Purusha, Puruṣa, Pūruṣa: 52 definitions


Purusha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Puruṣa and Pūruṣa can be transliterated into English as Purusa or Purusha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Purush.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Purāṇas

Puruṣa (पुरुष, “spirit”) and Prakṛti (matter) are two basic factors essential for production of the Prapañca (the visible world which is the scene of manifold action) as man and woman are for the production of progeny. From Puruṣa (male), Prakṛti (female) originated and then they together created the Prapañca.

Puruṣa is the vital sentient Truth that sets in action the entire Prapañca. This Puruṣa is Supreme among the Supreme, beyond human comprehension, without form, colour, name, without origin, growth, change or end, residing in himself and that which can only be imagined to exist. This puruṣa has got two different forms, the visible and the invisible and also a third imaginary one, time. The sages call Puruṣa the Sūkṣmaprakṛti ('The subtle all-pervading spirit, the supreme soul'). Thus Sūkṣmaprakṛti which cannot be measured by any unit of measure, is not attached to anything, is imperishable, is without decrepitude, is immovable and is without the senses of sound, touch smell or form. This Prakṛti endowed with the three guṇas, without beginning or end is eternal, is the root cause of this Prapañca. This Prakṛti pervaded over Prapañca from the beginning of the great Deluge to the beginning of creation.

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Puruṣa (पुरुष) falls under the category of domesticated animals (grāmya-paśu) according to the Vāyu Purāṇa.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—See under Prakṛti.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to the “cosmic man or being” while Prakṛti refers to “cosmic nature”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “[...] O foremost among sages, ordinary parents bestow hidden treasures to the son who renders special service. Hence a devotee shall worship the phallic emblem in the manner of mother and father (pitṛ-mātṛ) for the acquisition of the hidden great bliss. Bharga is Puruṣa (Cosmic man or Being) and Bhargā is Prakṛti (Cosmic Nature). Puruṣa is of hidden latent conception and Prakṛti is of manifest inner conception. Since it is the father who conceives first, the Puruṣa has the primordial conception. The unification of Puruṣa and Prakṛti is the first birth. Its manifestation in the Prakṛti is called the second birth. The creature, dead even as it is born, takes up its birth from the Puruṣa”.

2) Puruṣa (पुरुष) is used as an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.15. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On arrival there, after paying respects to the lord [Śiva] with great excitement we lauded Him with various hymns with palms joined in reverence. The Devas said: [...] Obeisance to Thee, O lord, from whom the mobile and the immobile beings have originated. Obeisance to the great Puruṣa, Maheśa, the supreme Īśa [viz., Maheśa] and the great Ātman”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Puruṣa (पुरुष).—As Virāṭ; subject of meditation; ety. of;1 the invisible principle;2 as dwelling in Hṛdākāśa;3 as issuing from the primordial aṇḍa (egg);4 as yajña;5 course of further cosmic evolution from Puruṣa;6 first avatār of Para Iśvara and Prakṛti;7 avatārs of Puruṣa;8 as Varāha;9 His energy;10 identified with Suparṇa;11 invoked by cowherds;12 personated as Kṛṣṇa and Rāma;13 celebrated by Akrūra.14 Śiva according to the Sānkhyas;15 primaeval male from whom the universe was evolved; supposed to be the 25th tatva according to one school and the 26th including Īśvara according to the other;16 constitutes twenty-five truths;17 description of.18

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 1; II. 1. 25-39; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 76.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 16. 37; 22. 14; 24. 4-5.
  • 3) Ib. II. 2. 8-13; Vāyu-purāṇa 4. 44.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 5. 35-42.
  • 5) Ib. II. 6. 1-27.
  • 6) Ib. II. 6. 28-31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 2. 14-15, 60-65; VI. 4. 46.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 41. Vāyu-purāṇa 5. 20, 29, 32.
  • 8) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 41-5.
  • 9) Ib. II. 7. 1; 10. 10; Ib. III. 26. 21-22; VI. 13. 18.
  • 10) Ib. XII. 4. 22.
  • 11) Ib. XII. 11. 19.
  • 12) Ib. X. 6. 23.
  • 13) Ib. X. 38. 15 and 32.
  • 14) Ib. X. 40. (whole).
  • 15) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 36, 39.
  • 16) Matsya-purāṇa 3. 27-8.
  • 17) Ib. 60. 3; 266. 52; 274. 62.
  • 18) Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 62-7.

