Nidana, Nidāna: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nidana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Nidāna (निदान):—A Sanskrit technical term translating to “etiology”, or “cause”, referring to one of the “five characteristics of diagnosis” (pañcalakṣaṇanidāna). It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. These five characteristics are regarded as very important clues for diagnosis (nidāna) within Āyurveda.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume II

The term Nidānam, usually translated as Pathology, is meant to include factors, which fall within the respective provinces of Pathology, Ætiology, Symptomology and Pathognomy as well.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nidāna (निदान, “circumstance”) refers to one of the twelve members of Buddhist texts (dvādaśāṅga), according to a note attached to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 51.—The nidānas set out the circumstances (nidāna) that are at the origin of the Buddha’s teachings. Under what circumstances did the Buddha say a certain thing? In the sūtras, it is because a man asked him that he said a certain thing; in the Vinaya, it is because a man committed a certain wrong-dong (adhyācāra) that he promulgated a certain rule (śikṣāpada). The facts of dependent origination (pratītyasamutpāda) set forth by the Buddha are also called nidāna.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: The Bhikṣuṇī Maṇimēkhalai

These Nidānas appear one from the other in order as cause and effect, and being capable of reappearance as consequent upon that which is before it, assume the form of a never-ending circle. Thus arranged these twelve Nidānas fall into four divisions, showing three joints.

These twelve are:

  1. Ignorance (T. Pēdamai, S. Avidyā),
  2. Action (T. Śeykai, S. Karma),
  3. Consciousness (T. Uṇarvu, S. Vijñāna),
  4. Name and form (T. Aru-uru, S. Nāmarūpa),
  5. Six organs of sense (T. Vāyil, S. Ṣaḍāyatana),
  6. Contact (T. Ūṟu, S. Sparśa).
  7. Sensation (T. Nuharvu, S. Vēdanā),
  8. Thirst or craving (T. Vēṭkai, S. Tṛṣṇa),
  9. Attachment (T. Paṟṟu, S. Upādāna),
  10. Becoming or existence (T. Pavam, S. Bhava),
  11. Birth (T. Tōṟṟam, S. Jāti),
  12. The result of action, old age and death (T. Vinaippayan, S. Jarāmaraṇam),

1st division: Of these twelve nidānas, the first two ignorance and action are regarded as belonging to the first section. All those that follow spring from these two.

2nd division: The following five, namely, name and form, organs of sense, contact and experience, these five, as springing from the former two, are regarded as constituting the second division.

3rd division: Thirst, attachment, and the collection of deeds constitute the third division as they result as evil in the enjoyment of the previous five, and, in consequence, as action resulting therefrom. It is from the folly of desire and consequent attachment that becoming arises.

4th division: The fourth division includes birth, disease, age and death, since these four are experienced as a result of birth.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Nidāna (निदान).—What is meant by ‘sting’ or ‘intense anxiety’ (nidāna) mournful-concentration (ārtha-dhyāna)? To be engrossed in achieving pleasure (not attained till now) in future is called ‘sting or intense anxiety’ (nidāna) mournful concentration. What is the nature of ‘sting or intense anxiety’ mournful concentration? Wishing and thinking repeatedly (intense anxiety) is the nature of this concentration. The monks in the sixth stage of spiritual purification (guṇasthāna) cannot have this ‘sting mournful concentration’ (nidāna-ārta-dhyāna).

