Krishna, Kṛṣṇā, Kṛṣṇa: 71 definitions


Krishna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṛṣṇā and Kṛṣṇa can be transliterated into English as Krsna or Krishna, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Krashn.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "Dark-Complexioned Lord"

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to “śrī Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to:—The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavān; the Supreme Lord in His original transcendental form who enjoys pastimes in Vṛndāvana, Mathurā, and Dvārakā. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of krishna or krsna in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1a) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Asitoda and mount Vipula, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Vipula mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa.

1b) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa.

Jambūdvīpa is a region (or dvīpa, ‘island’) ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.

2a) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Name of a river originating from Sahya, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers. Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu.

2b) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is another name for Citrā, one of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu.

Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: The Garuda puranam

The stone, known as Krishna, is round and depressed at the back.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—(ŚRĪ KṚṢṆA). Born in the Yādava dynasty as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī, Śrī Kṛṣṇa was the ninth of the ten incarnations of Mahāviṣṇu. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus:—Brahmā -Atri—Candra—Badha—Purūravas—Āyus—Nahuṣa—-Yayāti—Yadu—Sahasrajit—Śatajit—Hehaya—Dharma—Kunti—Bhadrasena—Dhanaka—Kṛtavīrya —Kārtavīryārjuna—Jayadhvaja—Tālajaṅgha—Vītihotra—Ananta—Durjaya—Yudhājit—Śini—Satyaka—Sātyaki (Yuyudhāna)—Jaya—Kuṇi—Anamitra—Pṛśni—Citraratha—Viḍūratha—Śūra—Śinibhoja—Hṛdīka—Śūrasena—Vasudeva—Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (See full article at Story of Kṛṣṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Another name for Pāñcālī. (See under Pāñcālī.

3) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A river in South India.

4) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—Another name for Durgā. (Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 6, Verse 9).

5) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A female attendant of Skandadeva. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 22).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to “dark-complexioned” and is used to describe the Goddess (Devī), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.12. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] on seeing the mother of the universe cosmic in form, Dakṣa the lord of the subjects considered himself well rewarded. With various sorts of prayer he eulogised and bowed to the Goddess (Devī) mother of the universe, Kālikā seated on a lion, dark-complexioned (kṛṣṇa), with four arms and beautiful face, the bestower of the boon, the abode of safety, holding a blue lotus and the sword in her hands, comely with reddish eyes and with beautiful dishevelled hair”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—Twenty-three avatār of Hari; according to one version, the twentieth avatār. Went to Dvārakā, bowed to his parents and entered the palace.1 His boyhood sports—sucked Ulūkika's life, kicked Śakaṭa to pieces and uprooted two Arjuna trees; brought solace to the Gopas of Vraja by expelling the serpent Kāliya from the pool near by and protected their cattle from forest fire. In his mouth Yaśodā saw the fourteen worlds. Rescued Nanda from fear of Varuṇa's noose and recovered the Gopas imprisoned by Vyoma Asura. Shielded the Gokulam from rains by holding up Govardhana mountain as an umbrella; cut off the head of Kubera's attendant who tried to seize the Gopis engaged in Rāsakṛīḍā with Kṛṣṇa. Vanquished several daityas and their wicked kings; manifested Himself through Satyavatī and divided the Vedas into many branches;2 Lord and goal of Andhakas, Vṛṣṇis, Sātvatas, etc. Supreme Brahman.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 17; 3. 23; Chaps. 10 and 11; Matsya-purāṇa 7. 60.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 26-36.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 4. 20; VII. 15. 76-79.

1b) (davaipāyana)—Vyāsa (s.v.) of the current a munī;1 wife Araṇi and son Śuka; author of the purāṇa śāstra;2 father of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Vīdura and Pāṇḍu by the widows of Vicitravīrya and their female servant. Another wife Pīvari, by whom he got five sons and one daughter.3 Divided the Vedas into four parts: an avatār of Nārāyaṇa;4 the compiler of the mahābhārata.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 4. 3 and 32; IX. 22. 21; XII. 4. 40; 6. 35; Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 10; 23. 226; 70. 54; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 19.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 92; IV. 4. 50.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 50. 46; 185. 30; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 241; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 38; VI. 2. 32.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 4. 3-10.

1c) A son of Havirdhāna and Havirdhānī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 24. 8; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 37. 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 63. 23; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 14. 2.

1d) A brother of the Andhra servant Balin (Balipuccaka, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) who killed his master Kāṇva Suśarman and usurped the throne. After him, his brother Kṛṣṇa became king. His son was Śrī Śāntakarṇa,1 who ruled for 18 years.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 23; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 162; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 44-5.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 273. 3.

1e) A name of Arjuna.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII, 11. 25.

1f) A name of Brahmā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 34. 7.

1g) A pupil of Sumantu of Atharva Veda fame.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 56.

1h) A son of Dullola.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 443.

1i) A son of Śuka and Pīvarī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 93; 10. 81; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 10. Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 85; 73, 30, 62.

1j) An Andhaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 143; Matsya-purāṇa 44. 84.

1k) The asura of second tala, the Sutala.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 21.

1l) An adopted son of Asamaujasa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1m) A name of Vyāsa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 38. 52.

1n) (Mt.) a kulaparvata of the Ketumāla; residence of Gandharvas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 38. 49; 39. 59; 42. 52; 44. 4.

1o) A mountain to the west of the Śitoda lake.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 28; 38. 49.

1p) A hell; illegal intercourse, tresspass on others’ lands and living on magic are offences leading to this hell.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 3 and 25.

1q) A class of gods; a Parāśara clan.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 95; 10. 109; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 87.

1r) The Śūdra caste of Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 30.

2a) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—A name of Draupadī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 14.

2b) A name of Yogamāyā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12.

2c) A name of Yamunā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 32. 12.

2d) A daughter of Khaśa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 170.

2e) A R. of the Sahya hills of the Dakṣiṇāpatha.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 104.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.221.15, I.221) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kṛṣṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kṛṣṇa is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.8, II.47.19, III.48.38, IX.44.52, IX.44.92, XIV.8.23, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Kṛṣṇā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.21).

Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society: The Harivaṃśa, the Goddess Ekānaṃśā

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—The Harivaṃśa depicts Kṛṣṇa as the manifestation of Viṣṇu, and his elder brother Saṃkarṣaṇa, as the manifestation of the serpent Śeṣa. On the basis of these tow figures alone, however, the events which took place in the cowherd settlement (vraja, ghoṣa) of Mathurā and in the fabled city of Dvāravatī remain inexplicable.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the five sons of Śuka: the son of Kṛṣṇa-Dvaipāyana, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Nārada gave a daughter to Vasiṣṭha. She was Arundhati and Śakti was born to her. Śakti begot Parāśara and from Parāśara was born Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana. Śuka was born to Dvaipāyana and Śuka had five sons—Bhūriśravā, Prabhu, Śaṃbhu, Kṛṣṇa and Gaura and a daughter—Kīrtimati.

2) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) also refers to the son of Vasudeva, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, [...] The Son of Yadu was Kroṣṭā in whose race the most glorious kings were born. The text only names them as [viz., Vasudeva]. Ugrasena’s daughter was Devakī who married Vasudeva and from them Viṣṇu by the curse of Bhṛgu was born as Kṛṣṇa. From Vasudeva’s other wife Rohiṇī was born Saṃkarṣaṇa. Kṛṣṇa had sixteen thousand wives from whom innumerable sons like Pradyumna and others were born.

Though Kṛṣṇa was paramātma, sanātana, māyāvi, viśvabhuk etc. still he is said to have worshipped Śiva in liṅga and received different boons from Lord Śiva. Therefore there is no great Maheśvara other than Kṛṣṇa. If somebody worships Kṛṣṇa Lord Śiva becomes well worshipped.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Kṛṣṇa: Mṛga-śīrṣa hands facing one another on the shoulders.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or “black (colour)” is associated with Bhayānaka or the “terrible sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa bhayānaka is the sentiment of fear which arises from the commitment of a self committing offence. Bhaya i.e., fear is the sthāyibhāva of bhayānakarasa. Kṛṣṇa i.e black is the colour and Kāladeva is the God of this sentiment.

2) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇāvatāra refers to one of the Daśāvatāra (“ten incarnations”) (of Lord Viṣṇu) to which are assign various hand gestures (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—In the Hindu scriptures, different stories are found, related to lord Viṣṇu, where we find the magnanimity of different incarnations of lord Viṣṇu. Moreover, a great influence of these ten incarnations of lord Viṣṇu (e.g., Kṛṣṇa-avatāra) seems to fall in the field of Dance also.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Vahni, the third seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Kṛṣṇā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—Sanskrit name of one of the twenty-four goddesses of the Sūryamaṇḍala (first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth cakra (‘internal mystic center’) of the five (pañcacakra) and is located on or above the head. She presides over the pītha (‘sacred site’) called Caritrā. She is also known as Kṛṣṇāsyā (according to Kubjikāmata-tantra) or Siddhidā or Susiddhā (according to Śrīmatottara-tantra).

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) refers to the city of Nirṛti, situated on the south-western lower slope of mount Meru, according to Parākhyatantra 5.66. Meru is the name of a golden mountained situated in the middle of nine landmasses (navakhaṇḍa): Bhārata, Hari, Kimpuruṣa, Ramyaka, Ramaṇa, Kuru, Bhadrāśva, Ketumāla and Ilāvṛta. Together these khaṇḍas make up the continent known as Jambūdvīpa.

Kṛṣṇā is also known by the name Asita, Asitavatī, Rakṣovatī, Kṛṣṇāṅgārā or Kṛṣṇavatī and is mentioned in various other sources, eg., the Svacchanda-tantra 10.132-136, Kiraṇa-āgama 8.51-54, Mṛgendra-āgama vidyāpāda 13.47-54, Sarvajñānottara-tantra adhvaprakaraṇa 34-36 and Mataṅga-āgama vidyāpāda 23.60-63

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is the name of a Goddess (Devī) presiding over Caritrā: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra. Her weapon is the śakti. Furthermore, Kṛṣṇā is accompanied by the Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) named Mahābala and their abode is the karañja-tree.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to “black” and is used to describe the southern face of Sadāśiva, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.19cd-26, while instructing to visualize Sadāśiva in order to worship the formless Amṛteśa]—“[He] resembles the swelling moon, a heap of mountain snow. [...] [Sadāśiva has] a shield, a mirror, a bow, a citron tree, and a water jar. At his head is a half moon. [He who meditates of Sadāśiva] should perceive the Eastern face as yellow; the Southern a wrathful, terrible black (kṛṣṇakṛṣṇabhīmograṃ) [that has] an unnatural, tusked mouth. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “Dark One”):—Another name for Viṣṇu, as in, one of the male offspring from Mahāsarasvatī (sattva-form of Mahādevī). Mahāsarasvatī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahākālī. Not to be confused with Sarasvatī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named sattva. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Jālandhara (which is in the southern quarter), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Ali, Cīvara, Raktākṣa, Kṛṣṇa, Pakṣa, Khāṭaka, Somāda, Dhūmaka.

2) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) also refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Tisrapīṭha (located in the ‘end of sound’—nādānta).—[...] The eight Servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Caṇḍākṣa, Lampaṭa, Kṛṣṇa, Vikṛta, Bhāsurānana, Kapila, Kālaka, Bhramara.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to the color “black”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I worship the three-eyed sharp-natured Kṣetreśa. His body is black (kṛṣṇa-vigraha), he has destroyed his adversaries, he carries a skull-bowl and a spear, [but] he is compassionate. I resort to Śaṅkhanidhi and Padmanidhi, who who sit upon a conch and lotus [respectively] as their seats. They are patient, bear the gestures of generosity and protection in their hands, and bring about everyone’s dreams. [...]

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “black, dark”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. The meaning of this title is “He who is exceedingly delighted with his own Lila”. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Buddhi.

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.337-340.—Accordingly, “Kṛṣṇa who is dark like the blue lotus, is to be meditated upon. He has the hand raised, wears matted hair, stands on one foot  bringing air, devoted to very severe austerities for one directing (others) to observe three, six, twelve days, fasts for a fortnight, a month. Those persons are directed to wear the hide of the black deer as upper cloth (covering upper part of the body), all wearing the brown red cloth, all wearing the marks of Brahman, all devoted to Brahman, busy (or doing) with the main acts, good men, and all devoted to everything according to the time”.

These Vibhavas (e.g., Kṛṣṇa) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in. Note: Kṛṣṇa is represented here more as a guide and instructor of people than as a child in Gokula.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is another name for Rājasarṣapa, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Brassica nigra (black mustard), from the Brassicaceae family. Certain plant parts of Rājasarṣapa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 16.121), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is an important river whose water (jala) qualities are described in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of water (jala) and their properties are mentioned here [viz., in jala-prakaraṇa]. The text explains the qualities of the water of certain important rivers like [viz., Kṛṣṇā].

