Yaksha, aka: Yakṣa; 22 Definition(s)
Yaksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Yakṣa can be transliterated into English as Yaksa or Yaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Yakṣa (यक्ष) is a Sanskrit word referring to a group of deities. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.88-94, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).
As such, Brahmā assigned the Yakṣas, the Bhūtas, the Piśācas and the Guhyakas to the pillars of the Mattavāraṇī (two side corridors of the stage used for peripheral acting or partial entry/exit). He also assigned the Yakṣas, the Guhyakas and the Pannagas underneath the stage (raṅgapīṭha). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.
2) Yakṣas are to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Yakṣas).(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Yakṣa (यक्ष).—Description of a women of yaksa type;—A woman who sweats during sleep, loves quiet rest in bed or seat, is very intelligent, fearless and fond of wine, sweet scent and meat, takes delight on seeing the beloved one after a long time, feels gratitude to him, does not sleep for a long time, is said to have the nature of a yaksa.(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Yakṣa (यक्ष) and the rest (rākṣasas and piśāca) are lower classes of beings, ignorant of the law relating to what should and what should not be eaten; and it is they that eat meat (See the Manubhāṣya verse 11.95)(Source): Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Yakṣa (यक्ष) is the name of a deity to be invoked in a certain ritual, according to the Mānavagṛhyasūtra 2.14. Accordingly, the deity is prescribed when one suffers from possession by the Vināyakas, Śālakaṭaṅkaṭa, Kūṣmāṇḍarājaputra, Usmita and Devayajana. The Baijavāpagṛhyasūtra replaces the names of last two vināyakas with Mita and Sammita. According to R. C. Hazra in his Gaṇapati-worship, “this rite is both expiatory and propitiatory in nature and in which various things including meat and fish (both raw and cooked) and wine and cakes are to be offered”..
The gṛhya-sūtras are a branch of dharma-sūtras and refer to a category of Vedic literature dealing with domstic rites and rituals. The Mānava-gṛhya-sūtra belongs to the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda. The Baijavāpa-gṛhya-sūtra is known only through references to it in other works (eg., Vīramitrodaya-Saṃskāra).(Source): archive.org: The religion and philosophy of the Veda and the Upanishads (dharmashastra)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Yakṣa (यक्ष, “demigod-form”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Yakṣavināyaka, Yakṣagaṇeśa and Yakṣavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Yakṣa is positioned in the Western corner of the sixth circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Kotwalpura, CK 37 / 29”. Worshippers of Yakṣa will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “together with Sṛṣṭi, provides wealth and peace”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18667, Lon. 83.00545 (or, 25°11'12.0"N, 83°00'19.6"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Yakṣa, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.(Source): Wisdom Library: Skanda-purāṇa
Yakṣa (यक्ष).—General. A class of Semi-gods. There are chiefly three classes of inhabitants in Heaven:—Devas, Gaṇadevas and Upadevas. Gaṇadevas consist of the 12 Ādityas, 10 Viśvadevas, 8 Vasus, 36 Tuṣitas, 64 Ābhāsvaras, 49 Anilas 220 Mahārājikas, 12 Sādhyas and 11 Rudras.
Among the Upadevas there are 10 subdivisions. They are, Vidyādharas, Apsaras, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Piśācas, Guhyakas, Siddhas and Bhūtas. Origin. There are different views relating to the origin of the Yakṣas. In Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter l we find that the Yakṣas took birth after Brahmā’s birth from "Virāṭ Puruṣa's" aṇḍa. According to a statement in Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19, Yakṣas and Rākṣasas were born from Munī, the grand daughter of Kaśyapaprajāpati. Thus Yakṣas and Rākṣasas are related as brothers. In Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 7, there is another passage which says that Yakṣas are the progeny of the sage Pulastya. Other details.
i) Once Śukadeva sang the story of Mahābhārata to the Yakṣas. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 108).
(ii) Lakhs of Yakṣas remain in Kubera’s assembly, worshipping him. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 18).
(iii) There are Yakṣas in Brahmā’s assembly also. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 56).
(iv) Kubera is the King of Yakṣas. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 111, Verse 10).
(v) Bhīmasena once drove away Yakṣas and Rākṣasas. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 57).