1b) One of the names in the fifth Marut gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 97. Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 76; 67. 128; 102. 117.

1c) A dānava, killed by Sampadīśa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 16; IV. 28. 38 and 101.

1d) A son of Añjanāvatī an elephant.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 343.

1e) A class of people in Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 22.

1f) Minor officials to be appointed in places according to qualifications.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 215. 45.

2) Pūruṣa (पूरुष).—A son of Cākṣuṣa Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 5. 7.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Puruṣa (पुरुष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIV.8.14, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Puruṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism

Purusa: The limited individual and the subject with five straitjackets 7-11. Trika philosophy depicts, "Purusa is Siva, who subjected Himself to the Kancukas" according to Tagare. Siva limits Himself so much to become Purusa that it is like a huge mountain reducing itself to an atom (anu). Anu has no spatial connotation but is a referent to Siva's limited capacity in Purusa as avowed before. Just imagine a professor of English literature suffering a stroke, becoming limited in memory and ability and relearning his alphabets in his rehabilitation. The individual soul is the watered-down version of Sadasiva (Tattva 3), where in he is the enjoyer or experiencer and the subjective manifestation of Aham asmi idam (I am the experience) of Vidya Tattva. These limitations are Antahstha, which is the internal state of limitation, a condition wherein the Kancukas stand in the way.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to a “man”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 9.—Accordingly, “[...] [The Lord spoke]:—Wearing half the dress of a woman and half [that of] a man (puruṣaardhena puruṣastathā), on one half, he should place [feminine] tresses, on one half, he should wear matted locks. On one half, there should be a forehead mark; on one half a [forehead] eye. A ring [should be] in one ear; a [pendant] ear-ornament in one ear. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Purusha in Yoga glossary
Source: Centre for Yoga Studies: Āyurveda & Yoga – The Pañca Bhūta

Puruṣa is that which is absent in a dead body. The body, the brain and the senses are still there but are lifeless because Puruṣa is absent.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to the “cosmic man”, according to the Muṇḍakopaniṣad 2.1.2-3:.—Accordingly, while describing Brahma and the mind: “For, the [cosmic] man (puruṣa) is divine, formless, outside and inside [of everything], unborn, breathless, mindless (amanas), radiant and higher than the highest imperishable one”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Ancient Indian Wisdom: Vāstu-puruṣa-maṇḍala

Puruṣa Generally meaning ‘person’ is the word of Vedic origin and derived from the Sāṅkhya ideology, to distinguish the principle of life and consciousness from inanimate but evolving Prakrti (Lakshmi-tantra 16,15). In the traditional texts, the word signifies godhead, usually Viṣṇu. Etymologically, the meaning would be “the spirit that is hidden in the body” (puri śete), the spirit that fills the universe and makes it complete (Pratima-kosha, P.88). In the Pāñcaratra texts, Puruṣa is mentioned as one of the five ‘powers’ of godhead (pañca-sakti: pārameśṭhi, puruṣa, viśva, nivṛtti, and sarva). Purusha is the power that manifests itself as the world (jaganmayi) (cf. Nāradiya-saṃhitā, 15, 122).