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is another name for Nīlī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (“true indigo”), according to verse 4.80-83 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kṛṣṇā and Nīlī, there are a total of thirty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Nīlapunarnavā, a medicinal plant identified with Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. or “desert horsepurslane” from the Aizoaceae or “fig-marigold” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.115-122. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Kṛṣṇā and Nīlapunarnavā, there are a total of seven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

3) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is another name for Pippalī, a medicinal plant identified with Piper longum Linn. or “Indian long pepper” from the Piperaceae or ‘pepper’ family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.11-13. The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Kṛṣṇā and Pippalī, there are a total of nineteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

4) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is another name for Marica, a medicinal plant identified with Piper nigrum Linn. or “black pepper” from the Piperaceae or “pepper” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.30-32. Together with the names Kṛṣṇa and Marica, there are a total of seventeen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) (or Pippalī, Kaṇā) (one of the tryuṣaṇa) refers to the medicinal plant Piper longum L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Kṛṣṇā] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—Black colour

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) (lit. “one who is black”) is a synonym (another name) for the [Female] Owl (Ulūka), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇamaṇḍalī refers to one of the sixteen varieties of Maṇḍalī snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa sources his antidotes from a multitude plants, a few minerals, salts and animal products available in nature. All these plants fall under various groups called gaṇas, as pronounced by the Ayurvedic Nigaṇṭus.

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) refers to “black Tulasī” [?], and is used in the treatment of Rājilā-snake-bites, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā.—The tenth Adhyāya prescribes antidotes for Rājilā snake venom.—According to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā verse X.6: “An effusion of powdered black Tulasī (kṛṣṇā-khaṇḍa), milk and ghee with honey must be given as a drink. A drink of cow’s milk latex of Agastyapuṣpa, Vandāka, root of Śvetapuṅkhī and Tulasī also is effective”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Kṛṣṇa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is held with both hands.

The illustrations (of, for example Kṛṣṇa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Kṛṣṇa is round with elevation on back-portion (unnata-pṛṣṭhaka); four openings; two cakras in the middle; four lines on the sides. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Kṛṣṇa stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. For depicting Kṛṣṇa in dance, the hands assume mṛgaśirṣa-hastas that are placed near the face or on the shoulders in tribhaṅga posture. Kṛṣṇa is found with two hands holding the flute near his mouth as if playing on the flute in images. Hence, the postures of Kṛṣṇa are the same in iconography and Bharatanatyam.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or “black” refers to one of the five primary colours in the ancient Indian tradition of Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, colours have been classified in two categories (viz., primary/natural and mixed/artificial). Five colours are regarded as the primary ones, (viz., Kṛṣṇa or “black”). A painter can create hundreds or thousands of colours by amalgamating the primary ones.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇalauha is the name of a Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 17, Medas: obesity). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). However, since it is an ayurveda treatment it should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (e.g., kṛṣṇa-lauha): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Śrīkṛṣṇa figures as a male character in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Like the Mahābhārata, the Bhīṣmacarita also upholds the fact that the controller of the world, the God of gods and the Master of the entire Universe Lord Nārāyaṇa had descended upon the earth as Śrī Kṛṣṇa. When Kauravas especially Duryodhana had strong sense of jealous for Pāṇḍavas, he planned to burn them in wax palace by trick, but it went in vain. Later Pāṇḍavas stayed incognito for a year and Arjuna won Draupadī, the daughter of King Drupada in Svayaṃvara and she became common wife of all the Pāṇḍavas. On knowing this fact, Śrī Kṛṣṇa strongly emphasised Dhṛtarāṣṭra and others like Bhīṣma Pitāmaha, Vidura etc. to invite them back to Hastināpura and to return them their due share in the kingdom. [...]

Śrī Kṛṣṇa is portrayed as very kind, compassionate and the omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent.—When grandfather Bhīṣma was pierced by the arrows of Arjuna, was laid on the bed of arrows and was waiting for the Sun to move towards the northern hemisphere, in order to give up his mortal frame of his will, Lord Kṛṣṇa removed all his pain. When the war came to an end and Yudhiṣṭhira has been coronated, Śrī Kṛṣṇa along with the Pāṇḍavas went to meet Bhīṣma Pitāmaha. Understanding the wisdom of grandfather Bhīṣma, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa requested him to exhort the knowledge to the Pāṇḍavas.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to the “black” type of solar spots (ketus), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] A single spot will bring on famine; if two or more spots should appear, the reigning prince will die; if they should appear white, red, yellow or black [i.e., kṛṣṇa] then the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas or the Śūdras will suffer respectively. Only those parts of the earth will suffer in the corresponding parts of which on the solar disc the spots happen to appear”.

Black Ketus according to Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11):—“The Ketus or comets whose tails are bent and which are of sharp rays and black [i.e., kṛṣṇarūkṣāḥ kṛṣṇāśca] are the sons of Yama ; they are 25 in number; they appear in the south; when they appear there will be deaths in the land. The Ketus or comets that appear like a mirror, are round in shape without tails but with rays and looking like oil or water are the sons of the Earth; they are 23 in number, and appear in the north-east; when they appear mankind will be afflicted with fear and hunger”.

2) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇapakṣa refers to the “waning period” (of the moon), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “During the waxing moon, the Brāhmins, the Kṣatriyas and mankind at large will prosper; and during the waning moon [i.e., kṛṣṇapakṣapakṣe ... kṛṣṇe], they will suffer miseries. The increase of prosperity will commence after the new-moon and of adversity after the full moon”.

3) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to a country belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Kṛṣṇa] [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to an incarnation, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: [...] For the welfare of the world, there [manifested the incarnations of] the Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-Lion, One who had a Short Stature, Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalkin. I bow to Govinda, the god of gods, who in this manner assumed diverse forms, diverse shapes and diverse names, and who is meditated upon by sage”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Krishna in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to “black-colored”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] Her feet were never bereft of cloths [dyed with] red lac thrown upon the mound of her seat [on the altar] as if they were the lives of all creatures arrived there for shelter; she resembled an inhabitant of the Underworld because of the intense darkness obstructed [only] by the flashes from axes, spears, etc., weapons deadly for beings, that seemed to hold nets of hair stuck from decapitations because of the reflections of black yak-tail whisks (kṛṣṇa-cāmara) cast [upon their surfaces]; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the dvāparayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva). The word Kṛṣṇa is primarily an adjective meaning “black” or “dark” or “all attractive”.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Krishna is also an incarnation of Vishnu. He was born as the son of king Vasudeva, but was brought up by Nanda who was the cheiftain of cowherds. He killed his uncle Kamsa, who had unleashed a cruel reign of terror.