(vi) On another occasion, Sunda and Upasunda defeated and persecuted the Yakṣas. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 208, verse 7). (See full article at Story of Yakṣa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Yakṣa (यक्ष).—A Rākṣasa and a son of Khaśā. As he wanted to eat his own mother, he got the name of Yakṣa; of four hands and four feet, a fearful figure wandering in the night in search of prey; took the form of Vasuruci and lived with the apsaras Krathusthalā in Nandana; she bore him a son Rajatanābha; went home in the Himālayas with the son, when Krathusthalā came to know of his birth as a Rākṣasa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 60, 100-17; 22. 14; 41. 30; 71. 111; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 160, 167.
1b) A son of Gāndinī.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 110.
1c) A semi-celestial group, usually of the class of demons; born of Viśvā and Kaśyapa;1 followers of Rudra (Śiva), their overlord; their lord, Kubera;2 milked the cowearth, with Vaiśravaṇa as the calf and āma as the vessel;3 worship the Barhiṣad manes;4 helped Vṛtra against Indra and went with Satī to Dakṣa's sacrifice;5 sport of;6 got mokṣa meditating on Hari;7 usurped the Ānarta kingdom of Kakudmi when he was absent at Brahmā's court;8 came with the gods to see Kṛṣṇa and saw Kṛṣṇa retiring to his own region;9 (see Puṇyajanas); vanquished by Rāvaṇa;10 worship the Pitṛs and ruin the śrāddha;11 their kingdom;12 their loka;13 the nails of Vāmana when he grew.14
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 13; VI. 8. 24; X. 6. 27; 62. 19; 85. 41; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 1-2; 35. 191; 36. 118; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 46.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 10. 5; XI. 16. 16; 23. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 8. 5.
- 3) Ib. 10. 22.
- 4) Ib. 15. 4.
- 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 10. 20; IV. 4. 4, 34.
- 6) Ib. X. 90. 9.
- 7) Ib. VII. 7. 50.
- 8) Ib. IX. 3. 36.
- 9) Ib. VII. 8. 38; XI. 31. 2.
- 10) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 255.
- 11) Ib. III. 10. 38, 111; 11. 81; IV. 2. 26; 14. 4; 20. 50; 30. 9; 33. 75.
- 12) Matsya-purāṇa 23. 39; 121. 48.
- 13) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 39. 56.
- 14) Matsya-purāṇa 246. 54.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Yakṣa (यक्ष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.7, I.65, I.61.1) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Yakṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Yakṣa (यक्ष):—In Vedic hinduism, the Yakṣas represent a group of mysterious beings, with Kubera as their chief. They are also known as Guhyaka (‘the secret-ones’) and are often associated with Rākṣasas (‘the night-wanderers’) and Nāgas (‘serpents’). Kubera is the Vedic God of wealth presiding over all earthly treasures.(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Yakshas are sometimes considered to be a class of the Gandharvas, but are definitely of a more malevolent disposition. They are the sons of the sage Kashyapa and Khasa. In many stories, they harrass mortals, chiefly by enchanting forests, lakes and rivers and killing any human who ventures near them.
They are more closely related to the Asuras because of their dark deeds. They are not immortal, and definitely not worshipped. They are mostly the enemies of mankind. They are very long lived and possess magical powers, although they can be defeated by men without magic.
The Yakshas are said to be very wealthy. Their king Kubera is said to be the wealthiest of all beings.(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Yaksha is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots. They appear in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist mythology. In Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist mythology, the yakṣa has a dual personality. On the one hand, a yakṣa may be an inoffensive nature-fairy, associated with woods and mountains; but there is also a darker version of the yakṣa, which is a kind of ghost (bhuta) that haunts the wilderness and waylays and devours travelers, similar to the rakṣasas.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Yakṣa (यक्ष) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XX). Accordingly, “He knows that a jealous man who loves to dispute but who can give fine houses (gṛha), beds and seats (śayāsana), clothing (vastra) and food (āhāra), will be reborn among the Yakṣas who fly about in palaces and temples where they enjoy all kinds of pleasures and material advantages”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
"Yaksha" is a Sanskrit word which means "speedy" (jie yi). It also means "courageous and strong" (yong jian). Yakshas are a kind of ghost. There are three main types of ghost:
- Earth-travelling ghosts;
- Flying ghosts;
- Space-travelling ghosts.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
in popular belief, a kind of ghost, goblin or ogre. See Yakkha.(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)
The demons in the lower realm, like the Ghost Realm. They are evil, malignant and violent. They live on earth or in air.(Source): Buddhist Door: Glossary
In Buddhist literature, the yakṣa are the attendants of Vaiśravaṇa, the Guardian of the Northern Quarter, a beneficent god who protects the righteous. The term also refers to the Twelve Heavenly Generals who guard Bhaiṣajyaguru, the Medicine Buddha.