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Puruṣa (पुरुष) is another name for Moraṭā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 3.92-93 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. Moraṭa is identified variously as either a) the root of the sugercane (Ikṣumūla), b) Aṅkolapuṣpā (Alangium lamarckii), c) Hastikarṇa-Palāśā or as a synonym of Mūrvā (both identified as Leea macrophylla), d) Maerua arenaria, e) Moīhar (Maerua arenaria). The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Puruṣa and Moraṭā, there are a total of eight  Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Puruṣa (पुरुष) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Puruṣa (पुरुष, “person—the living being”), in Āyurveda, is regarded as composed of six components—five Mahābhūtas (matter) and self (spirit). The gross human body along with its different organs and parts, the sense organs and the sense objects are all composed of five Mahābhūtas, e.g. ākāśa, vāyu, agni, ap and pṛthivi. The outer universe also has the same material composition and thus there is similarity between it and the material frame and skeleton of the living being. Though every material is composed of all the five mahābhūtas, there is predominance of one of them. The organs and substances are classified accordingly. (Caraka-saṃhitā Śārīrasthāna 7.16, Sūtrasthāna 26.11)

Source: Hand book of domestic medicine: Basic principles of Āyurveda

Ātma when joins with Pañca Mahābhūta then the matter assumes life and the body is termed as Puruṣa. In Āyurveda the term Puruṣa is specifically used for human beings. Thus Pañca Mahābhūta are the basic elements required for the formation of all the bodily tissues and sensory and motor organs including mind.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Puruṣa (पुरुष):—[puruṣaḥ] The soul . 2. the living body; 3. Male

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

[«previous next»] — Purusha in Kosha glossary
Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa, volume 2

Puruṣa (पुरुष) has been equated with loka by Caraka; whatever obtains in the puruṣa, also obtains in loka. Here puruṣa could be identified with the human being as a type and loka with vegetable and animal life.

context information

Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (samkhya)

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—The word puruṣa is used in the Gītā in four distinct senses, firstly, in the sense of puruṣottama, or God; secondly, in the sense of a person; and the Gītā distinctly speaks of the two other puruṣas as kṣara (changeable) and akṣara (unchangeable). The kṣara is all living beings, whereas the akṣara is changeless. It is this higher self (uttama-puruṣa), different from the other puruṣa and called also paramātman, that pervades the three worlds and upholds them as their deathless God.

Source: Wikipedia: Samkhya

Puruṣa (पुरुष, “consciousness”) is the transcendental self or pure consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable through other agencies, above any experience by mind or senses and beyond any words or explanations. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness”. Puruṣa is neither produced nor does it produce. It is held that unlike Advaita-vedānta and like Purva-mīmāṃsā, Sāṃkhya believes in plurality of the puruṣas.

Source: China Buddhism Encyclopedia: Sāṃkhya

Puruṣa (पुरुष) originally meant “person,” and is used in the Ṛg Veda to signify the primordial, cosmic Person from whom the universe is created. In Sāṃkhya puruṣa signifies the observer, the “witness”. Prakṛti includes all the cognitive, moral, psychological, emotional, sensorial and physical aspects of reality. It is often mistranslated as “matter” or “nature”—in non-Sāṃkhyan usage it does mean “essential nature”—but that distracts from the heavy Sāṃkhyan stress on prakṛti’s cognitive, mental, psychological and sensorial activities.

Samkhya book cover
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—A grammatical term in the sense of 'person:' cf. करोतिः पचादीनां सर्वान् कालान् सर्वान् पुरुषान्सर्वाणि वचनान्यनु-वर्तते, भवतिः पुनर्वर्तमानकालं चैकत्वं च (karotiḥ pacādīnāṃ sarvān kālān sarvān puruṣānsarvāṇi vacanānyanu-vartate, bhavatiḥ punarvartamānakālaṃ caikatvaṃ ca). These persons or Purușas are described to be three प्रथम, मध्यम (prathama, madhyama) and उत्तम (uttama) corresponding to the third second and first persons respectively in English Grammar; cf. also Nir. VII. l and 2.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Chāndogya Upaniṣad

Puruṣa (पुरुष) means “one who covers the whole world”. A puruṣa is a person who has full control of himself, who has withdrawn himself totally from the world and has gone through the strictest austerities.

