Krishna, aka: Kṛṣṇā, Kṛṣṇa; 30 Definition(s)

Introduction

Krishna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṛṣṇā and Kṛṣṇa can be transliterated into English as Krsna or Krishna, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

[Krishna in Purana glossaries]

1a) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Asitoda and mount Vipula, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Vipula mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa.

1b) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa.

Jambūdvīpa is a region (or dvīpa, ‘island’) ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.

2a) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Name of a river originating from Sahya, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers. Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu.

2b) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is another name for Citrā, one of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu.

Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

The stone, known as Krishna, is round and depressed at the back.

(Source): archive.org: The Garuda puranam

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—(ŚRĪ KṚṢṆA). Born in the Yādava dynasty as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī, Śrī Kṛṣṇa was the ninth of the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus:—Brahmā -Atri—Candra—Badha—Purūravas—Āyus—Nahuṣa—-Yayāti—Yadu—Sahasrajit—Śatajit—Hehaya—Dharma—Kunti—Bhadrasena—Dhanaka—Kṛtavīrya —Kārtavīryārjuna—Jayadhvaja—Tālajaṅgha—Vītihotra—Ananta—Durjaya—Yudhājit—Śini—Satyaka—Sātyaki (Yuyudhāna)—Jaya—Kuṇi—Anamitra—Pṛśni—Citraratha—Viḍūratha—Śūra—Śinibhoja—Hṛdīka—Śūrasena—Vasudeva—Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (See full article at Story of Kṛṣṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Another name for Pāñcālī. (See under Pāñcālī.

3) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A river in South India.

4) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Another name for Durgā. (Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 9).

5) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—Twenty-three avatār of Hari; according to one version, the twentieth avatār. Went to Dvārakā, bowed to his parents and entered the palace.1 His boyhood sports—sucked Ulūkika's life, kicked Śakaṭa to pieces and uprooted two Arjuna trees; brought solace to the Gopas of Vraja by expelling the serpent Kāliya from the pool near by and protected their cattle from forest fire. In his mouth Yaśodā saw the fourteen worlds. Rescued Nanda from fear of Varuṇa's noose and recovered the Gopas imprisoned by Vyoma Asura. Shielded the Gokulam from rains by holding up Govardhana mountain as an umbrella; cut off the head of Kubera's attendant who tried to seize the Gopis engaged in Rāsakṛīḍā with Kṛṣṇa. Vanquished several daityas and their wicked kings; manifested Himself through Satyavatī and divided the Vedas into many branches;2 Lord and goal of Andhakas, Vṛṣṇis, Sātvatas, etc. Supreme Brahman.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 17; 3. 23; Chaps. 10 and 11; Matsya-purāṇa 7. 60.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 26-36.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 4. 20; VII. 15. 76-79.

1b) (davaipāyana)—Vyāsa (s.v.) of the current a munī;1 wife Araṇi and son Śuka; author of the purāṇa śāstra;2 father of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Vīdura and Pāṇḍu by the widows of Vicitravīrya and their female servant. Another wife Pīvari, by whom he got five sons and one daughter.3 Divided the Vedas into four parts: an avatār of Nārāyaṇa;4 the compiler of the mahābhārata.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 4. 3 and 32; IX. 22. 21; XII. 4. 40; 6. 35; Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 10; 23. 226; 70. 54; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 19.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 92; IV. 4. 50.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 50. 46; 185. 30; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 241; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 38; VI. 2. 32.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 4. 3-10.

1c) A son of Havirdhāna and Havirdhānī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 24. 8; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 37. 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 63. 23; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 14. 2.

1d) A brother of the Andhra servant Balin (Balipuccaka, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) who killed his master Kāṇva Suśarman and usurped the throne. After him, his brother Kṛṣṇa became king. His son was Śrī Śāntakarṇa,1 who ruled for 18 years.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 23; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 162; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 44-5.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 273. 3.

1e) A name of Arjuna.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII, 11. 25.

1f) A name of Brahmā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 34. 7.

1g) A pupil of Sumantu of Atharva Veda fame.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 56.

1h) A son of Dullola.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 443.

1i) A son of Śuka and Pīvarī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 93; 10. 81; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 10. Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 85; 73, 30, 62.