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nidāna.—(CITD), Telugu; same as Sanskrit nidhāna; a treasure; a hoard or fund; store, wealth or property. Note: nidāna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nidāna : (nt.) source; cause; origin.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nidāna, (nt.) (Sk. nidāna, ni+*dāna of , dyati to bind, cp. Gr. dέsma, dhμa (fetter) & see dāma) (a) (n.) tying down to; ground (lit. or fig.), foundation, occasion; source, origin, cause; reason, reference, subject (“sujet”) M. I, 261; A. I, 134 sq.; 263 sq. , 338; II, 196; IV, 128 sq.; Dhs. 1059 (dukkha°, source of pain), 1136; Nett 3, 32; Miln. 272 (of disease: pathology, ætiology), 344 (°paṭhanakusala, of lawyers); PvA. 132, 253. ‹-› (b) (adj. -°) founded on, caused by, originating in, relating to S. V, 213 sq. (a° & sa°); A. I, 82 (id.); Sn. 271 (ito°), 866 (kuto°), 1050 (upadhi°=hetuka, paccayā, kāraṇā Nd2 346); 872 (icchā°) etc.; VvA. 117 (vimānāni Rājagaha° playing at or referring to R.).—(c) nidānaṃ (Acc. as adv.) by means of, in consequence of, through, usually with tato° through this, yato° through which D. I, 52, 73; M. I, 112; Pv IV. 161 (through whom=yaṃ nimittaṃ PvA. 242); PvA. 281; ito° by this Nd2 2912. (Page 358)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nidaṇa (निदण) [or न, na].—or na n Weeding (of a cornfield). 2 Grass and weeds growing amidst corn.

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nidāna (निदान).—n (S) A first cause; a primary or remote cause. 2 The state of extremity; the state of one reduced to his last resource, refuge, shift. Ex. hē dōna rūpayē nidānāsa kāmāsa yētīla. 3 The highest or lowest extremity; the uttermost (sum &c.); referring esp. to price or terms. Ex. tyā dhōtara- jōḍyāsa dāhā rupayē paḍatīla hēṃ ni0 pāhijē tara ghyā. 4 Ascertaining the causes of disease; study of symptoms to trace the causes; pathology. nidāna is divided into five departments; viz. pūrvarūpa, rūpa, lakṣaṇa, cinha, anta Premonitions, Form, Symptoms, Characters, Issue. nidānacā Valuable or useful in or reserved for extremity; as nidānacā sōbatī-mitra-mātrā-cikitsā- upacāra-upāya-vāṭa. 2 Relating to the extremity or end; as nidānacā prasaṅga-samaya-vēḷa-kimata. nidānīṃ At the last; at the utmost.

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nidāna (निदान).—ad At the last; at the highest or lowest (price or terms); after all; at the last extremity; at the very end. Ex. hyā ghōḍyālā ni0 śambhara rupayē ghēīna; hēṃ kāma tulā lōṭēla taṃvavara tū lōṭa ni0 mī āhēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nidāna (निदान).—n A first cause. The state of ex- tremity. Diagnosis.

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nidāna (निदान).—ad At the last; at the highest or lowest (price or terms).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nidāna (निदान).—

1) A band, rope, halter; उदुस्रियाणामसृजन्निदानम् (udusriyāṇāmasṛjannidānam) Rv.6.32.2.

2) A rope for tying up a calf; बालजेन निदानेन कांस्यं भवतु दोहनम् (bālajena nidānena kāṃsyaṃ bhavatu dohanam) Mb.13.94.41.

3) A primary cause, the first or essential cause; निदानमिक्ष्वाकुकुलस्य सन्ततेः (nidānamikṣvākukulasya santateḥ) R.3.1; अथवा बलमारम्भो निदानं क्षयसम्पदः (athavā balamārambho nidānaṃ kṣayasampadaḥ) Śi.2.94.

4) A cause in general; मुञ्च मयि मानमनिदानम् (muñca mayi mānamanidānam) Gīt.5.

5) (in medicine) Inquiry into the causes of a disease, pathology.

6) Diagnosis of a disease.

7) End, termination.

8) Purity, purification, correctness.

9) Claiming the reward of penitential acts.

