 5.

2b) The Kṛtayuga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 78. 36.

2c) One of the six Darśanas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 16.

2d) A form of marriage.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 10. 24.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.36, I.59.10, I.65, IX.44.21) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Brahmā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to the Creator God and one of the Gods of Trimūrti, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Brahmā is said to be a form of Śiva and constitutes the right-side of Śiva. Thus Brahmā is mentioned as being created by Śiva and in another context Brahmā is said to be born of the Lotus in the naval of Viṣṇu. The creation made by Brahmā is described. His subordinate position in relation to that of Śiva is brought out in the myth describing his dispute with Viṣṇu for superiority and Śiva’s appearance as a column of Light before them.

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to one of the names for the “sun” [viz., Sūrya], according to the eulogy of the Sun by Manu in the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa which is purely a Śaivite work, though it purports to be revealed by the Sun, contains some references to practices of Saura Sects, and here and there it identifies Śiva with the Sun. From the eulogy of the Sun by Manu it appears that the sun is the Supreme deity. He is [viz., Brahmā] [...] In another passage Manu while eulogizing the Sun god expresses that the Sun is another form of Lord Śiva. [...]

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is a Sanskrit word referring to a deity. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.88-94, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned Brahmā (installed as a deity) to the top section (joint/knot, parva) of the Jarjara (Indra’s banner staf). He also assigned himself to the centre of the stage (raṅgapīṭha). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Deva-vibhāvana (hands that indicate the forms which accord with the character and actions of Brahmā and other Devas).—Brahmā: left hand–Catura, right hand–Haṃsāsya.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा, “Creator”):—One of the male offspring from Mahālakṣmī (rajas-form of Mahādevī). Also known as Vidhi. Mahālakṣmī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahākālī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Lakṣmī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named rajas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Brahmā).

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Brāhma (ब्राह्म) refers to one of the spiritual disciplines (darśana—systems) issued from the limbs of the body of the Goddess, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] All spiritual disciplines, whatever the tradition, are necessarily grounded in the same energy of the Śāmbhava state. They issue, as the texts put it, from the limbs of the body of the goddess who is this energy. These range from the lowest extremity—the left big toe—where Buddhism originates, to the highest—the End of Sixteen—where the Śāmbhava state is attained which is the source of the Kubjikā tradition. The systems (darśana) and their corresponding places of origin in the Goddess’s body are as follows: [3) Brāhma—the hip—nitamba, ...].

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) or Brahmāgranthi refers to the “Knot of Brahmā” and represents one of the “sixteen knots” (granthi), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(1) The Knot called Ananta, which is HAṂSA, should be placed (on the body). It is at the middle toe of the sixteen parts (of the body).The Knot of Time is below the ankle. [...] (8) (The Knot) called Brahmā is in the penis (svādhiṣṭhāna) and (9) the Knot of the Moon (soma) is in the stomach. [...]”.

The sixteen Knots [i.e., brahmā-granthi] are parts of the goddess’s body. Accordingly, they are projected into the adept’s body to transform it into the Triple Fort, that is, the triangular body of the goddess replete with the energies of the sacred seats. She is both with form, consisting of the letters and mantras, and without form as the Transmental (manonmanī) energy of the god.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Brahma is large (pṛthu); has many holes (suṣira); one cakra and lotus mark; a long line (sudīrgha-rekhā). Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Brahma stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity

Brahmā as the Creator God is always shown with four heads which represent the four volumes of the Sacred Scriptures — the Vedas by the power of which Brahmā effects the work of creation. In Hindu mythology Creation occurs by Brahmā projecting created beings from his own mind into the four directions.

In terms of consciousness and states of mind, Brahmā represents the waking state of externalised awareness (jāgrat) — awareness and interaction with the world around us. Science deals almost exclusively with Brahmā.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras (shilpashastra)

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) as depicted at a temple on the west bank of the Rāmakuṇḍa at Sopārā (ancient Śūrpāraka) in the Ṭhāṇā District.—It is a standing sammukha image of the god, wearing a jaṭā-mukuṭa. Of his three faces which are seen, the middle one only has a beard. The god holds the akṣamālā and sruc in the lower and upper right hands, and the kamaṇḍalu and the pothī (unbound book) in the lower and upper left hands. He wears a yajñopavīta and an udarabandha, besides other ornaments and a long garland reaching below his knees. The tassels of his girdle are shown hanging down in front. On either side of the god appears a female figure carrying a bundle of kuśa grass. There is, besides, his vehicle, the swan, on his left, and an attendant on his right. The image seems to have been left unfinished, but it is a good handiwork of the age.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) in the sannidhi of Tillai Naṭarāja temple is found in seated posture. [...] Brahmā is found with four faces. One facing the front, one each facing the both sides and one is facing the back. If it is an icon then all the four faces are visible. If it is a sculpture caved on the wall of the temple, then only the three faces are seen. While depicting in dance songs, Brahmā is depicted as in writing the Vedas with catura hasta in one hand and haṃsāsya hasta in the other hand. This is what is found in the devata hastas taught to the dancers at the preliminary stage of learning. But He can also be represented as holding the kamaṇḍalu, the akṣamālā, or holding abhaya-mudrā in the right and urū-hasta in the left. If the deities are studied thoroughly then they can be beautifully and innovatively exhibited in dance choreographies. The standing postures are usually sama or svastika in the dances. That can be changed depending on the leg posture of the respective deity installed in the temple.

