Vyavahara, Vyavahāra: 14 definitions

Introduction

Vyavahara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

1) The term Vyavahāra (व्यवहार, “case”) is the name given to that action of the plaintiff and the defendant which they have recourse to for the purpose of reclaiming their rights. Or, it may stand for the non-payment of debts and such other matters themselves, which often become the subjects of dispute and as such fit for investigation, which thus becomes the duty of the king. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 8.1)

2) The term ‘vyavahāra’ is synonymous to ‘kārya,’ which stands for all such transactions as gifts, deposits, sales and so forth, as also the documents supporting these. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 8.163)

Source: Google Books: A Dharma Reader: Classical Indian Law

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार) means a specific kind of law probably relating to social and commercial transactions. The second meaning of vyavahāra means a specific kind of law probably relating to social and commercial transactions. The second meaning of vyavahāra is “lawsuits” and, derivatively, rules of legal procedure associated with them. Perhaps this meaning is derived from the fact that most lawsuits may have involved commercial transactions, and the nonpayment of debts is always the first and paradigmatic area to be dealt with in legal procedure.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (V) next»] — Vyavahara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—It is mentioned in Manusmṛti, Chapter 8, that administering the law was of eighteen types in ancient India.

i) Pertaining to giving and taking.

ii) Pertaining to the property entrusted to another for keeping.

iii) Selling the property by anybody other than its owner.

iv) Appropriating gain to oneself in a combined transaction.

v) Not handing over the property which was given as a gift.

vi) Non-payment of salary.

vii) Disobeying orders.

viii) Retaining and doubting the ownership after the completion of a transaction of selling or buying.

ix) A law suit between the owner of the cattle and the cowherd or shepherd.

x) Dispute about boundary.

xi) Striking another.

xii) Reviling others

xiii) Theft and robbery.

xiv) Violence.

xv) Stealing another’s wife.

xvi) Matrimonial responsibilities.

xvii) Partition.

xviii) Gambling.

Whenever difference of opinion arises between two persons on any of the matter given above, the King should interfere and make a decision. For one reason or another, if the King could not attend the court, three learned Brahmins should enter the court and conduct the trial sitting or standing, and they should not conduct the trial walking to and fro. This was the practice of courts in ancient India.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (V) next»] — Vyavahara in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार, “analytic”) refers to one of the seven types of naya (standpoint), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.33.—To cognize an entity by looking at its attributes as primary and secondary depending on the intentions of the speaker or listener is called naya (standpoint/viewpoint).

What is meant by analytic viewpoint (vyavahāra-naya)? To differentiate the entities cognized in the synthetic viewpoint in a proper manner distinguishing them in different classes /types, e.g. there are two types of substances, namely: living beings and non-living beings. Similarly, living beings are of two types, namely: empirical and pure living beings.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vyavahāra.—cf. vyavahāra-pade (LP), ‘as a tax from mer- chants’. Note: vyavahāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Vyavahara in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—m (S) Operation or action generally; work, exercise. 2 Procedure, practice, course of action or being. 3 Trade, traffic, dealing, commerce, business: also a trade or business, an employment, occupation, profession, vocation. 4 The practice of the courts of law. 5 A lawsuit: also any matter actionable or cognizable in a court of law.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—m Operation or action. Practice. Trade.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (V) next»] — Vyavahara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—1 Conduct, behaviour, action.

2) Affair, business, work; कुटुम्बार्थेऽध्यधीनोऽप व्यवहारं यमाचरेत् (kuṭumbārthe'dhyadhīno'pa vyavahāraṃ yamācaret) Ms. 8.167.

3) Profession, occupation.

4) Dealing, transaction.

5) Commerce, trade, traffic.

6) Dealing in money, usury.

7) Usage, custom, an established rule or practice.

8) Relation, connection; तेषां च व्यवहारोऽयं परस्परनिबन्धनः (teṣāṃ ca vyavahāro'yaṃ parasparanibandhanaḥ) Pt.1.79.

9) Judicial procedure, trial or investigation of a case, administration of justice; व्यवहारस्तमाह्वयति (vyavahārastamāhvayati); अलं लज्जया व्यवहारस्त्वां पृच्छति (alaṃ lajjayā vyavahārastvāṃ pṛcchati) Mk.9; व्यवहारस्थापना (vyavahārasthāpanā) Kau. A.3; Ms.8.1; शिवं सिषेवे व्यवहारलब्धम् (śivaṃ siṣeve vyavahāralabdham) Bu. Ch.2.4.

1) A legal dispute, complaint, suit, law-suit, litigation; व्यवहारोऽयं चारुदत्तमवलम्बते, इति लिख्यतां व्यवहारस्य प्रथमः पादः, केन सह मम व्यवहारः (vyavahāro'yaṃ cārudattamavalambate, iti likhyatāṃ vyavahārasya prathamaḥ pādaḥ, kena saha mama vyavahāraḥ) Mk.9; ददर्श संशय- च्छेद्यान् व्यवहारानतन्द्रितः (dadarśa saṃśaya- cchedyān vyavahārānatandritaḥ) R.17.39.