He also plays a major role in the Mahabharata, where he is one of the prime movers. His friendship with Arjuna was legendary, and he was the charioteer for Arjuna in the climatic battle at Kurukshetra.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1. (Avatar of Viṣnu)—Krishna was the eighth son of Devaki and Vasudev. Krishna is the most commonly worshiped deity in Hinduism and an avatar in Vaishnava belief. He appeared in the Dwapara Yuga alongside his brother Balarama.

2. Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is “Adi Purusa, Acyuta”, the Original Personality of Godhead, The Supreme Lord and from Him all other incarnations take place. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead as mentioned in Bhagavad Gita which is the essence of all Vedic Scriptures. Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita.

Puranic sources mention Krishna's disappearance marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga (present age), which is dated to February 17/18, 3102 BCE. Worship of the deity Krishna, either in the form of Vasudeva, Bala Krishna or Gopala can be traced to as early as 4th century BC.

Source: Shodhganga: Historical setting of the vaisnava divyaksetras in the southern pandya country

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—The Kṛṣṇāvatāra events are told and retold in Indian mythology since the time of the Harivaṃśapurāṇa appearing in the Mahābhārata. Better and elaborate versions appear in the Viṣṇu-purāṇa and Bhāgavata-purāṇa. The events under this head are multifarious as it happens so in the case of Rāma.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to one of the various Ṛṣis (sages) and Mahārṣis (great sages) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kṛṣṇa).

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) refers to one the twenty-four Horā (astronomical) Goddess to be invoked during pūjā (ritual offering) in Tantric Buddhism, according to the 9th-century Vajraḍākatantra chapter 18.61-74. [...] A Yogin, putting a vessel in the left side of him, offers various things together with raw flesh, fish, immortal nectar (pañcāmṛta). Then the Yogin invites Goddesses to please them with nectar—five Ḍākinīs and twenty-four Goddesses [viz., Kṛṣṇā] come to the Yogin’s place, forming a maṇḍala.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to “dark blue”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Beginning with the East, dark blue (kṛṣṇa), dark green, red and yelow, Kākāsyā, Ulūkāsyā, Śvānāsyā, Śūkarāsyā, Yamadāhī, Yamadūtī, Yamadaṃṣṭrī, Yamamathanī, vajra-arise, vajra-bind Hūṃ!”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) refers to the last of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 9). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., daśalokapāla and Kṛṣṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Kṛṣṇa is, besides one of the “ten world protectors” (daśalokapāla) and one of the “fourteen world protectors” (caturdaśalokapāla).

Source: The Chronological History of Buddhism

1) Arya Krishna I (1425-1350 BCE).—According to Chinese tradition, Krishna I was the third Sarvastivadin after Katyayana and Vasumitra I. He lived before Parshva, the senior contemporary of Ashvaghosa I.

2) Krishna II (1190-1110 BCE) Taranatha mentions that Krishna II was the teacher of Rahula Bhadra. Nagarjuna II studies at Nalanda during the time of Rahula Bhadra.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) is the name of the ninth Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The parents of as Kṛṣṇa are known as king Vāsudeva and queen Devakī whose stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

The nine Vāsudevas (such as Kṛṣṇa ) are also known as Nārāyaṇas or Viṣṇus and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Vāsudeva is described as follows: their body is of a dark-blue complexion, they wear a yellow robe made of silk, and they bear the śrīvatsa on their chest.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण), the son of Devakī and Vasudeva, is one of the nine black Vāsudevas, according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine black Vāsudevas, enjoyers of three parts of the earth, with half so much power as the Cakrins. [...] Kṛṣṇa, son of Devakī and Vasudeva, in Mathurā, follower of Neminātha, ten bows tall, will live for one thousand years and then will go to the third hell”.

2) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Kṛṣṇā). On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are 4 Ratikara Mountains, having a length and width of 10,000 yojanas, and a height of 1,000 yojanas, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a jhallarī. [...] In them (i.e., the 32 Ratikara Mountains, e.g., Kṛṣṇā) the gods with all their splendor together with their retinues make eight-day festivals in the shrines on the holy days of the holy Arhats”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण, “black”) refers to one of the five types of Varṇa (color) and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the colour attributes to the body are called colour body-making karma (kṛṣṇa).

Source: University of Cambridge: Jainism

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) or Kṛṣṇagaccha is the name of a Śvetāmbara monastic order.—The copyist of the Kṣetrasamāsavṛtti (or Laghukṣetrasamāsavṛtti?) is Kamalacandragaṇi, pupil of Jayaśekhara, from the Kṛṣṇarṣigaccha. This Śvetāmbara monastic order, also known as Kṛṣṇa-gaccha or Kṛṣṇarājarṣigaccha, is a branch of the wider Tapāgaccha. Evidence from inscriptions and manuscript colophons shows that it was active, in particular in Rajasthan, during the 14th-15th centuries.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: S.V.U.Oriental Journal, Vol. XI, Jan-Dec 1968, Parts 1&2

Kṛṣṇa is the name of a major historic river of Āndhradeśa (Andhra country).—The evolution of Āndhra culture through the ages in its manifold facets succoured by its rivers presents a large diversity nevertheless wiih an all pervading underlying unity. The Brahmakuṇḍi or Guṇḍlakamma unlike several other larger rivers which are tributaries, has an independent course and falls into the Bay of Bengal. It had more in common with the larger rivers (e.g., Kṛṣṇa) except in its length where it resembles the minor rivers. On either side of the holy river, flourished kingdoms of the Yādavas of Addanki and of the Reḍḍis subsequently. Centres of pilgrimage, eg., Kanuparti had their heyday. The region and the river are celebrated in the records and literature of the Reḍḍis and relics of bygone glory are seen even today.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The Nīlamata refers to its confluence with the Sarasvatī and the Madhumatī. It is certainly the Kiśanagaṅgā river referred to under this very abbreviated form in the Rājataraṅgiṇī, VII. 586; VIII. 3401 and Haracaritacintāmaṇi, XII. 44.

Source: Shodhganga: Ajanta’s antiquity

Kṛṣṇa (r. 205-187 BCE) is a king from the Sātavāhana dynasty of ancient India. The Sātavāhana lineage (known as Andhra in the Purāṇas) once ruled much of the Deccan region and several of the Ajantā caves at West-Khandesh (West-Khaṇḍeśa, modern Jalgaon) were carved in the 3rd century BCE when the region was ruled by kings (e.g., Kṛṣṇa) and descendants of the Sātavāhana kings. Kṛṣṇa was preceded by Simuki and succeeded by Śātakarṇi.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (history)

1) Krishna I (AD 756-773) is the name of a king from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty (AD 753).—The Rashtrakuta King Krishna I was responsible for the famous Kailasa Temple at Ellora.