Derivable forms: nidānam (निदानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nidāna (निदान).—nt. (Sanskrit id. in meaning 1, but even here [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] develops the word differently from Sanskrit; most, perhaps all, mgs. found in Pali id.), (1) cause, underlying and determining factor; may be associated with virtual synonyms hetu, pratyaya, nimitta: paribhoga-nimittaṃ ca kāma- hetu-nidānaṃ ca…dṛṣṭadhārmikaṃ ca paryeṣṭi-nidānaṃ parigraha-nidānaṃ ca Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 77.14—15; sa-hetu sa-pratyayaṃ ca sa-nidānaṃ Lalitavistara 376.21; jātī-nidāna jaravyādhiduḥkhāni bhonti Lalitavistara 420.7 (verse), in the pratītya-samutpāda, where the regular term is pratyaya; Tibetan here gzhi, underlying cause; dāne nidāne ca sukhodayānāṃ Jātakamālā 24.25 (verse), and since giving is the cause of happiness and advancement (word-play on dāna); (bodhisattvāḥ…) mahantānām utpādānāṃ nidānam anuprāpnuvanti, bhūtānām (true) utpādānāṃ nidānam anuprā° Mahāvastu ii.260.16, 17; sākāraṃ soddeśaṃ sa-nidānaṃ pūrvanivāsam anusmarati sma Mahāvyutpatti 229, he recalled his former births with their forms, locations, and underlying causes (i.e. what made them what they were; Tibetan gzhi ci las ḥgyur ba daṅ bcas pa, together with from-what-cause-origination); the acc. sg. nidānaṃ is used adverbially, because of…, sometimes with dependent gen. preceding, mama nidānaṃ Mahāvastu ii.111.1, on my account; asmākam eva ni° Mahāvastu iii.221.9, tava…ni° 13; or in composition with preceding pronominal stem, tan-nidānaṃ, for that reason, Bodhisattvabhūmi 29.2, 7; 72.18, etc.; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 251.2; (kasya [Page296-a+ 71] hetoḥ, so read with v.l.) kiṃnidānaṃ vā baddhaṃ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 211.4, for what reason or cause was it tied on?; yan-nidānaṃ, inasmuch as, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.191.1 (= yad, 190.14), 11, and ff.; especially commonly preceded by tato, yato, less often ato, ito, it being open to question whether these latter forms are compounded with nidānaṃ (like tan-, kiṃ-, yan-, above), or are dependent ablatives (like the gens. mama, etc., above); editors vary in printing them as one word or two (and so in Pali, tato-, yato-nidānaṃ): tato-nidānaṃ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 347.12; Mahāvastu i.351.12; iii.66.5, 11; Śikṣāsamuccaya 84.6; Vajracchedikā 24.15; Bodhisattvabhūmi 46.25; ato-ni° Divyāvadāna 448.4; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.51.4; yato-ni° Śikṣāsamuccaya 100.12; Bodhisattvabhūmi 163.12; Udānavarga ii.20 (duḥkhaṃ hi yo veda yatonidānaṃ, who knows misery, whence it is caused, = Pali id. in SN i.117.3; same line in Divyāvadāna 224.18 reads yaḥ prekṣati duḥkham ito nidānaṃ, as caused from this); (2) (cause of action, so) motive, motivation, in tri-nidāna, q.v.; also probably in Avadāna-śataka i.169.14, teṣāṃ sattvānāṃ nidānam āśayānuśayaṃ copalakṣya svayam ārabdhaś cikitsāṃ… kartum, noting the motives, the disposition and inclination (see anuśaya) of these creatures (who were afflicted with a pestilence; i.e. finding them worthy), himself undertook to give them medical treatment; otherwise Feer, who under- stands cause (of the disease) of these creatures; it is true that Pali nidāna means cause (aetiology) of disease in Miln. 272.13, but it seems to me forcing the Avadāna-śataka passage to read that meaning into it, especially since the coordinated āśayānuśaya can hardly be applied to disease (tho Feer makes the attempt); (3) beginning, introduction (compare Pali Nidāna- kathā, the introduction to Jātaka (Pali)): nidāna-parivartaḥ prathamaḥ Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 5.6, colophon to Chap. 1, the first, Intro- ductory Chapter; nidāna-namaskarāṇi samāptāni Mahāvastu i.2.12, colophon, the introductory salutations; iti śrīmahāvastu- nidāna-gāthā samāptā Mahāvastu i.4.11, colophon, the first gāthā of the Mahāvastu (lines 9—10, which Senart prints as prose but which obviously were a verse, and the first one in Mahāvastu); (4) theme, content, subject-matter: vaipulyasūtraṃ hi mahānidānam Lalitavistara 7.9 (verse),…having an exalted theme, Tibetan gleṅ gzhi (subject of discourse) chen po (great); yathā Śrāvastyāṃ tatra vinaye tantravāyasya) nidānaṃ varṇa- yanti Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 71.