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Gana, aka: Gaṇa, Gāna; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Gana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Āyurveda (science of life)

Gaṇa (गण, “group”):—Suśruta, in his Suśrutasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna XXXVIII, classifies medicinal plants under thirty-seven groups, called Gaṇas. It is a Sanskrit technical term used in Āyurvedic literature.

The thirty-seven groups are:

  1. Vidārigandhādi,
  2. Āragvadhādi,
  3. Varuṇādi,
  4. Vīratarvādi,
  5. Sālasārādi,
  6. Rodhrādi,
  7. Arkādi,
  8. Surasādi,
  9. Muṣkakādi,
  10. Pippalyādi,
  11. Elādi,
  12. Vacādi,
  13. Haridrādi,
  14. Śyāmādi,
  15. Bṛhatyādi,
  16. Kākolyādi,
  17. Ūṣakādi,
  18. Sārivādi,
  19. Añjanādi,
  20. Parūṣakādi,
  21. Priyaṅgvādi,
  22. Ambaṣṭhādi,
  23. Nyagrodhādi,
  24. Guḍūcyādi,
  25. Utpalādi,
  26. Mustadi,
  27. Triphalā,
  28. Trikaṭu,
  29. Āmalakyādi,
  30. Trapvādi,
  31. Lākṣādi,
  32. Laghupañcamūla,
  33. Bṛhatpañcamūla,
  34. Daśamūla,
  35. Vallīpañcamūla,
  36. Kaṇṭakapañcamūla,
  37. Tṛṇapañcamūla,

They are classified according to its various characteristics. Most of the groups end with the prefix ādi, translating to “first” and usually refers to the first plant from the group.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Purāṇa

1a) Gaṇa (गण).—Of bhūtas; followers of Śiva, of gods, of Pramathas; attacked Kṛṣṇa at Śoṇitapura;1 eleven celestial gaṇas reckoned.2 Twelve groups of seven living with the sun in different parts of the year; their functions.3 Three clans of sages with twenty branches each. In the first epoch of Sāvarṇī; all of them sons of Mārīca Kaśyapa, with Bali as their Indra.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 13: X. [65 (V) 46], [49]: [66. (V) 49]: 63. 6 and 10: XII. 10. 14.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 44-5: 52. 21.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 24-35.
  • 4) Ib. 100. 13f.

1b) Five groups of; Yavanas, Pāradas, Kāmbojas, Pahlavas and Śakas; defeated by Sagara, these appealed to Vaisiṣṭha who persuaded the king from further slaughter. Sagara changed their dharma and physical features; were degraded Kṣatriyas and debarred from learning Vedas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 127.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana IndexPurāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Kathā (narrative stories)

Gaṇa (गण) is a Sanskrit name referring to a group of deities, attending Maheśvara at his dwelling place, which is the mountain-peak Kailāsa (located within Himavat), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 1. Accordingly, “There (Kailāsa) dwells Maheśvara the beloved of Pārvatī, the chief of things animate and inanimate, attended upon by Gaṇas, Vidyādharas and Siddhas.”

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’) is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: KathāsaritsāgaraKathā book cover
context information

Kathās (कथा) are special kind of Sanskrit literature: they are a kind of a mix between Itihāsa (historical legends) and Mahākāvya (epic poetry). Some Kathās reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of the historical deeds of the Gods, sages and heroes.

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Gāna (गान) is a Sanskrit technical term referring to “song”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gāna (गान, “popular music”).—That which has been written by the composers (vāggeyakāra), which has special musical characteristics (lakṣaṇa) and is based on regional melodic forms (deśīrāga), etc., all this is popular music (gāna), which pleases the people. Traditionally, the two kinds of popular music (gāna) are:

  1. improvised (anibaddha, lit. “not composed”),
  2. composed (nibaddha).

Improvised music is musical variation (ālapti, from ālap, “to expatiate”). Composed music is formed with phrasal elements (aṅga) such as words, etc., that are present in the main sections (dhātu), viz.: regular words (pada), words of praise (viruda), musical metre (tāla), tone syllables (svara), drum syllables (pāṭa) and invocatory syllables (tenaka). (cf. Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 13.1)

Source: Google Books: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi: A Medieval Handbook of Indian MusicNāṭyaśāstra book cover
context information

Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

In Buddhism

Pali

gaṇa : (m.) a gang; crowd; sect; a chapter of monks. || ñāṇa (nt.), wisdom; insight.