2) Krishna III (AD 940-967), conqueror of Kanchi and Tanjavur, added a good part of the northern portion of the Chola kingdom to his territory. Twenty-five years of Rashtrakuta rule in the northern part of the Chola dominion produced sculptures showing a mingled grace of Chalukya, Rashtrakuta, and Chola elements in this area.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Krishna in India is the name of a plant defined with Aquilaria agallocha in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Aloexylum agallochum Lour. (among others).

2) Krishna is also identified with Carum carvi It has the synonym Carum carvi f. rubriflorum H. Wolff (etc.).

3) Krishna is also identified with Eleusine coracana It has the synonym Cynosurus coracanus L. (etc.).

4) Krishna is also identified with Ichnocarpus frutescens It has the synonym Thyrsanthus parviflorus Miers (etc.).

5) Krishna is also identified with Lepidium sativum It has the synonym Crucifera nasturtium E.H.L. Krause (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Graminum (1828)
· Journal of Botany (1923)
· Atti dell’Istituto Botanico dell’Università di Pavia (1944)
· Handbuch des Getreidebaus (1885)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Ceylon J. Sci., Biol. Sci. (1956)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Krishna, for example chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—m (S) The name of the eighth incarnation of viṣṇu.

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kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—a (S) Black or dark blue; esp. the color of a surcharged cloud.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—m The god kṛṣṇa. a Black.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—a. [kṛṣ-nak]

1) Black, dark, dark-blue.

2) Wicked, evil; मनो गुणान्वै सृजते बलीयस्ततश्च कर्माणि विलक्षणानि । शुक्लानि कृष्णान्यथ लोहितानि तेभ्यः सवर्णाः सृतयो भवन्ति (mano guṇānvai sṛjate balīyastataśca karmāṇi vilakṣaṇāni | śuklāni kṛṣṇānyatha lohitāni tebhyaḥ savarṇāḥ sṛtayo bhavanti) || Bhāg. 11.23.44.

-ṣṇaḥ 1 The black colour.

2) The black antelope; Bhāgavata 1.35.19.

3) A crow.

4) The (Indian) cuckoo.

5) The dark half of a lunar month (from full to new moon); Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 8.25.

6) The Kali age.

7) Viṣṇu in his eighth incarnation, born as the son of Vasudeva and Devakī. [Kṛṣna is the most celebrated hero of Indian mythology and the most popular of all the deities. Though the real son of Vasudeva and Devakī and thus a cousin of Kaṃsa, he was, for all practical purposes, the son of Nanda and Yaśodā, by whom he was brought up and in whose house he spent his childhood. It was here that his divine character began to be gradually discovered, when he easily crushed the most redoubtable demons, such as Baka, Pūtanā &c., that were sent to kill him by Kaṃsa, and performed many other feats of surprising strength. The chief companions of his youth were the Gopis or wives of the cowherds of Gokula, among whom Rādhā was his special favourite (cf. Jayadeva's Gitagovinda). He killed Kaṃsa, Naraka, Keśin, Ariṣṭa and a host of other powerful demons. He was a particular friend of Arjuna, to whom he acted as charioteer in the great war, and his staunch support of the cause of the Pāṇḍavas was the main cause of the overthrow of the Kauravas. On several critical occasions, it was Kṛṣṇa's assistance and inventive mind that stood the Pāṇḍavas in good stead. After the general destruction of the Yādavas at Prabhāsa, he was killed unintentionally by a hunter named Jaras who shot him with an arrow mistaking him at a distance for a deer. He had more than 16 wives, but Rukmiṇi and Satyabhāmā, (as also Rādhā) were his favourites. He is said to have been of dark-blue or cloud-like colour; cf. बहिरिव मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनोऽपि भविष्यति नूनं (bahiriva malinataraṃ tava kṛṣṇa mano'pi bhaviṣyati nūnaṃ) Gītagovinda 8. His son was Pradyumna].

8) Name of Vyāsa, the reputed author of the Mahābhārata; कुतः सञ्चोदितः कृष्णः कृतवान्संहितां मुनिः (kutaḥ sañcoditaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛtavānsaṃhitāṃ muniḥ) Bhāgavata 1.4.3.

9) Name of Arjuna.

1) Aloe wood.

11) The Supreme spirit.

12) Black pepper.

13) Iron.

14) A Śūdra; कृष्णस्तु केशवे व्यासे कोकिलेऽर्जुनकाकयोः । शूद्रे तामिस्रपक्षेऽग्निकलिनीलगुणेषु च (kṛṣṇastu keśave vyāse kokile'rjunakākayoḥ | śūdre tāmisrapakṣe'gnikalinīlaguṇeṣu ca) || Nm.

15) The marking nut (bhallātaka); विरक्तं शोध्यते वस्त्रं न तु कृष्णोपसंहितम् (viraktaṃ śodhyate vastraṃ na tu kṛṣṇopasaṃhitam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.291.1.

-ṣṇā 1 Name of Draupadī, wife of the Pāṇḍavas; तेजो हृतं खलु मयाभिहतश्च मत्स्यः सज्जीकृतेन धनुषाधिगता च कृष्णा (tejo hṛtaṃ khalu mayābhihataśca matsyaḥ sajjīkṛtena dhanuṣādhigatā ca kṛṣṇā) Bhāgavata 1.15.7; प्रविश्य कृष्णासदनं महीभुजा (praviśya kṛṣṇāsadanaṃ mahībhujā) Kirātārjunīya 1.26.

2) Name of a river in the Deccan that joins the sea at Machhalipaṭṭaṇa.

3) A kind of poisonous insect.

4) Name of several plants.

5) A grape.

6) A kind of perfume.

7) An epithet of Durgā Bhāgavata 4.6.7.

8) One of the 7 tongues of fire.

9) Name of the river Yamunā; विलोक्य दूषितां कृष्णां कृष्णः कृष्णाहिना विभुः (vilokya dūṣitāṃ kṛṣṇāṃ kṛṣṇaḥ kṛṣṇāhinā vibhuḥ) Bhāgavata 1.16.1.

-ṣṇī A dark night; रिणक्ति कृष्णीर- रुषाय पन्थाम् (riṇakti kṛṣṇīra- ruṣāya panthām) Ṛgveda 7.71.1.

