Druta, Drutā: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Druta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Drut.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Druta (द्रुत, “fast”) refers to one of six “ornaments”, or ‘figures of speech’ (alaṃkāra). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19, these six ornaments are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. These ornaments dictate the type of recitation, eg. druta and nīca should be used in the Terrible and the Odious sentiment.

(Uses of Druta): The fast note proceeds from the throat register, and is swift; it is to be used in women’s soothing children (lallana) refusal of lover’s overture (manmana), sexual passion, fear, cold, fever, panic, agitation, distressed and secret acts, pain and the like.

2) Druta (द्रुत, “quick”) refers to one of the three tempos (laya) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the totality of syllables penultimate to the yati, will indicate the tempo, and from the tempo the measure of these will change. A decrease of kalās should be made in other pāṇis. In the slow tempo, there should be one sannipāta, in the medium tempo two sannipātas, and in the quick tempo the number of sannipātas should be four. That which is indicated by this difference, is called the quick and the medium tempo, and the avapāṇi is dependent on a medium tempo. When the tālas of one kalā become the antarakalā played in quick tempo, then it is called the uparyuparipāṇi”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Druta (द्रुत).—lit. rapid; the vice of rapidity in utterance;a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recital when on account of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. cf. संदृष्टमेणीकृतमर्धकं द्रुतं विकीर्णमेताः स्वरद्रोषभा-वनाः । (saṃdṛṣṭameṇīkṛtamardhakaṃ drutaṃ vikīrṇametāḥ svaradroṣabhā-vanāḥ |) M. Bh. Ahnika 1 vart. 18.

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Drutā (द्रुता).—One of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance mentioned in the Pratisakhya works and quoted in the Mahabhasya; cf.तित्रो वृत्तीरुपदिशन्ति वाचो विलम्बितां मध्यमां च दुतां च । अभ्यासार्थे दुतां वृत्तिं प्रयोगार्थे तु मध्यमाम् । शिष्याणा-मुपदेशार्थे कुर्याद् वृत्ति विलम्बिताम् । (titro vṛttīrupadiśanti vāco vilambitāṃ madhyamāṃ ca dutāṃ ca | abhyāsārthe dutāṃ vṛttiṃ prayogārthe tu madhyamām | śiṣyāṇā-mupadeśārthe kuryād vṛtti vilambitām |) R. Pr. XIII. 18, 19; cf. ये हि द्रुतायां वृत्तौ वर्णा-स्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते मध्यमायां, ये मध्यमायां वर्णास्त्रिभागाधिकास्ते विलाम्बितायाम् । (ye hi drutāyāṃ vṛttau varṇā-stribhāgādhikāste madhyamāyāṃ, ye madhyamāyāṃ varṇāstribhāgādhikāste vilāmbitāyām |) M. Bh. on P. I.1.70, Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes ,1/3 rd time more in the मध्यमवृत्ति (madhyamavṛtti) than in the द्रुतवृत्ति (drutavṛtti), while in the विलम्बितवृत्ति (vilambitavṛtti) it takes 1/3 rd more than in the मध्यमवृत्ति (madhyamavṛtti). In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Druta, Vilambita and Madhyama the quantity of time in the proportion of 9:12:16 respectively.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Drutā (द्रुता) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Drutā has 24 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 4, 4, [ISI], 4, [ISI] and 4 mātrās.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Druta (द्रुत) refers to “molten” (i.e., molten gold), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 1), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Glory be to the Sun who is the author and the Soul of the Universe, the ornament of the firmament and who is enveloped in a thousand rays of the colour of molten gold [i.e., druta-kanaka]. Having correctly examined the substance of the voluminous works of the sages of the past, I attempt to write a clear treatise neither too long nor too short”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Druta (द्रुत) refers to “discharging one’s bow” [?], according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] Profiting by that opportune moment, Kāma, by means of his arrow Harṣaṇa delighted the moon-crest god Śiva who was nearby. O sage, in assistance to Kāma, Pārvatī reached the place near Śiva with emotions of love and accompanied by Spring. In order to make the trident-bearing lord take interest in her, Kāma drew his bow very carefully and discharged [i.e., druta] his flowery arrow on Him. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Druta (द्रुत) refers to “fast” (as opposed to Adruta—‘slow’), as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “Having recited [a particular mantra] along with [the practice of one of the] observances in accordance with the rules, and having bathed [at the end of the observance], one may recite that mantra for attaining supernatural powers. The skilled practitioner should do his recitation not too slowly, not indistinctly, not without taking [the meaning of what he recites] in, not too fast (adruta), not without counting, and not with his thoughts in confusion. [...]”.