Brahmā is found depicted in the Thillai Nataraja Temple in Cidambaram (Chidambaram) which is one of the Pañcasabhā or “five halls where Śiva is said to have danced”.—Brahmā is the author of the Vedas. He is found seated on the lotus flower, which issues from the stomach of Viṣṇu lying on the serpent. He is portrayed with four faces. His plaited hair is gathered into a conical knot called makuta. He has four arms. The back right arm carries brahmātandra (pearls) and the back left hand carries kamanḍalu (vessel). The front right hand is in abhaya-hasta and the front left hand is in varada-hasta. In Indian Sculpture and Iconography, the linear measurements for Brahmā set in uttama-daśatāla are prescribed

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) iconography is described in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the image of Brahmā should have four faces and four arms. But in the Vāyupurāṇa, Brahmā is known for fourteen faces. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the image of Brahmā should be made in the posture of being seated on a lotus seat. This book states that the dress of Brahmā should be the skin of an antelope.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—Brahmā is one of the principal deities and formst along with Viṣṇu and Śiva, the well-known Hindu triad called trimūrti referred to as Hari-Hara-Brahmanāḥ. He is alluded to as Prajāpati, the creator of all the mobile and immobile universe. In this manner, Brahmā has been given the epithets of Vedas. Viśvasṛj and Pitāmaha.

He is also said to be Caturmukha and Viriñci, Ambhojabhava and Paṅkajabhū. He shows favour to those who are cursed. Sarasvatī is said to be born from the mouth of Brahmā, the lotus-born god.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Brahma (ब्रह्म) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This is the country of eastern India. It is presumably the modern Burma including the upper and lower portions.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Brahmanṛsiṃha or Brahmanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Brāhma (ब्राह्म) or Brāhmāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Aṃśumāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Brāhma Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Aṃśumān-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of a deity described in the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.29-36, while describing the appearance and worship of Rudra]—“The auspicious Brahmā [has] four faces, four arms, beautiful eyes, and a red complexion. [He holds] a bundle of very sharp grass [that] hangs down [from his hands]. [Brahmā is] mounted on Haṃsa, holds a stick and rudrākṣa, carries a water jar for protection, [and] the four Vedas. [He] gives the fruits of all siddhis”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to the priest associated with all three Vedas, according to the Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtras.—“The Hotṛ-priest performs with the Ṛg-veda. The Udgātṛ-priest with the Sāma-veda. The Adhvaryu-priest with the Yajur-veda. The Brahma-priest with all”. Commentary: “With all” means with the three Vedas, because the Brahma-priest, or superintendent of the whole sacrifice, must be acquainted with the three Vedas. Others would include the Atharva-veda”.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

1) Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to “(1) Derived from bṛḥ meaning ‘expanded’, or ‘great’; the general meaning is spirit (2) The living entity (3) The mind (4) The Supersoul (5) The impersonal aspect of the Supreme Lord (6) Bhagavān Himself”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to “creator of the material universe who is the presiding deity of the quality of passion. He is the original spiritual master of the Brahma-Mādhva sampradāya”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to:—The spiritual effulgence emanating from the Supreme Lord’s transcendental body. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to:—Creator of the material universe and deity presiding over the quality of passion; the original guru of the Brahmā-Mādhva sampradāya. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Brahma (ब्रह्म) or Brahmagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Brahma-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

Vedanta book cover
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Bharatiya vastu-sastra

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of an ancient teacher (ācārya) of Vāstuśāsta (science of architecture) according to the Matsyapurāṇa.—All these great teachers cannot be said to be legendary. Some used to be propagated in ancient India. No nation can flourish without its care for its material prosperity. All this technique and training and their systematic and successful teaching and transmission were of equal importance. Most of the treatises of Vāstuśāstra carry many of these names [i.e., Brahmā], yet a good many of them are quoted as authorities, yet still others are honoured with actual passages being quoted from their works.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Brahmā] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the lord over the new and full moon periods of the first six months, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Commencing from the time of creation, ... Brahmā is the lord over the new and full moon periods of the first six months; the Moon is the lord over those of the second six months; [...] If Brahmā should be lord as stated above, cows and Brāhmins will prosper; there will be health and happiness in the land; and crops will thrive. If the moon should be the lord, the effects will be those described above; also, learned men will suffer and there will be drought”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Sri Isopanisad

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—The Vedas are considered to be the mother, and Brahmā is called the grandfather, the forefather, because he was the first to be instructed in the Vedic knowledge. In the beginning the first living creature was Brahmā.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Brahma is the creator part of the supreme trinity of hinduism - Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma. He is normally not worshipped alone, but as part of the Dhattatreya, which is all the three aspects in one form.