-ṣṇam 1 Blackness, darkness (moral also); शुक्रा कृष्णादजनिष्ट श्वितीची (śukrā kṛṣṇādajaniṣṭa śvitīcī) Ṛgveda 1.123.9.

2) Iron.

3) Antimony.

4) The black part of the eye.

5) Black pepper.

6) Lead.

7) An inauspicious act.

8) Money acquired by gambling.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—adj. and m. n. pr. (proper name) (mgs. 1—3 = Pali kaṇha), (1) evil, wicked (in this moral sense app. only Lex. and Gr. in Sanskrit): Udānavarga xvi.14 kṛṣṇāṃ dharmāṃ (acc. pl.) vipra- hāya (= Pali Dhammapada (Pali) 87 kaṇhaṃ dhammaṃ vippahāya); ? kṛṣṇā Divyāvadāna 562.23, see visāriṇī; (ekānta-)kṛṣṇānāṃ karmaṇām ekānta-kṛṣṇo vipākaḥ (similarly Pali) Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.48.3 etc.; (2) as n. or epithet of Māra, the evil one: Mahāvastu ii.320.5; 407.16; more commonly Māra is called kṛṣṇaban- dhu (app. not recorded in Pali), Mahāvyutpatti 7385; Lalitavistara 262.20; 301.3; 303.2; 341.10; 342.6; Mahāvastu ii.238.16; 294.15; 327.1; 335.23; (3) name of a king, previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and hero of a Jātaka (Pali Jātaka (Pali) 440, Kaṇha-J): Lalitavistara 170.16 (verse), where all mss. kṛṣṇabandhu, contrary to meter and sense; Tibetan nag po = kṛṣṇa, with no equivalent for ban- dhu; so read; (4) name of a nāga-king: Kṛṣṇa-gautamakau nāgarājau Divyāvadāna 50.17, 29; °gautamau 50.22; °gautama- kayor nāgarājayor 51.5. App. a secondary interpretation of Kṛṣṇa-gotamaka (or °gaut°), q.v., = Pali Kaṇhā- gotamaka (°kaṃ ahirājakulaṃ Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) ii.72.23; °kehi Jātaka (Pali) ii.145.20), name of a (single) nāga family. But see also s.v. kṛṣṇaka, 2.

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Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा).—(?) , possibly n. pr. (proper name) (of a devakumārikā), see s.v. Draupadī: Lalitavistara 390.6; Mahāvastu iii.308.9; also short form for next, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—mfn.

(-ṣṇaḥ-ṣṇā-ṣṇaṃ) Black or dark blue. m.

(-ṣṇaḥ) 1. Black, the colour, or dark blue, which is often confounded with it by the Hindus. 2. Krishna, the most celebrated form of Vishnu, or rather Vishnu himself; he is distinct from the ten Avatars or incarnations, being identified with the deity. 3. Vyasa, a sage, the compiler of the Vedas. 4. A name of Arjuna. 5. The Kokila or Indian cuckoo 6. A crow. 7. A fruit, Karonda or Karinda, (Carissa carondas.) 8. The dark half of the lunar month from full to new moon. n.

(-ṣṇaṃ) 1. Black pepper. 2. Iron. 3. Blue vitriol. 4. Black agallochum. f.

(-ṣṇā) 1. name of Draupadi wife of the Pandavas. 2. The indigo plant 3. Long pepper. 4. A grape. 5. A drug, commonly Kakoli. 6. Kalonji, (Nigella Indica:) see kṛṣṇajīraka. 7. Black mustard, (the name is applied to other vegetable substances of a dark colour.) 8. The Krishna river in the Deccan. 9. A black leech, considered poisonous. E. kṛṣ to attract. as the minds of men, &c nak Unadi affix; (this is applied to Krishna, &c.) else, kṛṣ to tinge, affix the same; again kṛṣṇa black, &c. and ac affix, fem. affix ṭāpa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—i. e. kṛṣ + na (the origin of the signification is dubious). I. adj., f. ṇā. 1. Black, or dark blue, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 5. 2. With or without pakṣa, m. The dark half of a month, from the full moon to that of the new moon, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 66; 6, 20. Ii. m. 1. Kṛṣṇa, The most celebrated incarnation of Viṣṇu, Mahābhārata 14, 1589. 2. The black antelope, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 10, 20. Iii. f. ṇā. 1. A name of Durgā, Mahābhārata 4, 184. 2. The name of several plants, [Suśruta] 1, 162, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण).—[adjective] black, dark. —[masculine] (±pakṣa) the dark half month, the black antelope (mostly kṛṣṇa); [Name] of an ancient hero and teacher, later as the god Kṛṣṇa identified with Viṣṇu; [dual] kṛṣṇau = Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. [feminine] kṛṣṇā [adjective] black kind of leech. [Name] of [several] plants, [Epithet] of Durgā and Draupadī; [feminine] kṛṣṇī night. [neuter] blackness, darkness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Jayakṛṣṇa, Bālakṛṣṇa, Rāmakṛṣṇa, Śeṣakṛṣṇa, Śrīkṛṣṇa.

2) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—king, brother of Mahādeva, patron of Amalānanda (Vedāntakalpataru). Hall. p. 87.

3) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—one of the teachers of Govinda (Mahāvrataṭīkā). W. p. 28.

4) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—guru of Śrīnivāsadāsa (Yatīndramatadīpikā). L. 2054.

5) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Rāṇiga, brother of Jayāditya and Keśavārka (Kṛṣṇakrīḍita, etc.). Oxf. 349^b.

6) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Dāmodara, brother of Lakṣmīdhara and Śārṅgadhara (Paddhati). Oxf. 122^b.

7) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Nṛhari, father of Ānandavana (Rāmottaratāpanīyabhāṣya). W. p. 87.

8) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—father of Madana (Kalyāṇapraśasti). Oxf. 127^b.

9) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Nṛhari, father of Rāmacandra (Prakriyākaumudī).

10) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—father of Lakṣmaṇa (Śāradātilaka). Oxf. 104^a.

11) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Ananta, father of Ananta Agnihotrin, grandfather of Nārāyaṇa (Muhūrtamārtaṇḍa 1562). W. p. 263. L. 1737.

12) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—poet. Śp. p. 17. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] (Paṇḍita Kṛṣṇaka). See Āvantyakṛṣṇa.

13) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Kārtavīryacarita. NW. 442. Nandīcarita. NW. 442. Pañcapādikāvivaraṇaṭīkā, vedānta. Np. Iii, 122. Pañcasvarāṭīkā jy. NW. 568. Np. I, 164. Bṛhatpārāśarīṭīkā jy. NW. 582. Prajāpaticarita. NW. 478. Lagnoddyota jy. NW. 574. Līlāvatīṭīkā mathem. NW. 518. Np. Ii, 74. Ix, 52.

Kṛṣṇa has the following synonyms: Śrīkṛṣṇa.

14) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—a king in the South: Guṇāmbhonidhi or Smṛtimahārṇava [dharma] Bik. 394.

15) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Nalodayaṭīkā. Burnell. 159^a.

16) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Pakṣijyotiṣa. Oppert. Ii, 945.

17) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Bhagavadgītāṭīkā. NW. 500. Compare Bhāvaprakāśa.

18) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—One of the compilers of the Vivādārṇavabhaṅga. Peters. 2, 53.

19) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Vyutpattivādaṭīkā [nyāya] NW. 358.

20) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Śuddhivivekaṭīkā. NW. 152. See Kṛṣṇa Vipra.

21) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Sāṃkhyakārikāvyākhyā. NW. 390. Sāṃkhyasūtraprakṣepikā. NW. 390. Sāṃkhyasūtravivaraṇa. NW. 388.

22) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Sāhityataraṅgiṇī alaṃk. Kāvyamālā.

23) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Tirumalācārya: Bhāvaprakāśa, a
—[commentary] on Jayatīrtha’s Prameyadīpikā. Burnell. 103^a.

24) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Nṛsiṃha or Narasiṃha, end of the 16th century: Uṣāpariṇayacampū. Oppert. 32. Ii, 3604. Kaṃsavadhanāṭaka. Kriyāgopana kāvya. Oppert. 4540. Pārijātaharaṇacampū, written by desire of king Narottama. Murārivijayanāṭaka. Peters. 3, 21^a. 337. Satyabhāmāpariṇayanāṭaka. Satyabhāmāvilāsanāṭaka.

Kṛṣṇa has the following synonyms: Śeṣakṛṣṇa.

25) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Puruṣottama, grandson of Raghunātha: Laghupaddhati [dharma] K. 192. Bik. 409. 410.

26) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Yudiṣṭhira, composed in 1645: Laghubodha, an elementary grammar. W. p. 220.

27) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Bṛhatpārāśarīṭīkā. read NW. 552.

28) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Nalodayaṭīkā. read Nalodaya.

29) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—king, praised by Vopadeva in his
—[commentary] to Mahimnaḥstava. Fl. 86.

30) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—king, son of Jaitradeva, patron of Amalānanda (Vedāntakalpataru).

31) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—father of Megha Bhaṭṭa (Vaidyavallabhaṭīkā).

32) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Puruṣottama: Laghudīpikā or Karmatattvapradīpikā.

33) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—Jñeyārthasāra vedānta.

34) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—C. on Cakradhara's Yantracintāmaṇi.

35) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—son of Raghunātha: Candrakalāvilāsa or Kriyāgopanarāmāyaṇa and C.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—1. kṛṣṇa mf(ā)n. black, dark, dark-blue (opposed to śveta, śukla, rohita, and aruṇa), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.

2) wicked, evil, [Vopadeva vii, 82]

3) m. (with or without pakṣa) the dark half of the lunar month from full to new moon, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Bhagavad-gītā; Suśruta]

4) the fourth or Kali-yuga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) black (the colour) or dark-blue (which is often confounded with black by the Hindūs), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) the antelope, [Ṛg-veda x, 94, 5; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) a kind of animal feeding on carrion, [Atharva-veda xi, 2, 2] (kṛṣṇa)

8) the Indian cuckoo or Kokila (cf. [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 52, 2]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Carissa Carandas, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Name of one of the poets of the [Ṛg-veda] (descended from Aṅgiras), [Ṛg-veda viii, 85, 3 and 4; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa xxx, 9]

12) (a son of Devakī and pupil of Ghora Āṅgirasa), [Chāndogya-upaniṣad iii, 17, 6]

13) Name of a celebrated Avatār of the god Viṣṇu, or sometimes identified with Viṣṇu himself ([Mahābhārata v, 2563; xiv, 1589 ff.; Harivaṃśa 2359 etc.]) as distinct from his ten Avatārs or incarnations (in the earlier legends he appears as a great hero and teacher [Mahābhārata; Bhagavad-gītā]; in the more recent he is deified, and is often represented as a young and amorous shepherd with flowing hair and a flute in his hand; the following are a few particulars of his birth and history as related in [Harivaṃśa 3304 ff.] and in the Purāṇas etc.: Vasu-deva, who was a descendant of Yadu and Yayāti, had two wives, Rohiṇī and Devakī; the latter had eight sons of whom the eighth was Kṛṣṇa; Kaṃsa, king of Mathurā and cousin of Devakī, was informed by a prediction that one of these sons would kill him; he therefore kept Vasu-deva and his wife in confinement, and slew their first six children; the seventh was Balarāma who was saved by being abstracted from the womb of Devakī and transferred to that of Rohiṇī; the eighth was Kṛṣṇa who was born with black skin and a peculiar mark on his breast; his father Vasu-deva managed to escape from Mathurā with the child, and favoured by the gods found a herdsman named Nanda whose wife Yaśo-dā had just been delivered of a son which Vasu-deva conveyed to Devakī after substituting his own in its place. Nanda with his wife Yaśo-dā took the infant Kṛṣṇa and settled first in Gokula or Vraja, and afterwards in Vṛndāvana, where Kṛṣṇa and Bala-rāma grew up together, roaming in the woods and joining in the sports of the herdsmen’s sons ; Kṛṣṇa as a youth contested the sovereignty of Indra, and was victorious over that god, who descended from heaven to praise Kṛṣṇa, and made him lord over the cattle [Harivaṃśa 3787 ff.; 7456 ff.; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]; Kṛṣṇa is described as sporting constantly with the Gopīs or shepherdesses [Harivaṃśa 4078 ff.; 8301 ff.; Viṣṇu-purāṇa; Gīta-govinda] of whom a thousand became his wives, though only eight are specified, Rādhā being the favourite [Harivaṃśa 6694 ff.; 9177 ff.; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]; Kṛṣṇa built and fortified a city called Dvārakā in Gujarāt, and thither transported the inhabitants of Mathurā after killing Kaṃsa; Kṛṣṇa had various wives besides the Gopīs, and by Rukmiṇī had a son Pradyumna who is usually identified with Kāma-deva; with Jains, Kṛṣṇa is one of the nine black Vasu-devas; with Buddhists he is the chief of the black demons, who are the enemies of Buddha and the white demons)

14) Name of an attendant in Skanda’s retinue, [Mahābhārata ix, 2559]

15) of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa 12936; Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda i, 101, 1]

16) of a king of the Nāgas, [Mahābhārata ii, 360; Divyāvadāna ii]

17) of Arjuna (the most renowned of the Pāṇḍu princes, so named apparently from his colour as a child), [Mahābhārata iv, 1389]

18) of Vyāsa, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa 11089]

19) of Hārita See -hārita

20) of a son of Śuka by Pīvarī (teacher of the Yoga), [Harivaṃśa 980 ff.]