1j) An Andhaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 143; Matsya-purāṇa 44. 84.

1k) The asura of second tala, the Sutala.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 21.

1l) An adopted son of Asamaujasa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1m) A name of Vyāsa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 38. 52.

1n) (Mt.) a kulaparvata of the Ketumāla; residence of Gandharvas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 38. 49; 39. 59; 42. 52; 44. 4.

1o) A mountain to the west of the Śitoda lake.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 28; 38. 49.

1p) A hell; illegal intercourse, tresspass on others’ lands and living on magic are offences leading to this hell.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 3 and 25.

1q) A class of gods; a Parāśara clan.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 95; 10. 109; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 87.

1r) The Śūdra caste of Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 30.

2a) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A name of Draupadī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 14.

2b) A name of Yogamāyā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12.

2c) A name of Yamunā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 32. 12.

2d) A daughter of Khaśa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 170.

2e) A R. of the Sahya hills of the Dakṣiṇāpatha.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 104.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—The Harivaṃśa depicts Kṛṣṇa as the manifestation of Viṣṇu, and his elder brother Saṃkarṣaṇa, as the manifestation of the serpent Śeṣa. On the basis of these tow figures alone, however, the events which took place in the cowherd settlement (vraja, ghoṣa) of Mathurā and in the fabled city of Dvāravatī remain inexplicable.

(Source): Journal of the American Oriental Society: The Harivaṃśa, the Goddess Ekānaṃśā
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of krishna or krsna in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Krishna in Natyashastra glossaries]

One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Kṛṣṇa: Mṛga-śīrṣa hands facing one another on the shoulders.

(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Krishna in Shaivism glossaries]

1) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Vahni, the third seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Kṛṣṇā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—Sanskrit name of one of the twenty-four goddesses of the Sūryamaṇḍala (first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth cakra (‘internal mystic center’) of the five (pañcacakra) and is located on or above the head. She presides over the pītha (‘sacred site’) called Caritrā. She is also known as Kṛṣṇāsyā (according to Kubjikāmata-tantra) or Siddhidā or Susiddhā (according to Śrīmatottara-tantra).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) refers to the city of Nirṛti, situated on the south-western lower slope of mount Meru, according to Parākhyatantra 5.66. Meru is the name of a golden mountained situated in the middle of nine landmasses (navakhaṇḍa): Bhārata, Hari, Kimpuruṣa, Ramyaka, Ramaṇa, Kuru, Bhadrāśva, Ketumāla and Ilāvṛta. Together these khaṇḍas make up the continent known as Jambūdvīpa.

Kṛṣṇā is also known by the name Asita, Asitavatī, Rakṣovatī, Kṛṣṇāṅgārā or Kṛṣṇavatī and is mentioned in various other sources, eg., the Svacchanda-tantra 10.132-136, Kiraṇa-āgama 8.51-54, Mṛgendra-āgama vidyāpāda 13.47-54, Sarvajñānottara-tantra adhvaprakaraṇa 34-36 and Mataṅga-āgama vidyāpāda 23.60-63

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[Krishna in Shaktism glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “Dark One”):—Another name for Viṣṇu, as in, one of the male offspring from Mahāsarasvatī (sattva-form of Mahādevī). Mahāsarasvatī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahākālī. Not to be confused with Sarasvatī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named sattva. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of krishna or krsna in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[Krishna in Pancaratra glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “black, dark”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. The meaning of this title is “He who is exceedingly delighted with his own Lila”. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Buddhi.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.337-340.—Accordingly, “Kṛṣṇa who is dark like the blue lotus, is to be meditated upon. He has the hand raised, wears matted hair, stands on one foot  bringing air, devoted to very severe austerities for one directing (others) to observe three, six, twelve days, fasts for a fortnight, a month. Those persons are directed to wear the hide of the black deer as upper cloth (covering upper part of the body), all wearing the brown red cloth, all wearing the marks of Brahman, all devoted to Brahman, busy (or doing) with the main acts, good men, and all devoted to everything according to the time”.

These Vibhavas (eg., Kṛṣṇa) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in. Note: Kṛṣṇa is represented here more as a guide and instructor of people than as a child in Gokula.

