Avagraha, Avagrāha: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Avagraha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Avagraha (अवग्रह).—Separation of a compound word into its component elements as shown in the Pada-Pāṭha of the Vedic Saṃhitās. In the Padapāṭha, individual words are shown separately if they are combined by Saṃdhi rules or by the formation of a compound in the Saṃhitāpāṭha; e.g. पुरोहितम् (purohitam) in the Saṃhitāpāṭha is read as पुरः (puraḥ)sहितम् (hitam). In writing, there is observed the practice of placing the sign (ऽ) between the two parts, about which nothing can be said as to when and how it originated. The Atharva-Prātiśākhya defines अवग्रह (avagraha) as the separation of two padas joined in Saṃhitā. (A. Pr. II.3.25; II.4.5). In the recital of the pada-pāṭha, when the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one matra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vāj. Prāt. Adhāya 5).

2) Avagraha.—The word अवग्रह (avagraha) is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or members that are compounded together. See Kāśikā on P.VIII.4.26; cf. also तस्य (tasya) (इङ्ग्यस्य (iṅgyasya)) पूर्वपदमवग्रहः यथा देवायत इति देव-यत (pūrvapadamavagrahaḥ yathā devāyata iti deva-yata). Tai. Pr. I. 49. The term अवग्रह (avagraha) is explained in the Mahābhāṣya as 'separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constitutent parts; cf. छन्दस्यानङोवग्रहो दृश्येत पितामह इति । (chandasyānaṅovagraho dṛśyeta pitāmaha iti |) (M. Bh. on IV.2.36); also cf. यद्येवमवग्रहः प्राप्नोति । न लक्षणेन पदकारा अनुवर्त्याः। पदकारैर्नाम लक्षणमनुवर्त्यम् । यथालक्षणं पदं कर्तव्यम् (yadyevamavagrahaḥ prāpnoti | na lakṣaṇena padakārā anuvartyāḥ| padakārairnāma lakṣaṇamanuvartyam | yathālakṣaṇaṃ padaṃ kartavyam) (M. Bh. on III.1.109) where the Bhāṣyakāra has definitely stated that the writers of the Padapāṭha have to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar.

3) Avagraha.—In recent times, however, the word अवग्रह (avagraha) is used in the sense of the sign (ऽ) showing the coalescence of अ (a) (short or long) with the preceding अ (a) (short or long) or with the preceding ए (e) or ओ (o) e.g. शिवोऽ र्च्यः, अत्राऽऽगच्छ (śivo' rcyaḥ, atrā''gaccha).

4) Avagraha.—The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or an interval of time when the constituent elements of a compound word are shown separately; cf. समासेवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (samāsevagraho hrasvasamakālaḥ) (V. Pr. V.1).

5) Avagraha.—The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Avagraha (अवग्रह):—Restricted movement

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Avagraha (अवग्रह) refers to “restraint”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—(Cf. Csaba Kiss, The Brahmayāmala or Picumata. Vol. II, 2015, 49, 47–48)

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Avagraha (अवग्रह) refers to “droughts”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] [The demons born of] the aggressive magic of [his] enemies, having failed to take hold of him, frightened will possess the performer [of the ritual], like a river[’s fury] blocked by a mountain. Droughts (avagraha) will end and enemies will run away. In his kingdom there will not be dangers in the form of untimely deaths, wild animals, beasts of prey, thieves, illnesses etc. and strength shall reside in his lineage”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Avagraha (अवग्रह) refers to “perception of something by the senses” and represents one of the four classes of m “sense-knowledge” (mati-jñāna) which itself is one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon: “[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Mati-jñāna is said to be divided into [viz., avagraha], etc., and these again into bahu, etc., and originates by means of the senses, and by means of the mind”.

2) Avagraha (अवग्रह) refers to the distance (i.e., the length of the body) within which one should not sit before a God or Guru, according to chapter 2.1.—Accordingly, “[...] The King contracted his body like a tortoise from reverence and, avoiding the avagraha-space, sat down with hands joined in suppliant manner. The King listened with close attention to a sermon from the Ācārya, like Purandara to one from a Tīrthaṅkara. The King’s disgust with existence was increased by that sermon, like the whiteness of the moon by autumn. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Avagraha (अवग्रह, “apprehension”) refers to one of the four divisions of sensory knowledge (mati). What is apprehension /sensation (avagraha)? The cognition immediately following intuition (darśana) is called apprehension /sensation e.g. it is white.

according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.13, “The function of mati is the cognition with the aid of mind and sense organs through the stages of apprehension /sensation (avagraha), speculation /discrimination, perceptual judgment and retention”.

How many types of out-linear-grasp (avagraha) are there? Two, namely arthāvagraha (object-perception / awareness) and vyañjanāvagraha (contact awareness).

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Avagraha (अवग्रह) refers to “broad grasp of an idea” and represents one of the four thought processes relating to perception , as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—Comparable divisions are found in the Tattvārtha-sūtra I.15.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

avagraha (अवग्रह) [or अवग्राह, avagrāha].—m S Stoppage or suspension of rain.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Avagraha (अवग्रह).—1 Separation of the component parts of a compound, or of other grammatical forms.

2) The mark or interval of such a separation; समासेऽवग्रहो ह्रस्वसमकालः (samāse'vagraho hrasvasamakālaḥ).

3) The syllable or letter after which such separation occurs, छन्दस्यृदवग्रहात् (chandasyṛdavagrahāt) P.VIII.4.26.

4) A hiatus, absence of sandhi (as in dhik tāṃ ca taṃ ca madanaṃ ca imāṃ ca māṃ ca instead of cemāṃ ca) Bhartṛhari 2.2.