Vedanta book cover
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to “enjoyer;refers to either the living entity or the Supreme Lord”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to:—The Supreme Personality of Godhead; the primeval being as the soul and original source of the universe, the Supreme Being; the animating principle in living beings, the soul, spirit as opposed to prakṛti, or matter; a male or mankind. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to the “individual soul”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The gross forms of consciousness pervade the lower principles that range from Earth up to the individual soul (puruṣa) and beyond to the principles associated with Māyā that condition it. Above, subtle consciousness pervades the pure principles beginning with Pure Knowledge (śuddhavidyā) which is the Transmental ‘with parts’ (sakala) that sustains them all. It contains the six phases of Unstruck Sound, beginning with Pure Knowledge. [...]

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Purūṣa (पुरूष) refers to a “man”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It also treats of the prediction of events from the flight of the kañjana and from the appearance of various abnormal phenomena, of expiatory ceremonies; of miscellaneous planetary phenomena; of ghṛta-kambala; of the royal sword; of paṭa; of the features of a house cock, a cow, a sheep, a horse, an elephant, a man [i.e., purūṣa] and a woman. It also treats of the treatment of women; of moles in the body; of injuries to shoes and clothes; of hairy fans; of walking sticks: of beds and seats; of lamplight; of tooth brush and the like”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Puruṣa (पुरुष), or Pūruṣa, is the generic term for ‘man’ in the Rigveda and later. Man is composed of five parts according to the Atharvaveda, or of six according to the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, or of sixteen, or of twenty, or of twenty-one, or of twenty-four, or of twenty-five, all more or less fanciful enumerations. Man is the first of animals, but also essentially an animal (see Paśu). The height of a man is given in the Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra as four Aratnis (‘cubits’), each of two Padas (‘feet’), each of twelve Aṅgulis (‘ finger’s breadths’); and the term Puruṣa itself is found earlier as a measure of length.

Puruṣa is also applied to denote the length of a man’s life, a ‘generation’; the ‘pupil’ in the eye; and in the grammatical literature the ‘person’ of the verb.

2) Pūruṣa (पूरुष) has in several passages the sense of ‘menial’ or ‘dependent’, like the English ‘man’.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Purusha is the primordial man, extolled in the PurushaSuktam [R.V.10.90]. These verses describe the greatness of this primeval man, who was sacrificed as an offering to himself. After the sacrifice, various parts of creation sprang from his body parts. From his eyes Surya was formed. From various parts of his body, the four Varnas who formed the race of men came forth.

Source: Manblunder: Hinduism

Puruṣa is in the form of a mental sheath or cosmic mind (manomaya - consisting of spirit; this is not mamayakośa, the mental sheath in the subtle body covering the soul).

Source: China Buddhism Encyclopedia: Hinduism

Puruṣa (पुरुष) is used in the Ṛg Veda to signify the primordial, cosmic Person from whom the universe is created (10.90, Puruṣa Sūkta). Ṛg Veda I.24.7 says, “Two birds ... inseparable companions, have found refuge in the same sheltering tree. One incessantly eats from the peepal tree; the other, not eating, just looks on.” This image of an inseparable dyad, one part actively engaging its appetites and appropriational desires, and the other passively observing the activity of the first part, prefigures the notion of puruṣa and prakṛti.

Source: Institute of Buddhist Studies: Buddhist Forum, Volume 4 (hinduism)

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—The Ṛg-veda (X.90.1-16) contains a creation myth in which a primordial being known as the puruṣa (‘Man’) is sacrificed by the gods to produce a new world.

The puruṣa is described there in these terms:

“The puruṣa has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. He pervades the earth everywhere and extends beyond for ten fingers’ breadth. The puruṣa himself is all this, whatever has been and whatever is to be… Al. him; three quarters are the immortal in heaven.”

