Samshaya, Samsaya, Saṃśaya: 32 definitions


Samshaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Saṃśaya can be transliterated into English as Samsaya or Samshaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Sanshay.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Saṃśaya (संशय, “hesitation”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: Natya Shastra

Saṃśaya (संशय, “hesitation”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of saṃśaya: When due to many considerations a sentence is brought to an end without fully communicating the essential theme in view, it is called Hesitation (saṃśaya, lit. “doubt”).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Samshaya in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “great doubt”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.8.—Accordingly, Himavat said to Nārada:—“O sage Nārada, O intelligent one, I have one submission to make. Please listen to it lovingly and make us delightful. It is heard that the great God abhors all attachments. He has perfect self-control. He is ever busy in penance and is out of reach of even the Gods. O celestial sage, He is in the path of meditation. How can He withdraw His mind from the supreme Brahman? I have a great doubt [i.e., saṃśaya] in this respect. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Saṃśaya (संशय).—A son of Unmāda and grandson of Nārāyaṇa and Śrī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 4.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Samshaya in Nyaya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Saṃśaya (संशय, “doubt”) refers to the third of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Saṃśaya means uncertainty. If different conflicting views are found about the same object, then doubt arises in the mind as to which is the reliable view. Gautama defines it as that in which different conflicting judgements arise about the real nature of an object because of the recognition of properties which are common to many things or which are not common to any object or due to contradiction or irregularity of perception and non-perception. Saṃśaya (doubt) is not an error, not absence of knowledge, it is not sure knowledge.

Saṃśaya is of five types:

  1. Due to recognition of common properties,
  2. Due to cognition of properties not common,
  3. Due to conflicting testimony,
  4. Due to irregularity of perception, and
  5. Due to irregularity of non-perception.

2) Saṃśaya (संशय, “doubt”) refers to one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—Doubt (saṃśaya) is defined as the cognition of various conflictive properties in the same object. In it the mind takes note of different alternate characteristics of some given object. The alternatives which the mind notices in the same object in case of doubt are called koṭis. There may be two or more koṭis in different instances of doubt. In doubt there are three characteristics. Firstly, the knowledge must be of more than one property. Secondly, there properties must be irreconcilable with one another. Thirdly, these contradictory properties must be apprehended in the same thing. The knowledge in the form of ‘Is it a post or a man’ is an example of doubt (saṃśaya).

Nyaya book cover
context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Saṃśaya (संशय) is one of the five types of adhikaraṇa (exegetical format).—Saṃśaya refers to formulating the doubt as to the correct and relevant meaning of the sentence.

Mimamsa book cover
context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”; mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—Doubt (saṃṣāya) is one of the important functions of intelligence; blind acceptance of something does not give evidence of intelligence. Therefore the word saṃśaya is very important; in order to cultivate intelligence, one should be doubtful in the beginning. But doubting is not very favorable when information is received from the proper source. In Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says that doubting the words of the authority is the cause of destruction.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Saṃśaya (संशय):—[saṃśayaḥ] Indefinite statements which leave doubt as to the final and correct opinion

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] In his dominion there shall be no devastations such as droughts etc. If the King, in the absence of [such a capable] one, has a different (i.e. ordinary) Guru or Court Officiant [at his side], that Supporter of the Earth shall get the opposite [result] (i.e. unfavorable things), there is no doubt about that (saṃśayana saṃśayaḥ)”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to a “question” [?], according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.9cd-14]—“[...] The Gods and Asuras view mantras are seen as powerful and invincible. [Mantras] confer benefits [because they are] all-favoring, all-bestowing, all-pervading, and Śiva. Briefly, O Mahadeva, speak to my question (saṃśayasaṃśayaṃ tu vada sva me). There is not anyone higher than yourself, O Lord of the World. Please tell all, O Great Śiva, if I please you, O Lord”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A divine musician or a musical instrument. VvA.93, 372.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: A History of Indian Logic (Buddhist Philosophy)

Saṃśaya (संशय) or Saṃśayasamā refers to “balancing the doubt” and represents one of the various kinds of Jāti (“analogue” or “far-fetched analogy”) (in debate), according to Upāyakauśalyahṛdaya.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[6. Use of a Stone Bowl].—‘The Buddha forbade the Bhikṣus to use eight kinds of bowls (pātra)’.—[...] Moreover, the Bhikṣus do not wear [these fine robes], given the rarity of benefactors (dāyaka) [so generous] and the rarity of recipients (pratigrāhaka) [so lucky]. People do not give [such fine clothing] to impure Bhikṣus: as for the pure (śuddha) Bhikṣus, as they had few desires (alpeccha) and were content with their lot (saṃtuṣṭa), they did not wear [those that had been given to them]. It is to cut people’s doubts (saṃśaya-chedana) that the Buddha allowed the Bhikṣus to wear [fine] robes; as for the [stone] bowls that they could not expect to receive, he did not allow them. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] O Lord, please elucidate this exposition of the dharma to these good men (satpuruṣa) who have a doubt (saṃśaya) in their respective dharmas. May the Blessed Tathāgata please cut off their all doubts (saṃśaya) and illuminate all qualities of the buddha (sarvabuddhadharma) since you are established (pratiṣṭhita) in the ascertainment (niścaya) in your mind (buddhi)’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubtful attitude” and represents one of the five types of “wrong belief derived from teachings” (grahīta), itself representing one of the two types of mithyādarśana (wrong belief) which is one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by doubtful attitude wrong belief (saṃśaya)? To doubt in the belief on the existents is doubtful attitude wrong belief.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samshaya in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṃsaya : (m.) doubt.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃśaya (संशय).—m (S) Doubt, uncertainty, undeterminedness of opinion or mind. 2 Suspicion, surmise, apprehension of ill.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃśaya (संशय).—m Doubt; surmise, suspicion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय).—