5) The mark (') used to mark the elision of अ (a) after ए (e) and ओ (o).

6) Withholding of rain, drought, failure of rain; वृष्टि- र्भवति शस्यानामवग्रहविशोषिणाम् (vṛṣṭi- rbhavati śasyānāmavagrahaviśoṣiṇām) R.1.62; रावणावग्रहक्लान्तमिति वागमृतेन सः (rāvaṇāvagrahaklāntamiti vāgamṛtena saḥ) 1.48; नभोनभस्ययोर्वृष्टिमवग्रह इवान्तरे (nabhonabhasyayorvṛṣṭimavagraha ivāntare) 12.29; वृषेव सीतां तदवग्रहक्षताम् (vṛṣeva sītāṃ tadavagrahakṣatām) Kumārasambhava 5.61.

7) An obstacle, impediment, hindrance, restraint; संसार° (saṃsāra°) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1 the bonds of fetters of worldly existence; प्रसह्य रक्षोभिरवग्रहं च (prasahya rakṣobhiravagrahaṃ ca) Rām.; see अनवग्रह (anavagraha) and निरवग्रह (niravagraha).

8) A herd of elephants

9) The forehead of an elephant; A part of the elephant's face, the flat level place in the middle of the elephant's forehead which joins the lower parts of the two Kumbhas; Mātaṅga L.5.6.

1) Nature, original temperament.

11) A sort of knowledge, a false idea.

12) Punishment (opp. anugraha); अनुग्रहावग्र- हयोर्विधाता (anugrahāvagra- hayorvidhātā) Śiśupālavadha 1.71.

13) An imprecation, a term of abuse.

14) An iron hook with which elephants are driven.

15) Obstinate insistance; obstinacy; कर्मण्यवग्र- हधियो भगवन्विदामः (karmaṇyavagra- hadhiyo bhagavanvidāmaḥ) Bhāgavata 4.7.27.

Derivable forms: avagrahaḥ (अवग्रहः).

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Avagrāha (अवग्राह).—

1) Breaking, separation.

2) Impediment; अवग्राहस्ते भूयात् (avagrāhaste bhūyāt) Sk.

3) A curse; see अवग्रह (avagraha).

Derivable forms: avagrāhaḥ (अवग्राहः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Avagraha (अवग्रह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. Taking, acceptance. 2. Taking off or away, seizure. 3. Disrespect. 4. Drought. 5. Obstacle, impediment. 6. An elephant’s forehead. 7. A herd of elephants. 8. Nature, original temperament. 9. A sort of knowledge, a false idea. 10. An imprecation or term of abuse. E. ava before, graha to take or seize, ap affix: also avagrāha.

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Avagrāha (अवग्राह).—m.

(-haḥ) 1. An imprecation or term of abuse, as avagrāhaste syāt, may disappointment befall you. 2. Drought. 3. Disgrace, discomfiture: see avagraha. E. As before, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Avagraha (अवग्रह).—[ava-grah + a], m. 1. Obstacle. 2. Drought, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 11, 29. 3. Contempt, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 44, 18. 4. Nature, original temperament, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 70, [distich] 89. (affection).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Avagraha (अवग्रह).—[masculine] hindrance, impediment; separation of padas and the pause between them ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Avagraha (अवग्रह):—[=ava-graha] [from ava-grah] m. separation of the component parts of a compound, or of the stem and certain suffixes and terminations (occurring in the Pada text of the Vedas), [Prātiśākhya] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the mark or the interval of such a separation, [Prātiśākhya]

3) [v.s. ...] the syllable or letter after which the separation occurs, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini 8-4, 26], the chief member of a word so separated, [Prātiśākhya]

4) [v.s. ...] obstacle, impediment, restraint, [Pbr.] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] mark of the elision of an initial a

6) [v.s. ...] (= varṣa pratibandha, [Pāṇini 3-3, 51]) drought, [Raghuvaṃśa; Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) [v.s. ...] nature, original temperament, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] ‘perception with the senses’, a form of knowledge, [Jaina literature]

9) [v.s. ...] an imprecation or term of abuse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] an elephant’s forehead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] a herd of elephants, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] an iron hook with which elephants are driven, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Avagrāha (अवग्राह):—[=ava-grāha] [from ava-grah] m. obstacle, impediment (used in imprecations), [Pāṇini 3-3, 45]

14) [v.s. ...] ([Pāṇini 3-3, 51]; cf. also ava-graha) drought, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

15) [v.s. ...] ([varia lectio] for avagāha q.v.) a bucket, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [=ava-grāha] [from ava-grah] the forehead of an elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Avagraha (अवग्रह):—[ava-graha] (haḥ) 1. m. Seizure; disrespect; drought; obstacle.

2) Avagrāha (अवग्राह):—[ava-grāha] (haḥ) 1. m. Idem; drought.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Avagraha (अवग्रह) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Uggaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Avagraha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Avagraha (ಅವಗ್ರಹ):—

1) [noun] separation; a) the act of separating or keeping (two things) at a distance; b) separation of component parts of a compound word or other grammatical forms.

2) [noun] anything that gets in the way or hinders; an impediment; an obstruction; a hindrance; an obstacle.

3) [noun] a control a) the act or fact of controlling; power to direct or regulate; ability to use effectively; b) the condition of being directed or restrained.

4) [noun] a prolonged period of dry weather; lack or failure of rain; drought.

5) [noun] the forehead of an elephant.

6) [noun] an imprecation; a curse; an abusive term.

7) [noun] a sort of knowledge; a false idea.

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Avagrāha (ಅವಗ್ರಾಹ):—[noun] = ಅವಗ್ರಹ - [avagraha -] 2, 3 & 4.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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