He is said to have been born out of a lotus that grew out of the navel of Vishnu. He was given the four Vedas by Vishnu and bidden to commence the aspect of creation. To assist in this task, he created the Prajapatis, who are his ManasaPutras (wish-born-sons). They are namely: Daksha, Vasishta, Kashyapa, Bhrigu, Angirasa.

Originally he had five heads. Once when he got into an argument with Shiva as to who is more powerful, Shiva cut one of his heads off, leaving only Shiva with five heads.

According to the Satapatha Brahmana, the names of the mind-born sons of Brahma are

  1. Vasishta,
  2. Kashyapa,
  3. Vishwamitra,
  4. Jamadagni,
  5. Gautama,
  6. Bharadwaja
  7. and Atri.

The Vayupurana adds Bhrigu as the eighth mind-born son.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The word brahma is used in modern Hinduism to refer to the name of a god who is a part of the Hindu trinity, for more information see Brahman (disambiguation). However in the context of traditional Vedic study, it holds two meanings. In the Purva Mimamsa philosophy, which is based on a study of the samhita and brahmana sections of the vedas, the word brahma refers to the vedic mantras. In the uttara Mimamsa i.e. Vedanta philosophy, which is based on a study of the Aranyaka and the Upanishad sections of the vedas, the word Brahma means the absolute universal reality called Brahman.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा), the creator of the universe, is one among the Trinity. Usually the image of Brahmā is not found as the mūla-bera in the temples. There is also a story in the purāṇas for this reason [...]. Brahmā, the god of wisdom and knowledge, is adored by many. Though there are no temples in Tamilnadu with Brahmā as the mūla bera, the devotees pray to him when they see him in the other sanctums. It is said that Brahmā wrote the Vedas and so devotees pray to him for Vedic knowledge. He is considered as the essence of enlightenment. The kamaṇḍalu or water pot held in the hand of Brahmā is said to contain water within and it is from this vessel that the earth is filled with water. It also connotes dāna or gift. It is also a symbol of auspiciousness, a sign of plentifulness, prosperity.

The devotees pray to him so that they are confident of getting in abundance because that is the basic quality of Brahmā. Without water one cannot survive in this world. Brahmā is the giver of life through water. So he is adored by his devotees for his creartion. The akṣmālā held in another hand connotes the sacredness and ascetic nature of the Lord. That is why we find the sages holding the akṣmālā and reciting their prayers and hymns with a belief that they would be purified from all their earthly sins and desires and would remain pure, and finally achieve mokṣa or liberation.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (h)

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) (known as Prajāpati in Vedic times), is celebrated in Ṛgveda (X. 121) as the creator of heaven and earth, of the waters and all that lives. He is one who was born as the one Lord of all, is the one king of all that breathes and moves, the one god above all gods, whose ordinances all the gods and beings follow. In the Vājasaneyīsaṃhitā and the Atharvavedasaṃhitā, quite regularly in the Brāhmaṇas, he is recognised as the chief god. In the Sītras Prajāpati is identified with Brahmā. In the place of this chief god of the later Vedic mythology, the philosophy of the Upaniṣads puts in the impersonal Brahmā, the universal soul or the absolute.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms"Great One" - an inhabitant of the non sensual heavens of form or formlessness.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Brahmaloka

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

N (Noble practice, noble conduct) Being dwelling in the world bearing the same name and which is the loftiest worlds plane among the four worlds planes. The world of brahmas is divided up between twenty spheres of existence.

A brahma being devoid of tactile sense, he cannot develop any akusala. Thats why their sphere of existence is called "the world of the ones having a noble conduct". There are three kinds of brahmas.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) or Brahmādevarāja refers to the deity that appears seated cross-legged on a lotus which sprang from Viṣṇu’s navel, who appears after the kalpa-fire, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—From Viṣṇu’s navel (nābhi) comes a precious lotus, golden in color, with a thousand petals, the light and rays of which are like the combined light of a thousand suns. On this lotus there is seated cross-legged a man who, in turn, possesses an infinite light. He is called Fan t’ien wang (Brahmādevarāja) who mentally gives birth to eight sons who, in their turn, give rise to the heavens, the earth and people.

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—According to appendix 5 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). The Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra could also add that, according to Jīvaka, “the Bhagavat is Brahmā” (Kośavyākhyā), and that the term brahmabhūta ‘identified with Brahmā’ is applied sometimes to Buddha himself (Dīgha III, Majjhim, I, Saṃyutta IV, Aṅguttara V and Tchong a han), sometimes to the Arhats (Saṃyutta III and Aṅguttara).

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the lord of Sahā, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja: “Then, son of good family, I will invoke the Brahmā, the lord of Sahā (brahmā sahāṃpatiḥ), and because of that he will continue protecting this exposition of the dharma. The words of invoking is as follows: [...]. Those treasuries of open space are the words of invoking the Brahmā, the lord of Sahā”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of a deity summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Brahmā).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of a deity commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is yellow; his Vehicle is the swan; he has four arms.