The sacrifice of the puruṣa is then performed by the gods, sādhyas and sages.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to the “men”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] All people, women, men (puruṣa), boys and girls, cattle, horses, mares, buffaloes, elephants, camels, donkeys and so on became delighted by comfort. That lotus lake had an expansion of two yojanas and [a depth of] a fathom all around in the four directions. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Tibetan Buddhism)

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to a “man” (i.e., “a human being”), according to verse 14.24bd-27 of the Laghuśaṃvara, an ancient Buddhist Yoginī Tantra.—Accordingly, [while describing the Siddhi of speech]: “The Sādhaka [who has] the Siddhi of speech can certainly attract a king or queen by [merely] thinking [it]. He quickly controls gods, demons and men. When angry, he can kill with his speech and drive away his adversary. The practitioner can thus effect a curse with his speech. And he can stop a river, a cart, a machine [like a water-wheel,] the ocean, elephants and horses, clouds, a man (puruṣa) or bird merely by means of his speech. He achieves everything which he desires by his speech”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara traditions. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.

The deities such as the Puruṣas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to a unity of measurement corresponding to 120 aṅgula (roughly 2.50m), and represents a Jaina technical term mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Puruṣa (पुरुष) refers to “men”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Being frightened by the deceit of the breath, the living embryo of men [com.—of men (puruṣāṇāṃ)] that is taken hold of by the fanged enemy that is destruction goes out like a young doe in the forest. O shameless one, if you are not able to protect this wretched [embryo] which is obtained gradually [by death] then you are not ashamed to delight in pleasures in this life”.

Synonyms: Puṃs.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Puruṣa.—(IE 8-3), same as Rāja-puruṣa, ‘royal officer or agent.’ (HD) an inferior servant (Arthaśāstra, II. 5) or a bailiff attached to a court of justice (as in Bṛhaspati). See Hist. Dharm., Vol. III, p. 278. Note: puruṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Purusha [पुरुष] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Calophyllum inophyllum L. from the Clusiaceae (Garcinia) family. For the possible medicinal usage of purusha, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Purusha in India is the name of a plant defined with Alpinia galanga in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Hellenia alba Willd. (among others).

2) Purusha is also identified with Grewia asiatica.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London (1812)
· Enum. Pl. Javae (1827)
· Species Plantarum. (1797)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)
· Lingnan Science Journal (1927)
· Flora of the Southeastern United States (1913)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Purusha, for example diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

puruṣa (पुरुष).—m (S) A man generally or individually, a male. 2 An adult. 3 A male among fruit trees. 4 The masculine gender. 5 A man's height or stature as a measure. 6 Used freely for a male ancestor or a male elderly relation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

puruṣa (पुरुष).—m A man. An adult. A man's height or as a measure. In Gen. Person.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—[puri dehe śete śī-ḍa pṛṣo° Tv.; pur-agragamane kuṣan Uṇādi-sūtra 4.74]

1) A male being, man; अर्थतः पुरुषो नारी या नारी सार्थतः पुमान् (arthataḥ puruṣo nārī yā nārī sārthataḥ pumān) Mṛcchakaṭika 3.27; Manusmṛti 1.32;7.17;9.2; R.2.41.

2) Men, mankind.

3) A member or representative of a generation.

4) An officer, functionary, agent, attendant, servant.

5) The height or measure of a man (considered as a measure of length); द्वौ पुरुषौ प्रमाणमस्य सा द्विपुरुषा-षी परिखा (dvau puruṣau pramāṇamasya sā dvipuruṣā-ṣī parikhā) Sk.

6) The soul; द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च (dvāvimau puruṣau loke kṣaraścākṣara eva ca) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 15.16 &c.

7) The Supreme Being, God (soul of the universe); पुरातनं त्वां पुरुषं पुराविदः (purātanaṃ tvāṃ puruṣaṃ purāvidaḥ) (viduḥ) Śiśupālavadha 1.33; R.13.6.

8) A person (in grammar); प्रथम- पुरुषः (prathama- puruṣaḥ) the third person, मध्यमपुरुषः (madhyamapuruṣaḥ) the second person, and उत्तमपुरुषः (uttamapuruṣaḥ) the first person, (this is the strict order in Sk.).