2) Druta (द्रुत) or Drutarasa refers to the “liquefied (essence) (of Awareness)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 327–331).—Accordingly, “When, further, these elements of prāṇa, body, etc., [already] penetrated by the elixir of Awareness, are thoroughly permeated [by it], they are [then] ‘digested’ like the element of gold [is by mercury], by which [process] their purifier, the ‘liquefied essence’ (druta-rasa) [of Awareness] as it were, alone remains—then that too is the state Beyond the Fourth”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Druta (द्रुत) refers to “quickly” (digging a site), according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] touches [a particular part of] his body and [the site] is quickly (druta) dug to a depth up to that [particular part of the body] according to the rules, then there is the [extraneous thing corresponding to the omen]. [With regard to bodily sensations,] various omens of extraneous things [beneath the site] are taught. In this [short section], however, [the explanation is] just abridged. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

druta (द्रुत).—p S Dissolved, melted, fused, liquefied: also oozed, trickled, dropped.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Druta (द्रुत).—p. p. [dru-kta]

1) Quick, swift, speedy.

2) Flown, run away, escaped.

3) Melted, liquid, dissolved; जाता- नुरागो द्रुतचित्त उच्चैः (jātā- nurāgo drutacitta uccaiḥ) Bhāgavata 11.2.4.

4) Scattered, diffused.

5) Indistinct.

6) Moved, softened; द्रुतं करुणया (drutaṃ karuṇayā) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 5.28; see द्रु (dru).

-taḥ 1 A scorpion.

2) A tree.

3) A cat.

-tam 1 the act of running; अलं द्रुतेन वः शूरा इति द्रोणोऽभ्यभाषत (alaṃ drutena vaḥ śūrā iti droṇo'bhyabhāṣata) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.16.18.

2) A particular faulty pronunciation of vowels.

-tam ind. Quickly, swiftly, speedily, immediately.

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Druta (द्रुत).—See under द्रु (dru).

See also (synonyms): druti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druta (द्रुत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Quick or swift. 2. Melted, fused. 3. Liquid, fluid. 4. Flown, escaped, run away. 5. Scattered, diffused. m.

(-taḥ) A tree. n.

(-taṃ) Quick time, (in music.) adv. n.

(-taṃ) Quickly, swiftly. E. dru to go, affix kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druta (द्रुत).—[adjective] run, fled; speedy, quick ([neuter] [adverb], compar. taram†); fluid, melted (l.&[feminine]), wet with (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Druta (द्रुत):—[from dru] mfn. quick, speedy, swift, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] quickly or indistinctly spoken, [Gīta-govinda]

3) [v.s. ...] flown, run away or asunder, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] dissolved, melted, fluid, [Kāvya literature]

5) [v.s. ...] m. a scorpion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a tree (cf. druṇa and druma), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] n. a [particular] faulty pronunciation of vowels, [Patañjali]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Druta (द्रुत):—[(taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Quick; melted, flown. m. A tree. n. Quick time. adv. Quickly.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Druta (द्रुत) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dua.

[Sanskrit to German]

Druta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Druta (द्रुत) [Also spelled drut]:—(a) fast, fast moving, quick, swift; moved; melted; ~[gāti/gāmī] fast moving; quick, lightlegged.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Druta (ದ್ರುತ):—

1) [adjective] characterised by speed of motion; rapid; swift; speedy.

2) [adjective] that has run; gone away with a rapid pace.

3) [adjective] that is melted or dissolved.

4) [adjective] scattered in all directions; spread out; dispersed.

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Druta (ದ್ರುತ):—

1) [noun] = ದ್ರುಣ - [druna -] 1; 2.the speed, force or swiftness of motion.

2) [noun] speedy action or swift motion.

3) [noun] a long pole with a broad blade at one end used for propelling or steering a boat; an oar.

4) [noun] a period of time, in music, measured with two sub-units and kept with two different actions of the hand.

5) [noun] the fastest tempo in music.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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