(Source): archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Krishna in Ayurveda glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is another name for Rājasarṣapa, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Brassica nigra (black mustard), from the Brassicaceae family. Certain plant parts of Rājasarṣapa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 16.121), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Krishna in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Kṛṣṇa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is held with both hands.

The illustrations (of, for example Kṛṣṇa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Kṛṣṇa is round with elevation on back-portion (unnata-pṛṣṭhaka); four openings; two cakras in the middle; four lines on the sides. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (eg., Kṛṣṇa stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

(Source): archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Krishna in Itihasa glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.221.15, I.221) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kṛṣṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kṛṣṇa is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.8, II.47.19, III.48.38, IX.44.52, IX.44.92, XIV.8.23, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Kṛṣṇā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.21).

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Krishna in Hinduism glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the dvāparayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva). The word Kṛṣṇa is primarily an adjective meaning “black” or “dark” or “all attractive”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism

One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "Dark-Complexioned Lord"

(Source): humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

Krishna is also an incarnation of Vishnu. He was born as the son of king Vasudeva, but was brought up by Nanda who was the cheiftain of cowherds. He killed his uncle Kamsa, who had unleashed a cruel reign of terror.

He also plays a major role in the Mahabharata, where he is one of the prime movers. His friendship with Arjuna was legendary, and he was the charioteer for Arjuna in the climatic battle at Kurukshetra.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

1. (Avatar of Viṣnu)—Krishna was the eighth son of Devaki and Vasudev. Krishna is the most commonly worshiped deity in Hinduism and an avatar in Vaishnava belief. He appeared in the Dwapara Yuga alongside his brother Balarama.

2. Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is “Adi Purusa, Acyuta”, the Original Personality of Godhead, The Supreme Lord and from Him all other incarnations take place. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead as mentioned in Bhagavad Gita which is the essence of all Vedic Scriptures. Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.

Puranic sources mention Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga (present age), which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE. Worship of the deity Krishna, either in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala can be traced to as early as 4th century BC.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—The Kṛṣṇāvatāra events are told and retold in Indian mythology since the time of the Harivaṃśapurāṇa appearing in the Mahābhārata. Better and elaborate versions appear in the Viṣṇu-purāṇa and Bhāgavata-purāṇa. The events under this head are multifarious as it happens so in the case of Rāma.

(Source): Shodhganga: Historical setting of the vaisnava divyaksetras in the southern pandya country

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

[Krishna in Buddhism glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to the last of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 9). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., daśalokapāla and Kṛṣṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Kṛṣṇa is, besides one of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) and one of the “fourteen world protectors” (caturdaśalokapāla).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Arya Krishna I (1425-1350 BCE).—According to Chinese tradition, Krishna I was the third Sarvastivadin after Katyayana and Vasumitra I. He lived before Parshva, the senior contemporary of Ashvaghosa I.

2) Krishna II (1190-1110 BCE) Taranatha mentions that Krishna II was the teacher of Rahula Bhadra. Nagarjuna II studies at Nalanda during the time of Rahula Bhadra.

(Source): academia.edu: The Chronological History of Buddhism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Krishna in Jainism glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is the name of the ninth Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The parents of as Kṛṣṇa are known as king Vāsudeva and queen Devakī whose stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

The nine Vāsudevas (such as Kṛṣṇa ) are also known as Nārāyaṇas or Viṣṇus and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Vāsudeva is described as follows: their body is of a dark-blue complexion, they wear a yellow robe made of silk, and they bear the śrīvatsa on their chest.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “black”) refers to one of the five types of Varṇa (color) and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the colour attributes to the body are called colour body-making karma (kṛṣṇa).

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

[Krishna in India history glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa is the name of a major historic river of Āndhradeśa (Andhra country).—The evolution of Āndhra culture through the ages in its manifold facets succoured by its rivers presents a large diversity nevertheless wiih an all pervading underlying unity. The Brahmakuṇḍi or Guṇḍlakamma unlike several other larger rivers which are tributaries, has an independent course and falls into the Bay of Bengal. It had more in common with the larger rivers (eg., Kṛṣṇa) except in its length where it resembles the minor rivers. On either side of the holy river, flourished kingdoms of the Yādavas of Addanki and of the Reḍḍis subsequently. Centres of pilgrimage, eg., Kanuparti had their heyday. The region and the river are celebrated in the records and literature of the Reḍḍis and relics of bygone glory are seen even today.