11) A title of legal procedure, any occasion of litigation.

12) A contract; असंबद्धकृतश्चैव व्यवहारो न सिद्धति (asaṃbaddhakṛtaścaiva vyavahāro na siddhati) Ms.8.163.

13) Mathematical process.

14) Competency to manage one's own affairs; majority.

15) A sword.

Derivable forms: vyavahāraḥ (व्यवहारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—m. (1) (much as in Sanskrit, BR s.v. 8, compare 7; designation, term, in BHS with implication of superficiality, lack of substance, e.g. ŚsP 1334.18 °ra-mātra = nāma- mātra 19), manner of speech: ārya-°ra (= Pali ariya- vohāra, see CPD), eight (as in Pali), Bbh 220.7, 11 (dṛṣṭe dṛṣṭavāditā, etc.); aṣṭau °ra-padāni Bbh 389.13, 16 (evaṃnāmā, evaṃjātyaḥ, etc.); ṣaḍ °ra-pada-caritāni 19 ff. (āhvānāya saṃketaḥ, etc.); saṃvṛti-°ra Sukh 42.11, see saṃvṛti; (2) motion, gesture: (hasta-) °reṇa (contemptu- ously) uddeṣṭum ārabdhaḥ MSV ii.190.9; so also hasta- vyavahārakeṇa ib. 188.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. The practice of the courts, or civil and criminal law, judicial procedure, administrative justice, as the examination of evidence, &c. 2. Title of jurisprudence, any act cognizable in courts of justice. 3. Contest at law, law suit, litigation. 4. Usage, custom. 5. Conduct. 6. Profession, business. 7. Steadiness, property, adherence to law and custom. 8. A contract. 9. A sort of tree. 10. Mathematical or arithmetical determination or ascertainment. E. vi, and ava implying dissension, and hṛ to take, aff. ghañ, the term being explained to mean especially, a dispute between two parties, or the counter statements of plaintiff and defendant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—i. e. vi-ava-hṛ + a, m. 1. Doing, performing, Bhā- ṣāp. 105 (gaṇana-, Numbering); [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 76, 9; occupation, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 104, 23; action, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 70, 6. 2. Affair, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 127, 3 (nāsya vyavahāro streshu, He has nothing with weapons); [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 420. 3. Profession, business, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 91. 4. Pecuniary transaction, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 64; usury, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 12. 5. Petty traffic, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 137; trade, [Pañcatantra] 7, 17. 6. Usage, custom, [Hitopadeśa] 58, 18. 7. Conduct, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 57; 70, M. M. 8. Practice of the courts, or civil and criminal law, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 148; judicial proceeding, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 1. 9. Administration of justice, Journ. of the German Oriental Society, vii. 528. 10. Any acts cognisable in courts. 11. An occurrence which must be inquired, an important affair, [Pañcatantra] 45, 13. 12. Lawsuit, [Pañcatantra] 165, 4. 13. A contract.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार).—[masculine] procedure, conduct, way of acting; intercourse with (saha); usage, custom, activity, occupation, dealing with or in ([locative] or —°); business, commerce, trade; legal dispute, lawsuit, litigation, contract, stipulation, administration of justice.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Vyavahāra (व्यवहार) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—from the Agnipurāṇa. Burnell. 187^b. See Oxf. 7^b.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyavahāra (व्यवहार):—[=vy-avahāra] [from vyava-hṛ] m. doing, performing, action, practice, conduct, behaviour, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (vyavahāraḥ kāryaḥ, with [instrumental case], ‘it should be acted according to’)

2) [v.s. ...] commerce or intercourse with (saha or [compound]), [Nirukta, by Yāska; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] affair, matter, [Nīlakaṇṭha]

4) [v.s. ...] usage, custom, wont, ordinary life, common practice, [Patañjali; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Hitopadeśa]

5) [v.s. ...] activity, action or practice of occupation or business with ([locative case] or [compound]), [Inscriptions; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) [v.s. ...] mercantile transaction, traffic, trade with, dealing in ([compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] a contract, [Manu-smṛti viii, 163]

8) [v.s. ...] legal procedure, contest at law with (saha), litigation, lawsuit, legal process (See -mātṛkā below), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] practices of law and kingly government, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 209]

10) [v.s. ...] mathematical process, [Colebrooke]

11) [v.s. ...] administration of justice, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

12) [v.s. ...] ([figuratively]) punishment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] competency to manage one’s own affairs, majority (in law), [ib.]

14) [v.s. ...] propriety, adherence to law or custom, [ib.]

15) [v.s. ...] the use of an expression, with regard to, speaking about (tair eva vyavahāraḥ, ‘just about these is the question’, ‘it is to these that the discussion has reference’), [Kapila; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

16) [v.s. ...] designation, [Jaimini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

17) [v.s. ...] compulsory work, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] a sort of tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] Name of a [chapter] of the Agni-purāṇa.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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