Brahmā is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“On a Swan appears Brahmā of yellow colour with four arms. With the two principal hands carrying the rosary and the lotus, he displays the añjali-mudrā (clasped hand), and the two other hands carry the staff and the kamaṇḍalu”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) refers to the ninth of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 9). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., daśalokapāla and Brahmā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Brahmā is, besides one of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) and one of the “fourteen world protectors” (caturdaśalokapāla).

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Brahma:—A protective deity

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryOne of the three major deities of Hinduism, along with Visnu (Vishnu) and Siva (Shiva). Adopted as one of the protective deities of Buddhism.Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

One of the Arupyadhatu Devas:

A Brahma in Buddhism is the name for a type of exalted passionless deity (deva), of which there are multiple in Buddhist cosmology.

The Brahma devas (or simply Brahmas) participate in the more active joys of the first dhyana. They are also more interested in and involved with the world below than any of the higher devas, and sometimes intervene with advice and counsel.

There are at least four ways of interpreting the term Brahma. It may refer to:

  1. Any of the deities of the Arupyadhatu or of the Rupadhatu
  2. Any of the deities of the nine lowest worlds of the Rupadhatu, from Subhakrtsna to Brahmaparisadya.
  3. Any of the deities of the three lowest worlds of the Rupadhatu
  4. A Mahabrahma, one of the highest deities of preceding group.

See Abhasvara Worlds

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Brahma (ब्रह्म) is the father of Dvipṛṣṭha: the second Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The stories of king Brahma, queen Umā and their son, Dvipṛṣṭha are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to “abstinence from sexual intercourse” and is of eighteen kinds, nine relating to celestial females (vaikriya) and nine to terrestrial females (audārika).

Source: The Jaina Iconography

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) or Brahmayakṣa is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Śītalanātha: the tenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The tree under which Śītalanātha attained the Kevala knowledge is Vilva (Aegle marmelos), The Jaina texts assign tohim the Yakṣa named Brahmā and Yakṣiṇī named Aśokā (Digambara: Mānavī). The Digambaras regard the Aśvattha (Ficus religioso) as his emblem, the Śvetāmbaras Śrīvatsa (wishing tree) for the same.

2) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) or Vāmā is the mother of Pārśvanātha: the twenty-third of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas.—Pārśvanātha was probably born about 817 and died about 717 B.C. His father Aśvasena was the King of Benares. His mother’s name was Vāmā or Brahmā. Pārśva was a brave warrior and once he carried his victorious arms down to Kaliṅga. He married the daughter of King Prasenajit, King of Kośala, but like Prince Siddhārtha, he left his princess to follow the life of an ascetic at 30 years of age.

3) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) also refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism.—As in Bahmanism, so in Jainism, too, the Dikpāla Brahmā has been given the charge of the upper regions. The Śvetāmbara texts describe him as four-headed, riding on a swan and holdinga book and lotus. The Digambaras do not seem to have accepted not more than eight guardian gods. Brahmā and Nagā being left out from their descriptive list.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1a) Brahma (ब्रह्म) is the father of Brahmadatta: one of the Cakrins (Cakravartins), according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “[...] In Bharata there will be twenty-three other Arhats and eleven other Cakrins. [...] The Cakrins will belong to the gotra of Kaśyapa, gold-color, and eight of them will go to mokṣa. [...] In Kāmpīlya, Brahmadatta will be the son of Culanī and Brahma, living for seven hundred years, seven bows tall. He will live in the interval between Śrī Neminātha and Śrī Pārśvanātha and, engaged in evil meditation, will go to the seventh hell”.

1b) Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to one of the ten-fold dharma (i.e., Yatidharma) capable of leading across saṃsāra, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra].—Accordingly, as Sumatinātha said, “The sources of pride—youth, power, beauty, etc.—have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them. Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of saṃsāra. [...] Chastity (brahma) is the restraint of the senses accompanied by the nine guptis. [...]”.—(Cf. Uttarādhyayana, Chap. 16, gives a list almost identical with that of the Samavāyāṅgasūtra, but it has 10 divisions instead of 9.)

3) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of a Yakṣa (i.e., Śāsanadevatās or ‘messenger-deities’) associated with Śītalanātha, according to chapter 3.8 [śītalanātha-caritra].—Accordingly, “Originating in that tīrtha, a Yakṣa, named Brahmā, three-eyed, four-faced, with a lotus-seat, white, with four right arms of which three held a citron, hammer, and noose, and one was in the position bestowing fearlessness, and with four left arms holding an ichneumon, club, goad, and rosary; and Aśokā likewise originating there, [...]. Attended by these two, Lord Śītala wandered for twenty-five, thousand pūrvas less three months”.

4) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा) is the name of an ancient king from Dvārakā, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra].—Accordingly:—“Now there is a city named Dvārakā, the face-ornament of Surāṣṭra, the base of its wall washed by the waves of the western ocean. Its king was Brahmā, whose strength was undulled, by whom everyone was subdued and repressed, like a rival of Jiṣṇu (Indra). Subhadrā and Umā were his wives, the most important of his harem, like the Gaṅgā and the Sindhu of the Lavaṇa Ocean. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Brahma (ब्रह्म) refers to one of the sixteen heavens (kalpa) hosting the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

What is the number of layers in Brahma and Brahmottara heaven pairs? There are four layers there. Which thought-colourations are there in Brahma and Brahmottara and Lāntava-Kāpiṣṭha gods? They have pink thought-colouration. What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Brahma and Brahmottara kalpas? It is slightly more than ten ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) for both.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Social Life In Medieval Rajasthan

Brahmā-worship in Rājasthān.—References to the worship of Brahmā are found in the inscriptions and other attributes of god in some form or other. The existence of Brahmā temples at Pushkar, Basantgarh, Kusmā (Sirohi) and Chincha (Bānswārā) shows that Brahmā was worshipped as a principal deity in Rājasthān till the 12th century A.D. Other images found in the environs of several temples of Sewādi, Kirādu and Osiyān of Mārwār, Bijoliyān (Mewār), Basād (Pratāpgarh) and Māndalgarh testify the assumption. Several images of the early period preserved in the museum of Āmber, Ajmer and Jhālāwād also lead us to the conclusion that the worship of Brahmā was popular. This worship of Brahmā istraced up to the 15th century A.D.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Temples of Brahmā constructed by the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1215 A.D.).—Temples of Brahmā were rarely erected. There is only a single reference to such a temple in the inscriptions of the Śilāhāras edited here, viz., that in the Kolhāpur plates of Ganḍarāditya dated Śaka 1048.[1] Images of Brahmā were affixed to the walls of temples dedicated to Śiva and Viṣṇu. There is one such image of Brahmā of the āliṅgana-mūrti type affixed to a wall of the Ambarnāth temple. It has been described before.

Source: Shodhganga: A translation of Jhaverchand Meghanis non translated folk tales

Brahma refers to “One of the main three deities. Lord Brahma, the creator of the universe”.—It is defined in the glossary attached to the study dealing with Gujarat Folk tales composed by Gujarati poet Jhaverchand Meghani (1896-1947)

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

brahma : (m.) the Brahma; the Creator.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Brahma, & Brahmā (fr. bṛh, see brahant. Perhaps less with regard to the greatness of the divine principle, than with ref. to the greatness or power of prayer or the ecstatic mind (i.e. holy enthusiasm). On etym. see Osthoff, “Bezzenberger’s Beiträge” XXIV. 142 sq. (=Mir. bricht charm, spell: Oicel. bragr poetry)) — I. Brahman (nt.) (cp. Vedic bráhman nt. prayer; Nom. sg. bráhma) 1. the supreme good; as a buddhistic term used in a sense different from the brahmanic (save in controversy with Brahmans); a state like that of Brahmā (or Brahman) A. II, 184 (brahmappatta). In cpds. brahma°.—2. Vedic text, mystic formula, prayer DA. I, 244 (brahmaṃ aṇatī ti brāhmaṇo). II. Brahmā (cp. Vedic brahmán, m. , one who prays or chants hymns, Nom. sg. Brahmā) 1. the god Brahmā chief of the gods, often represented as the creator of the Universe (vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā) D. I, 18; III, 30, also called Mahābrahmā (D. I, 235 sq. , 244 sq. ; III, 30; It. 15; Vism. 578; DhA. II, 60); and Sahampati (Vin. I, 5; D. II, 157; S. I, 136 sq. ; Vism. 201; KhA 171; SnA 56) and Sanaṃkumāra (D. II, 226; III, 97). The duration of his life is given as being 1 kalpa (see Kvu 207, 208).—Nom. Brahmā Vin. I, 5; D. II, 46; J. VI, 486; Miln. 224; Vism. 2 (brahmānaṃ atibrahmā, Ep. of Buddha Bhagavā); SnA 229 (B. mahānubhāvo); Gen. Abl. Brahmano D. II, 209; Vism. 205; SnA 177; Instr. Brahmanā D. I, 252; II, 239; Dh. 105, 230; Vism. 48, 405; DhA. II, 60; Acc. Brahmānaṃ D. II, 37; Voc. Brahme S. I, 138.—2. a brahma god, a happy & blameless celestial being, an inhabitant of the higher heavens (brahma-loka; in which to be reborn is a reward of great merit); Nom. sg. brahmā S. I, 142 (Baka br.); M. I, 327 (id.); A. IV, 83; PvA. 138 (°devatā for brahma°?); Gen. Abl. brahmuno S. I, 142, 155; Instr. brahmunā D. III, 147, 150 & brahmanā PvA. 98; Voc. sg. brahme M. I, 328. pl. Nom. brahmāno Miln. 13, 18 (where J. VI, 486 has Mahā-brahmā in id. p.); DhsA. 195; Gen. brahmānaṃ Vism. 2; Mhbv 151.—paccekabrahmā a br. by himself S. I, 149 (of the name of Tudu; cp. paccekabuddha).—sabrahmaka (adj.) including the brahma gods D. I, 62; A. II, 70; Vin. I, 11; DA. I, 174.