(10—)11, as here in the Vinaya they describe the theme (matter, account) of the weaver at Śrāvastī; Śrāvastyāṃ nidānaṃ Divyāvadāna 123.16; 198.1: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.v.4, at the beginning of a story, the theme (subject-matter) is (laid) in Ś. (so also Pali, e.g. SN v.12.9); yad-yat tvayā- bhihitaṃ nidāne Divyāvadāna 626.29 (verse),…on (this) theme, subject; uktaṃ nu te saumya guṇe nidānaṃ 627.1,…the subject-matter (theme, account) on (the subject of) quality; …vadāmi dharmaṃ, bodhiṃ nidānaṃ kariyāna nityam Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 128.7 (verse), I declare the doctrine, making enlightenment my constant theme; sanidānaṃ ahaṃ…śrāvakāṇāṃ dharmaṃ deśayāmi na anidānaṃ Mahāvastu iii.51.12—13, I preach to my disciples the doctrine including its content, not devoid of content; vistareṇa nidānaṃ kṛtvā, a phrase indicating abbreviation of a cliché, making the content (theme, subject- matter) in full, Mahāvastu i.4.13—14 (here Senart em. kṛtyaṃ, all 6 mss. kṛtvā, which he keeps in the rest); ii.115.7; iii.224.12; 377.1, 8; 382.9; 389.14; 401.20; in all these reference is to the cliché given in full e.g. Mahāvastu i.34.1 ff.; (5) as title of a class or type of work or subdivision of the Buddhist canon, according to Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti = gleṅ gzhiḥi (ed. bzhiḥi) sde, statement of subject-matter, table of contents, summary (of a work): Mahāvyutpatti 1272, in list of dvādaśaka- dharma-pravacanam (omitted in Dharmasaṃgraha 62, navāṅga- pravacanāni, see Müller's note); in more informal lists of the same kind Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 45.8; Kāraṇḍavvūha 81.21; (6) theme, subject, hence virtually occasion, parallel with prakaraṇa and velā, once also utpatti, vastu: etasmiṃ nidāne etasmiṃ prakaraṇe tāye velāye (Divyāvadāna tasyāṃ, misprinted tasyaṃ, velāyāṃ) Mahāvastu iii.91.17—18; Divyāvadāna 654.21, on this occasion, in this connexion, at this time; (asyām utpattau) asmin nidāne (asmin pra- karaṇe asmin vastuni) Mahāvyutpatti (9209,) 9210, (9211—12).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidāna (निदान).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. A first cause, a primary or remote cause. 2. Diappearance, cessation or removal of a first cause. 3. Purification purity, correctness. 4. Asking for the recompense or objects of austere devotion. 5. End, cessation. 6. A rope for tying a calf. 7. Ascertaining the causes of disease, study of symptoms with a view to trace the remote or proximate causes; hence this word is the name of a division of all works on medicine. E. ni always or certainly, deṅ to cherish affix pālane lyuṭ; by which all effects are produced.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidāna (निदान).—i. e. ni-3. dā + ana, n. 1. A first cause, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 1. 2. The causes of disease, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 1, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nidāna (निदान).—[neuter] band, rope, halter; first cause, original form, essence (ph.), cause, reason i.[grammar] — Instr. nidānena originally, essentially, really.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Nidāna (निदान) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—med. from the Garuḍapurāṇa. L. 2459.
—by Mādhava. See Rugviniścaya.
—by Vāgbhaṭa. Rādh. 32.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nidāna (निदान):—a mfn. reproached, ridiculed, [ib.]

2) [=ni-dāna] [from ni-dā] b n. a band, rope, halter, [Ṛg-veda vi, 32, 6; Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] a first or primary cause (cf. ni-bandhana), [Ṛg-veda x, 114, 2; Brāhmaṇa; Kāṭhaka]

4) [v.s. ...] original form or essence (nena ind. originally, essentially, properly), [Brāhmaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) a cause of existence (12 in number), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 56; 103]

6) [v.s. ...] any cause or motive, [Divyāvadāna]

7) [v.s. ...] the cause of a disease and enquiry into it, pathology (= nidāna-sthāna q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] = nidāna-sūtra, [Catalogue(s)]

9) [v.s. ...] cessation, end, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] purification, correctness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] claiming the reward of penitential acts, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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