9) The pupil of the eye.

1) (In Sāṅ. phil.) The soul (opp. prakṛti); according to the Sāṅkhyas it is neither a production nor productive; it is passive and a looker-on of the Prakṛti; cf. त्वामामनन्ति प्रकृतिं पुरुषार्थप्रवर्तिनीम् (tvāmāmananti prakṛtiṃ puruṣārthapravartinīm) Kumārasambhava 2.13 and the word सांख्य (sāṃkhya) also.

11) The soul, the original source of the universe (described in the puruṣasūkta); सहस्रशीर्षः पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् (sahasraśīrṣaḥ puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt) &c.

12) The Punnāga tree.

13) Name of the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh signs of the zodiac.

14) The seven divine or active principles of which the universe was formed; तेषामिदं तु सप्तानां पुरुषाणां महौजसाम् (teṣāmidaṃ tu saptānāṃ puruṣāṇāṃ mahaujasām) Manusmṛti 1.19.

-ṣī A woman.

-ṣam An epithet of the mountain Meru.

Derivable forms: puruṣaḥ (पुरुषः).

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Pūruṣa (पूरुष).—= पुरुष (puruṣa) q. v.; Bv.1.75.

Derivable forms: pūruṣaḥ (पूरुषः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. A man generally or individually, a male, man-kind. 2. Representative of generation. 3. An official, a functionary. 4. The height of a man considered as a measure of length. 5. The pupil of the eye. 6. A person, (in gram.) 7. The soul. 8. God, the Supreme Being. 9. Vishnu. 10. Brahma. 11. Life, the living principle. 12. An atom. 13. A follower of the Sank'hya philosophy, who believes in the twenty-fifth creation of the Sankhya philosophy, the soul which according to them is neither a production nor a productive. 14. A friend. 15. A sort of tree: see punnāga. 16. A sort of tree, commonly Tila or Tilaka. n.

(-ṣaṃ) The mountain Meru. E. pura the body, or ṣas to abide, aff. ka, and the vowel changed; or pur to precede, Unadi aff. kuṣan; also purūṣa.

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Pūruṣa (पूरुष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) Man, male, mankind. E. pūr to be full, (the world,) aff. uṣan; it is also written, puruṣa &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—and sometimes pūru- ṣa, I. m. 1. A man generally or individually, a male, mankind, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 32. 2. Punishment personified, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 17. 3. An attendant, a functionary, 8, 43. 4. The first man, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 51. 5. The soul, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 194. 6. The universal soul, the supreme Being, Mārk. P. 26, 21; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 11. 7. A principle, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 19. 8. A tree, Rottleria tinctoria. 9. A proper name. Ii. f. ṣī, A female, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 24, 17. Iii. n.(?). A name of the mountain Meru.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puruṣa (पुरुष).—(pūruṣa) [masculine] man, human being, male, person, individual of a cert. generation; man = hero; man = servant, attendant; official, agent; the primal man or spirit; the life-giving principle in man and other beings; the supreme spirit or soul of the universe. —[feminine] puruṣī a woman.

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Pūruṣa (पूरुष).—v. puruṣa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puruṣa (पुरुष):—m. (mc. also pūr; [probably] [from] √pṝ and connected with puru, pūru ifc. f(ā). , rarely f(ī). ; cf. [Pāṇini 4-i, 24]) a man, male, human being ([plural] people, mankind), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) a person, (pumān puruṣaḥ, a male person, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Manu-smṛti]; daṇḍaḥp, punishment personified, [Manu-smṛti]; [especially] grammatical [person]; with prathama, madhyama, uttama = the 3rd, 2nd, 1st [person] [Nirukta, by Yāska; Pāṇini]), an officer, functionary, attendant, servant, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. tat-p)

3) a friend, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) a follower of the Sāṃkhya Philosophy (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) a member or representative of a race or generation, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

6) the height or measure of a man (= 5 Aratnis = 120 Aṅgulas), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Śulba-sūtra; Varāha-mihira]

7) the pupil of the eye, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

8) (also with nārāyaṇa) the primaeval man as the soul and original source of the universe (described in the Puruṣa-sūkta q.v.), [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

9) the personal and animating principle in men and other beings, the soul or spirit, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

10) the Supreme Being or Soul of the universe (sometimes with para, parama, or uttama; also identified with Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Śiva and Durgā), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

11) (in Sāṃkhya) the Spirit as passive and a spectator of the Prakṛti or creative force, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 82 etc.]