1) Doubt, uncertainty, irresolution, hesitation; मनस्तु मे संशमेव गाहते (manastu me saṃśameva gāhate) Kumārasambhava 5.46; त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते (tvadanyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hyupapadyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 6.36.

2) Misgiving, suspicion.

3) Doubt or indecision (in Nyāya), one of the 16 categories mentioned in the Nyāya philosophy; एकधर्मिकविरुद्धभावा- भावप्रकारकं ज्ञानं संशयः (ekadharmikaviruddhabhāvā- bhāvaprakārakaṃ jñānaṃ saṃśayaḥ); it is also regarded as one of the two kinds of अयतार्थज्ञान (ayatārthajñāna).

4) Danger, peril, risk; न संशयमनारुह्य नरो भद्राणि पश्यति (na saṃśayamanāruhya naro bhadrāṇi paśyati) H.1.7; याता पुनः संशयमन्यथैव (yātā punaḥ saṃśayamanyathaiva) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.13; Kirātārjunīya 13.16; Ve.6.1.

5) Possibility.

6) A subject of dispute or controversy; अग्निहोत्रादहमभ्यागताऽस्मि विप्रर्षभाणां संशयच्छेदनाय (agnihotrādahamabhyāgatā'smi viprarṣabhāṇāṃ saṃśayacchedanāya) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.186.22.

Derivable forms: saṃśayaḥ (संशयः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय).—nt. (regularly m.), doubt: dharma-°yaṃ (n. sg.) chinnaṃ Mahāvastu i.247.15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Doubt, uncertainty. 2. Logical indecision. 3. Difficulty, risk. 4. Possibility. sam before śī to sleep, ac aff.

--- OR ---

Saṃśaya (संशय) or Saṃśayya.—Ind. Having doubted or deliberated, being in doubt. E. sam before śī to sleep, lyap aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय).—i. e. sam-śī + a, m. 1. Doubt, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 10, M. M.; uncertainty; very often with na, to be sure, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 256. 2. Possibility, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 160. 3. Danger, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय).—[masculine] doubt, hesitation, uncertainty about ([locative], [accusative] [with] prati, or —°); danger for ([genetive], [locative], or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃśaya (संशय):—[=saṃ-śaya] a etc. See saṃ-√śī.

2) [=saṃ-śaya] [from saṃ-śī] b m. (ifc. f(ā). ) lying down to rest or sleep, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] uncertainty, irresolution, hesitation, doubt in or of ([locative case], [accusative] with prati, or comp; saṃśayaḥ, with [Potential], ‘there is doubt whether’; na s, nāsti s, nātra s, na hi s, nāsty atra-s etc., ‘there is no doubt’, ‘without doubt’), [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a doubtful matter, [Caraka]

5) [v.s. ...] (in Nyāya) doubt about the point to be discussed (one of the 16 categories), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 64]

6) [v.s. ...] difficulty, danger, risk of or in or to ([genitive case] [locative case], or [compound]), [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय):—[saṃ-śaya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Doubt, uncertainty.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃśaya (संशय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃsaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samshaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samshaya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃśaya (संशय) [Also spelled sanshay]:—(nm) suspicion, doubt; uncertainty; ~[vāda] scepticism; ~[vādī] sceptic, scepticist.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃsaya (संसय) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃśaya.

2) Saṃsayā (संसया) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃsat.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃśaya (ಸಂಶಯ):—

1) [noun] lack of certainty; doubt; uncertainty.

2) [noun] lack of resoluteness; the quality or condition of wavering in decision, purpose or opinion; irresoluteness; indecisiveness; vascilltion of the mind.

3) [noun] difficulty; a danger; a risk.

4) [noun] (rhet.) a simile in which the thing likened to the other expressing a doubt whether both are same.

5) [noun] (Nyāya phil.) doubt about the point to be discussed, as one of the sixteen categories.

6) [noun] (yoga.) doubt, uncertainty as one of the ten impediments that come in the path of yoga.

--- OR ---

Saṃsaya (ಸಂಸಯ):—[noun] = ಸಂಶಯ - [samshaya -] 1, 2 & 3.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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