III. brahma (adj. -n.) (cp. brahmā II. 2; Vedic brahma° & Sk. brāhma) 1. holy, pious, brahmanic; (m.) a holy person, a brahmin — (adj.) J. II, 14 (br. vaṇṇa=seṭṭha vaṇṇa C.); KhA 151 (brahma-cariyaṃ= brahmaṃ cariyaṃ).—(m.) Acc. brahmaṃ Sn. 285; Voc. brahme (frequent) Sn. 1065 (=brahmā ti seṭṭhavacanaṃ SnA 592); J. II, 346; IV, 288; VI, 524, 532; Pv. I, 129 (=brāhmaṇa PvA. 66).—2. divine, as incorporating the highest & best qualities, sublime, ideal, best, very great (see esp. in cpds.), A. I, 132 (brahmā ti mātāpitaro etc.), 182; IV, 76.—3. holy, sacred, divinely inspired (of the rites, charms, hymns etc.) D. I, 96 (brahme mante adhiyitvā); Pv. II, 613 (mantaṃ brahmacintitaṃ) =brāhmaṇānaṃ atthāya brahmaṇā cintitaṃ) PvA. 97, 98).—Note. The compn form of all specified bases (I. II. III, ) is brahma°, and with regard to meaning it is often not to be decided to which of the 3 categories the cpd. in question belongs.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

brahma (ब्रह्म).—n (S) The divine substance or essence as well as cause of the universe. All existencies--the divine triad, gods and demigods, spirits, mankind, worlds and their animals and furniture--are the development or expansion of it, and are, after the consummation of periods, resumed into it; to be, after the lapse of periods of extinction or dormancy in Brahma, again projected into being apparently personal or individual, but actually mere emanation or figurate procession. These effluences, being from the really-subsisting Brahma, the substantive and undisputed entity, are real,--are not, as inexpert Vedantists represent them, ideal and illusory, the phantasmal conceptions of phantasmal thinkers, the deceptions of the darkness of dualism. This expansion then of Brahma (i. e. this universe) being real (real as the very substance of the spiritual and divine monad), the Maya or Illusion of Vedantism is to be understood as lying in the assumption by this expansion of the pretensions of a creation--in its presentation of itself, surely only to the poor being obedient to the inculcations of his senses, his understanding, his intuitions, and his nature, as subsisting distinctly, and as consisting of phenomena distinct and individual. This, even this, is the high doctrine of advaita or the virāṭadēha--Hindu and European Pantheism. 2 The four Vedas. 3 In comp. A Brahman. 4 Confusion and general pollution from disregard of the divisions of caste or of the distinction of clean and unclean. 5 brahma is freely used in the sense of Marvel, mystery, enigma, ravel or complication, any wondrous and inexplicable matter or thing. 6 m A country, Burmah. brahma miḷaṇēṃ-sāmpaḍaṇēṃ-hātīṃ lāgaṇēṃ-prāpta hōṇēṃ in. con. To find or obtain some transcendently wonderful or excellent thing.

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brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—m (S) Brahma, the first of the Hindu triad and the form of the Deity as the evolver, constructer, and fashioner of the universe. Brahma is not Creator, for existencies, throughout their manifestations, being but evolution or production, there is no Creation. See brahma 2 The twenty-fifth of the twenty-seven astronomical Yog.

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brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—m (Better baramā) A kind of auger or gimlet.

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brāhma (ब्राह्म).—a S Pertaining or relating to Brahma, or to a Brahman.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

brahma (ब्रह्म).—n The divine substance as well as cause of the universe. An enigma. brahma miḷaṇēṃ-sāmpaḍaṇēṃ Find or obtain some transcendantly wonderful thing.

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brahmā (ब्रह्मा).—m Brahma', the first of the Hindu triad.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Brahma (ब्रह्म).—The Supreme Spirit, the Absolute.

Derivable forms: brahmam (ब्रह्मम्).

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Brāhma (ब्राह्म).—a. (-hmī f.) [ब्रह्मण इदं तेन प्रोक्तं वा अण् टिलोपः (brahmaṇa idaṃ tena proktaṃ vā aṇ ṭilopaḥ)]

1) Relating to Brahman or the creator, or to the Supreme Spirit; R.13.6; Manusmṛti 2.4; एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति (eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṃ prāpya vimuhyati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.72.

2) Brahmanical, belonging to Brāhmaṇas; ब्राह्मं रथवरं युक्तमास्थाय सुधृतव्रतः (brāhmaṃ rathavaraṃ yuktamāsthāya sudhṛtavrataḥ) Rām. 2.5.4; न विशेषोऽस्ति वर्णानां सर्वं ब्राह्ममिदं जगत् (na viśeṣo'sti varṇānāṃ sarvaṃ brāhmamidaṃ jagat) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.188. 1.