-- or --

gāna : (nt.) singing; a song.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Gaṇa, (Vedic gaṇa; *ger to comprise, hold, or come together, cp. Gr. a)gεiρw to collect, a)gorά meeting, Lat. grex, flock, Sk. jarante “conveniunt” (see Wackernagel, Altind. Gr. I.193). Another form of this root is grem in Sk. grāma, Lat. gremium; see under gāma)—1. (a) in special sense: a meeting or a chapter of (two or three) bhikkhus, a company (opposed both to saṅgha, the order & puggala, the individual) Vin.I, 58, 74, 195, 197; II, 170, 171; IV, 130, 216, 226, 231, 283, 310, 316, 317; V, 123, 167.—(b) in general: a crowd, a multitude, a great many. See cpds.—2. as —°: a collection of, viz., of gods, men, animals or things; a multitude, mass; flock, herd; host, group, cluster.—(a) deva° J.I, 203; DhA.III, 441; PvA.140 (°parivuta); pisāca° S.I, 33; tidasa° Sn.679.—(b) amacca° suite of ministers J.I, 264; ariya° troup of worthies J.VI, 50; naranarī° crowds of men & women Miln.2; dāsi° a crowd of servants J.II, 127; tāpasa° a group of ascetics J.I, 140 (°parivuta); bhikkhu° J.I, 212 (°parivuta).—(c) dvija° J.I, 152; dija° Pv.II, 124; sakuṇa°, of birds J.I, 207; II, 352; go°, of cows A.I, 229; V, 347, 359; J.II, 128; kākola°, of ravens Sn.675; bhamarā°, of bees J.I, 52; miga° of beasts J.I, 150.—(d) taru° a cluster of trees PvA.154; tāra°, a host of stars A.I, 215; Pv.II, 967; with ref. to the books of the Canon: Suttantika° & Ābhidhammika° Vism.93.

—âcariya “a teacher of a crowd, ” i.e. a t. who has (many) followers. Always in phrase saṅghī ca gaṇī ca ganācariyo ca, and always with ref. either to Gotama: D.I, 116; M.II, 3; or to the 6 chief sectarian leaders, as Pūraṇa Kassapa, etc.: D.I, 47, 163; S.I, 68; IV, 398; M.I, 198, 227, 233; II, 2; Sn.p. 91; cp. DA.I, 143. In general: Miln.4. —ārāma (adj.) & —ārāmatā in phrase gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇārāmataṃ anuyutto: a lover of the crowd A.III, 422 sq.; M.III, 110=Nd2 on Sn.54. —gaṇin the leader of many, Ep. of Bhagavā Nd2 307. —(ṃ)gaṇupāhanā (pl.) shoes with many linings Vin.I, 185, 187; cp. Vin. Texts II.14. See also Bdhgh. on aṭaliyo (q. v. under aṭala). —pūraka (adj.) one who completes the quorum (of a bhikkhus chapter) Vin.I, 143 sq.; —bandhana in °ena dānaṃ datvā to give by co-operation, to give jointly DhA.II, 160; —bhojana food prepared as a joint meal Vin.II, 196; IV, 71; V, 128, 135, 205; —magga in °ena gaṇetuṃ to count by way of batches Vin.I, 117; —vassika (adj.) through a great many years Sn.279; —saṅganika (adj.) coming into contact with one another DhA.I, 162. (Page 240)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English DictionaryPali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Gaṇa (गण).—One of the ten types of ‘nursing services’ (vaiyāvrata)? What is meant by ‘the congregation of aged ascetics’ (gaṇa)? The group of senior and aged ascetics is called the congregation of aged ascetics.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Influx of karmas

Relevant definitions

Search found 378 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Yakshagana
Yakṣagāna (यक्षगान).—In South Kanara the term ”Yakṣagāna“ refers both to a style of singing and...
Devagana
Devagaṇa (देवगण).—Thirty-three in number.** Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 80.
Kiratatiktadigana
Kirātatiktādigaṇa (किराततिक्तादिगण):—The Sanskrit name for a group of plants mentioned...
Brihatyadigana
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Bahugana
Bahugaṇa (बहुगण).—A monkey chief.** Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 244.
Ganarya
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Ganabandhana
gaṇabandhana : (nt.) co-operation.
Saptagana
Saptagaṇa (सप्तगण).—Of the Sūryamaṇḍala in different months.** Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 1-18.
Sauragana
Sauragaṇa (सौरगण).—A group of seven in relation to Sūrya, changing every month. While the...
Katukagana
Kaṭukagaṇa (कटुकगण).—Articles of, detailed.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 62-7.
Janhugana
Janhugaṇa (जन्हुगण).—Originated from the son of Aṣṭaka, son of Viśvāmitra.** Vāyu-purāṇa ...
Rudragana
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Mlecchagaṇa (म्लेच्छगण).—Foreign tribes on the Himālayan slopes.** Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 46.
Tiktagana
Tīktagaṇa (तीक्तगण).—Articles of, detailed.** Matsya-purāṇa 217. 68-74.

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