According to the Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya encountered the royalty of the Yakkhas. King Maha Kalasena, Queen Gonda on the celebration of the marriage of their daughter Princess Polamitta in the Yakkha capital of Lankapura and conquered them. Lankapura may have been in Arithra or Vijithapura. The Yakkhas served as loyal subjects with the Vijiyan dynasty and the Yakkha chieftain sat on equal height to the Sri Lankan leaders on festival days.(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Yakṣa (यक्ष) is the shorter name of Yakṣadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Yakṣasamudra (or simply Yakṣa), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.
Yakṣa is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.
2) Yakṣa (यक्ष).—The yakṣas are a group of deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). Their color is black and their tree is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa).
There are twelve types of yakṣas in Jaina cosmology:
The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).
2) Yakṣa (यक्ष) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to the Digambara tradition of Jainism, while Śvetāmbara does not recognize this class. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).
The deities such as the Yakṣas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Yakṣa (यक्ष).—A class of vyantara gods;—According to the Tiloyapaṇṇatti, they are divided into 12 kinds:
Their Caitya-tree is the Banyan tree.
According to the Śvetāmbaras, they are divided into 13 groups:
- Vanādhipati (Dhanādhipati in Saṃgrahaṇī).
They are beautiful to look at and possess well-proportioned limbs, serene in appearance, wearing shining kirīṭamukuṭas, and other ornaments. Black in complexion, they have the Banyan-tree on their dhvajas.(Source): Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Yakṣa (यक्ष) refers to the “treasure-keeper” class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Who are the lords amongst the treasure-keeper (yakṣa) class of peripatetic (forest) celestial beings? Pūrṇabhadra and Maṇibhadra are the two lords in the treasure-keeper peripatetic celestial beings.(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
yakṣa (यक्ष).—m (S) A class of demigods or minor deities, or an individual of it. They are employed esp. in the care of the gardens and treasures of kubēra.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
yakṣa (यक्ष).—m A class of demigods. yakṣiṇī f A female of the class of demigods.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Yakṣa (यक्ष).—[yakṣyate, yakṣ-karmaṇi ghañ]
1) Name of a class of demigods who are described as attendants of Kubera, the god of riches, and employed in guarding his gardens and treasures; यक्षोत्तमा यक्षपतिं धनेशं रक्षन्ति वै प्रासगदादिहस्ताः (yakṣottamā yakṣapatiṃ dhaneśaṃ rakṣanti vai prāsagadādihastāḥ) Hariv.; Me.68; Bg.1.23;11.22.
2) A kind of ghost or spirit; तन्न व्यजानन्त किमिदं यक्षमिति (tanna vyajānanta kimidaṃ yakṣamiti) Ken.3.2.
3) Name of the palace of Indra.
4) Name of Kubera.
6) A dog.
-kṣam 1 A ghost.
3) Anything honoured.
-kṣī 1 A female Yakṣa.
2) Name of Kubera's wife.
3) The Yakṣa. class; अल्पवीर्या यदा यक्षी श्रूयते मुनिपुंगव (alpavīryā yadā yakṣī śrūyate munipuṃgava) Rām.1.25.2.
Derivable forms: yakṣaḥ (यक्षः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 57 books and stories containing Yaksha or Yakṣa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 11 - Summary Description of the Mahapurusa < [Canto XII - The Age of Deterioration]
Chapter 23 - The Song of the Avanti Brahmana < [Canto XI - General History]
Chapter 10 - Dhruva Maharaja’s Fight With the Yaksas < [Canto IV - The Creation of the Fourth Order]
Village Folk-tales of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), vol. 1-3 (by Henry Parker)
Story 16 - How A Yaka And A Man Fought < [Part I - Stories told by the Cultivating Caste and Vaeddas]
Kena Upanishad (by Swami Nirvikarananda)
The Mahabharata - Third Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Section CCCXI < [Aranya Parva]
Section CCCXII < [Aranya Parva]
Section CCCX < [Aranya Parva]
A study of the philosophy of Jainism (by Deepa Baruah)