(Source): archive.org: S.V.U.Oriental Journal, Vol. XI, Jan-Dec 1968, Parts 1&2

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The Nīlamata refers to its confluence with the Sarasvatī and the Madhumatī. It is certainly the Kiśanagaṅgā river referred to under this very abbreviated form in the Rājataraṅgiṇī, VII. 586; VIII. 3401 and Haracaritacintāmaṇi, XII. 44.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Kṛṣṇa (r. 205-187 BCE) is a king from the Sātavāhana dynasty of ancient India. The Sātavāhana lineage (known as Andhra in the Purāṇas) once ruled much of the Deccan region and several of the Ajantā caves at West-Khandesh (West-Khaṇḍeśa, modern Jalgaon) were carved in the 3rd century BCE when the region was ruled by kings (eg., Kṛṣṇa) and descendants of the Sātavāhana kings. Kṛṣṇa was preceded by Simuki and succeeded by Śātakarṇi.

(Source): Shodhganga: Ajanta’s antiquity
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Krishna in Marathi glossaries]

kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—m (S) The name of the eighth incarnation of viṣṇu.

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kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—a (S) Black or dark blue; esp. the color of a surcharged cloud.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—m The god kṛṣṇa. a Black.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Krishna in Sanskrit glossaries]

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—a. [kṛṣ-nak]

1) Black, dark, dark-blue.

2) Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति (mano guṇānvai sṛjate balīyastataśca karmāṇi vilakṣaṇāni | śuklāni kṛṣṇānyatha lohitāni tebhyaḥ savarṇāḥ sṛtayo bhavanti) || Bhāg. 11.23.44.

-ṣṇaḥ 1 The black colour.

2) The black antelope; Bhāg.1.35.19.

3) A crow.

4) The (Indian) cuckoo.

5) The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bg.8.25.

6) The Kali age.

7) Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṁsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṁsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṁsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनोऽपि भविष्यति नूनं (bahiriva malinataraṃ tava kṛṣṇa mano'pi bhaviṣyati nūnaṃ) Gīt.8. His son was Pradyumna].

8) Name of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः (kutaḥ sañcoditaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛtavānsaṃhitāṃ muniḥ) Bhāg.1.4.3.

9) Name of Arjuna.

1) Aloe wood.

11) The Supreme spirit.

12) Black pepper.

13) Iron.

14) A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिलेऽर्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षेऽग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च (kṛṣṇastu keśave vyāse kokile'rjunakākayoḥ | śūdre tāmisrapakṣe'gnikalinīlaguṇeṣu ca) || Nm.

15) The marking nut (bhallātaka); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् (viraktaṃ śodhyate vastraṃ na tu kṛṣṇopasaṃhitam) Mb.12.291.1.

-ṣṇā 1 Name of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा (tejo hṛtaṃ khalu mayābhihataśca matsyaḥ sajjīkṛtena dhanuṣādhigatā ca kṛṣṇā) Bhāg.1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा (praviśya kṛṣṇāsadanaṃ mahībhujā) Ki.1.26.

2) Name of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa.

3) A kind of poisonous insect.

4) Name of several plants.

5) A grape.

6) A kind of perfume.

7) An epithet of Durgā Bhāg.4.6.7.

8) One of the 7 tongues of fire.

9) Name of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः (vilokya dūṣitāṃ kṛṣṇāṃ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇāhinā vibhuḥ) Bhāg.1.16.1.

-ṣṇī A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् (riṇakti kṛṣṇīra- ruṣāya panthām) Rv.7.71.1.

-ṣṇam 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची (śukrā kṛṣṇādajaniṣṭa śvitīcī) Rv.1.123.9.

2) Iron.

3) Antimony.

4) The black part of the eye.

5) Black pepper.

6) Lead.

7) An inauspicious act.

8) Money acquired by gambling.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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