3) Relating to sacred knowledge or study; ब्राह्मं वेदमधीयाना वेदाङ्गानि च सर्वशः (brāhmaṃ vedamadhīyānā vedāṅgāni ca sarvaśaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.156.5.

4) Prescribed by the Vedas, Vedic; scriptural; ब्राह्मस्य जन्मनः कर्ता (brāhmasya janmanaḥ kartā) Manusmṛti 2.15.

5) Holy, sacred, divine.

6) Presided over by Brahman as a मुहूर्त (muhūrta) (see brāhmamuhūrta), or a missile.

7) Fit for a divine state or godhead.

8) Belonging to the ब्रह्मलोक (brahmaloka); ददर्शाप्सरसं ब्राह्मीं पञ्चचूडामनिन्दिताम् (dadarśāpsarasaṃ brāhmīṃ pañcacūḍāmaninditām) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.38.3.

-hyaḥ 1 one of the eight forms of marriage in Hindu law, in which the bride decorated with ornaments is given away to the bridegroom, without requiring any gift or present from him (this is the best of the 8 forms); ब्राह्मो विवाह आहूय दीयते शक्त्यलंकृता (brāhmo vivāha āhūya dīyate śaktyalaṃkṛtā) Y.1.58; Manusmṛti 3.21,27.

2) Name of Nārada.

3) Quicksilver.

4) The duty or prescribed course of conduct of a king; आवृत्तानां गुरुकुलात् विप्राणां पूज्यको भवेत् । नृपाणामक्षयो ह्येष ब्राह्मो धर्मो विधीयते (āvṛttānāṃ gurukulāt viprāṇāṃ pūjyako bhavet | nṛpāṇāmakṣayo hyeṣa brāhmo dharmo vidhīyate) ||

-hmam 1 The part of the hand under the root of the thumb; अङ्गुष्ठमूलस्य तले ब्राह्मं तीर्थं प्रचक्षते (aṅguṣṭhamūlasya tale brāhmaṃ tīrthaṃ pracakṣate) Manusmṛti 2.59.

2) Holy or sacred study.

3) Name of a Purāṇa.

4) Name of the constellation Rohiṇī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Brāhma (ब्राह्म) or Vrāhma.—mfn. (hmaḥ-hmī-hmaṃ) Relating or belonging to Brahma, the Vedas, &c. n.

(-hyaṃ) 1. The part of the hand under the root of the thumb. 2. One of the eight forms of marriage, the presentation of the bride elegantly adorned, by the father to the bridgegroom whom he has invited. 3. The missile presided over by Brahma. m.

(-hmaḥ) Narada the sage and son of Brahma. f. (-hmī) One of the eight divine mothers of created beings, or the personified energies of the gods; the Sakti or energy of Brahma. 2. The goddess of speech, Saraswati. 3. The moon plant, (Asclepias acida.) 4. A sort of potherb, (Ruta graveolens. 5. A shrub, (Siphonanthus Indica.) 6. A sort of fish. 7. The asterism Rohini. 8. A she-frog. 9. A yellow-coloured ant. 10. The wife of a Brahman. E. brahma Brahma, &c. aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Brāhma (ब्राह्म).—i. e. brahman + a, I. adj., f. . 1. Relating to the Brāhmaṇas, brahmanical, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 33, 67; deposited with the sacerdotal class, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 82. 2. Relating to holy knowledge. 3. Relating to study, scriptural, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 157. 4. Prescribed by the Veda, 7, 2. 5. Relating to Brahman, 1, 68. 6. Fit for a divine state, 2, 28. 7. Epithet of a weapon, Chr. 40, 15. 8. also sbst. m. The name of the first nuptial form, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 27, and 21. 9. Relating, sacred to Brāhmī, the goddess of speech, 4, 92. Ii. m. Nārada, the son of Brahman. Iii. f. . 1. A wife espoused according to the Brāhma form, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 37. 2. The goddess of speech, the wife of Brahman. 3. The moon plant (Asclepias acida). Iv. n. The part of the hand under the root of the thumb.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Brahma (ब्रह्म).—[masculine] priest (only —°).

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Brāhma (ब्राह्म).—[feminine] ī pertaining to (the) Brahman i.e. divine, holy, spiritual; or pert. to Brahmans i.e. belonging or favourable to, consisting of the sacerdotal class, Brahmanical.

— [feminine] ī [Epithet] of Durgā or Sarasvatī; a woman married according to the Brahman rite.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Brāhma (ब्राह्म) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—son of Kṛṣṇa, father of Maheśvara (Viśvaprakāśa). Oxf. 187^b.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Brahma (ब्रह्म):—[from brahman] 1. brahma m. a priest (See asura-, ku-, mahābr)

2) [v.s. ...] n. the one self-existent Spirit, the Absolute, [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] 2. brahma in [compound] for brahman. - Observe that in the following derivatives the [nominative case] n. (Brahmă) is used for the impersonal Spirit and the [nominative case] m. (Brahmā) for the personal god.