12) the, ‘spirit’ or fragrant exhalation of plants, [Ṛg-veda x, 51, 8]

13) (with sapta) Name of the divine or active principles from the minute portions of which the universe was formed, [Manu-smṛti i, 19]

14) Name of a Pāda in the Mahā-nāmnī verses, [Lāṭyāyana]

15) of the Ist, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th signs of the zodiac, [Jyotiṣa]

16) of a son of Manu Cākṣuṣa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

17) of one of the 18 attendants of the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [plural] men, people (cf. above)

19) Name of the Brāhmans of Krauñca-dvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

20) (with pañca) Name of 5 princely personages or miraculous persons born under [particular] constellations, Var

21) Rottleria Tinctoria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) Clerodendrum Phlomoides, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) m or n. = puruṣaka m. n., [Śiśupāla-vadha v, 56 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

24) n. (!) Name of mount Meru, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) Pūruṣa (पूरुष):—[from pūru] m. (mc.) = puruṣa, [Ṛg-veda]; etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puruṣa (पुरुष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. A man; the soul; Supreme Being; atom; friend. n. The mountain Meru.

2) Pūruṣa (पूरुष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. Man, male.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Puruṣa (पुरुष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Purisa, Purisāa, Porusa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Purusha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Purusha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Puruṣa (पुरुष) [Also spelled purush]:—(nm) a man; virile man; person (in Grammar: [uttama purūṣa] first person; [madhyama purūṣa] second person; [anya purūṣa] third person); husband; (a) male; ~[keśarī/kesarī/śārdūla/siṃha] a lion-like man; virile and valorous man; the most valorous amongst man; ~[tā/tva] manhood, manliness, virility masculinity, potency; —[purātana] the ancient, old man —Lord Vishnu; —[maithuna] sodomy; ~[vat] manliness; virile, masculine; ~[vācaka] personal; •[sarvanāma] personal pronoun; —[sūkta] a famous [sūkta] of the [ṛgveda].

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Puruṣa (ಪುರುಷ):—

1) [noun] a human being.

2) [noun] the human race; mankind.

3) [noun] an adult male human being.

4) [noun] a man as related to a woman whom he has married to; a husband.

5) [noun] a measure of depth equal to the height of a normal man (approx. 6 ft.).

6) [noun] a valorous, bold, courageous man.

7) [noun] strength, vigour, courage, etc. that are considered the characteristics of a man; manliness.

8) [noun] the individual soul.

9) [noun] any of the Hindu Trinities (Brahma, Viṣṇu and Śiva).

10) [noun] the Supreme Being.

11) [noun] the tree Mammea suriga ( = Ochrocarpus longifolius) of Clusiaceae family.

12) [noun] the male organ of sexual intercourse in human beings; the penis.

13) [noun] (Sāṃkhya phil.) the element of awareness or principle of sentience or by which we become aware of the existence of the physical world.

14) [noun] (gram.) the masculine gender.

15) [noun] (gram.) one of the three kinds of pronouns (i.e.ಉತ್ತಮ, ಪ್ರಥಮ, [uttama, prathama,] & ದ್ವಿತೀಯ [dvitiya] correspoonding to the English first, second and third persons).

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Purusa (ಪುರುಸ):—[noun] = ಪುರುಷ [purusha].

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Pūruṣa (ಪೂರುಷ):—

1) [noun] a male human being.

2) [noun] all human beings; the human race.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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