21) of a pupil of Bharad-vāja, [Kathāsaritsāgara vii, 15]

22) of Havir-dhāna, [Harivaṃśa 83; Viṣṇu-purāṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 24, 8]

23) of a son of Arjuna, [Harivaṃśa 1892]

24) of an adopted son of A-samañjas, [2039]

25) of a chief of the Andhras, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

26) of the author of a [commentator or commentary] on the [Mahābhārata]

27) of a poet

28) of the author of a [commentator or commentary] on the Dayā-bhāga

29) of the son of Keśavārka and grandson of Jayāditya

30) of the father of Tāna-bhaṭṭa and uncle of Raṅga-nātha

31) of the father of Dāmôdara and uncle of Malhaṇa

32) of the father of Prabhūjīka and uncle of Vidyā-dhara

33) of the father of Madana

34) of the grammarian Rāma-candra

35) of the son of Vāruṇendra and father of Lakṣmaṇa

36) of the father of Hīra-bhaṭṭa (author of the [commentator or commentary] called Carakabhāṣya, and of the work Sāhitya-sudhā-samudra)

37) Name of a hell, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

38) m. [plural] Name of the Śūdras in Śālmala-dvīpa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

39) Kṛṣṇā (कृष्णा):—[from kṛṣṇa] f. a kind of leech, [Suśruta]

40) [v.s. ...] a kind of venomous insect, [ib.]

41) [v.s. ...] Name of several plants (Piper longum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the Indigo plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a grape, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a Punar-navā with dark blossoms, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Gmelina arborea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Nigella indica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Sinapis ramosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; Vernonia anthelminthica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; = kākolī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; a sort of Sārivā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Suśruta]

42) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume (= parpaṭī), [Bhāvaprakāśa]

43) [v.s. ...] Name of Draupadī, [Mahābhārata]

44) [v.s. ...] of Durgā, [Mahābhārata iv, 184]

45) [v.s. ...] of one of the seven tongues of fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

46) [v.s. ...] of one of the mothers in Skanda’s retinue, [Mahābhārata ix, 2640]

47) [v.s. ...] of a Yoginī, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

48) [v.s. ...] (with or without gaṅgā) Name of the river Kistna, [Mahābhārata xiii, 4888; Padma-purāṇa; Nāradīya-purāṇa]

49) Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—n. blackness, darkness, [i, 123, 1 and 9]

50) m. the black part of the eye, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa x, xii, xiii, xiv; Suśruta]

51) the black spots in the moon, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i, 2, 1, 2]

52) a kind of demon or spirit of darkness, [Ṛg-veda iv, 16, 13]

53) black pepper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

54) black Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

55) iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

56) lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

57) antimony, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

58) blue vitriol, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

59) cf. kārṣṇa, etc.; cf. also [Russian] černyi, ‘black.’

60) 2. kṛṣṇa [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] ṣṇati, to behave or act like Kṛṣṇa, [Vopadeva xxi, 7.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण):—[(ṣṇaḥ-ṣṇā-ṣṇaṃ) a.] Black. 1. m. Krishna; a crow; a cuckoo; dark half of the moon. f. (ṣṇā) Draupadi; indigo; a grape; a drug. n. Black pepper; iron.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaṇha, Kaṇhā, Kasaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Krishna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Krishna in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṛṣṇa (कृष्ण) [Also spelled krashn]:—(a) black; dark; (nm) Lord Krishna; —[pakṣa] the dark half of the month, the fortnight of the waning moon.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṛṣṇa (ಕೃಷ್ಣ):—

1) [adjective] opposite to white; of the color of coal or pitch; black.

2) [adjective] of dark-blue colour.

3) [adjective] evil in principle or practice; wicked.

4) [adjective] mischievous; offensive.

5) [adjective] difficult to be seen clearly.

6) [adjective] different from what is avowed or apparent; concealing the true character or belief; hypocritical.

--- OR ---

Kṛṣṇa (ಕೃಷ್ಣ):—

1) [noun] black colour.

2) [noun] one who rescues from evil or sin; a deliverer.

3) [noun] Viṣṇu; one of the Hindu Triad, who preserves the world.

4) [noun] Křṣṇa, the son of Vasudeva and the eigth incarnation of Viṣṇu.

5) [noun] any of a genus (Corvus, family Corvidae) of large, nonmigratory passerine birds with glossy black plumage and a typical harsh call.

6) [noun] a crow; the plant Piper longum of Piperaceae family.

7) [noun] its black seed; long pepper.

8) [noun] the spotted black Indian Antelope, Antilope cervicapra, with long horns.

9) [noun] Indra, the chief of gods and ruler of Heaven.

10) [noun] the Fire-God; the sacrificial or mystical fire.

11) [noun] Sage Vyāsa, the author of epic Mahābhārata.

12) [noun] water.

13) [noun] the apparent canopy over our heads; the sky.

14) [noun] Křshṇe, a river in South India, flowing from the Western Ghats eastward into the Bay of Bengal.

15) [noun] the state-cap of royalty; crown.

16) [noun] Arjuna, one of the heros of epic Mahābhārata, and the third son of Kunti by Indra, the lord of Heavens.

17) [noun] a man of the fourth of the four principal Hindu social divisions.

18) [noun] the second half of any lunar month, during which the moon gradually grows less in extent.

19) [noun] the fourth of the four Hindu mythological ages of the world having a span of 4,32,000 years; the Kali yuga.

20) [noun] a long-tailed songbird of the family Cuculidae, which has a characteristic two-note call and deposits its eggs in the nests of small birds which rear the young as their own; Indian cuckoo.

21) [noun] the black metal, much used for tools and implements, and an essential element in all living organisms; (symbol Fe); iron.

22) [noun] (myth.) one of the seven tongues (flames) of fire.

23) [noun] ಕೃಷ್ಣನ ಲೆಕ್ಕ [krishnana lekka] křṣṇana lekka manipulated or falsified accounts for avoiding payment of tax.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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