4) Brāhma (ब्राह्म):—[from brahman] a mf(ī)n. ([from] brahman, for which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) relating to Brahmă or Brahmā, holy, sacred, divine, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

5) [v.s. ...] relating to sacred knowledge, prescribed by the Veda, scriptural, [Manu-smṛti ii, 150 etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] sacred to the Veda (with or [scilicet] tīrtha n. the part of the hand situated at the root of the thumb), [ii, 59 etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] relating or belonging to the Brāhmans or the sacerdotal class peculiar or favourable to or consisting of Brāhmans Brahmanical, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (with nidhi m. money bestowed on the sacerdotal class, [Manu-smṛti vii, 89])

8) [v.s. ...] belonging to an inhabitant of Brahmā’s world, [Jātakamālā]

9) [v.s. ...] m. (with or [scilicet] vivāha) Name of a form of marriage (in which the bride is bestowed on the bridegroom without requiring anything from him), [Manu-smṛti iii, 21 etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a man (son of Kṛṣṇa and father of Maheśvara), [Catalogue(s)]

11) [v.s. ...] [patronymic] of Nārada, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] of Kavi, [Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] of Ūrdhva-nābhan and Rakṣo-han, [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

14) [from brahman] n. sacred study, study of the Veda, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

15) [v.s. ...] (with or [scilicet] tīrtha) See above.

16) b brāhmaṇa etc. See p.741.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Brāhma (ब्राह्म):—(hmaṃ) 1. n. The part of the hand under the root of the thumb; a mode of marriage. m. Nārada. f. (hmā) Energy of Brahmā; Saraswati; moon-plant; brāhman’s wife. a. Belonging to Brahmā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Brahma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Brahmā (ब्रह्मा):—(nm) one of the trinity of mythological Hindu deities; the creator.

2) Brāhma (ब्राह्म) [Also spelled brahm]:—(a) pertaining or belonging to [brahma/brahmā/brāhmaṇa; -muhūrta] the small hours of the morning; -[vivāha] marriage solemnized according to the prescribed Hindu traditions wherein the daughter is given away in marriage to a suitable match; -[samāja] a socio-religious reformist movement founded by Raja Ram Mohan Rai of Bengal in the early nineteenth century.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Brahma (ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] the impersonal Supreme Being or Principle of the universe.

2) [noun] the hymns of vedas.

3) [noun] the vedas.

4) [noun] collectively, the Agamas a class of Hindu scriptures.

5) [noun] the sacred syllable Ōm.

6) [noun] the brāhmaṇa caste.

7) [noun] religious austerity.

8) [noun] the state of being student (esp. studying religious subjects, before being married).

9) [noun] the condition or fact of being unmarried or being under a vow to remain unmarried.

10) [noun] complete abstention from sexual intercourse.

11) [noun] emancipation of the soul; freedom from the cycle of birts and deaths.

12) [noun] the knowledge of the Supreme; self-knowledge.

13) [noun] a man having this knowledge.

14) [noun] the individual soul.

15) [noun] the sacred hymn of Gāyatri.

16) [noun] the chief priest of religious sacrifice.

17) [noun] Brahma, the Creator of the universe.

18) [noun] Satyalōka, the abode of Brahma.

19) [noun] any substance taken as food.

20) [noun] truth; fact.

21) [noun] the quality, status or condition of being a brāhmaṇa.

22) [noun] Břhaspati, the preceptor of gods.

23) [noun] the sun.

24) [noun] (pl.) seven progenitors of the human race.

25) [noun] Rudra, one of the formidable form of Śiva.

26) [noun] Indra, the lord of gods.

27) [noun] the moon.

28) [noun] fire or the Fire-God.

29) [noun] (astrol.) one of the twenty seven yōgas (astrological conjugation).

30) [noun] a person with intellectual interests or tastes or is engaged in intellectual work; an intellectual.

31) [noun] name of a demi-god.

32) [noun] (pros.) a metre having two syllables.

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Brāhma (ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮ):—

1) [adjective] of, relating to Brahma.

2) [adjective] holy; sacred; divine.

3) [adjective] relating to sacred knowledge; prescribed by the vedas; spiritual.

4) [adjective] relating or belonging to the brāhmaṇa community.

5) [adjective] relating to or prescribed by brāhmaṇas, the holy scriptures.

6) [adjective] (said of weapons) having Brahma as the presiding deity.

7) [adjective] relating to or originated from the heaven of Brahma.

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Brāhma (ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] a member of the highest or priestly, class among the Hindus; a brāhmaṇa.

2) [noun] Nārada, the celestial sage and son of Brahma.

3) [noun] the root of the thumb.

4) [noun] name of a purāṇa.

5) [noun] a form of a marriage in which the bride is bestowed on the bridegroom without requiring anything from him.

6) [noun] (astrol.) an auspicious moment or duration of the day, just before the sunrise.

7) [noun] (dance.) one of the movements on the ground, with one foot kept in the normal position, the other foot is brought up to the knee of the former, bent back and raised.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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