Samshaya, aka: Samsaya, Saṃśaya; 14 Definition(s)

Introduction

Samshaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Saṃśaya can be transliterated into English as Samsaya or Samshaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Saṃśaya (संशय, “hesitation”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Saṃśaya (संशय, “hesitation”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of saṃśaya: When due to many considerations a sentence is brought to an end without fully communicating the essential theme in view, it is called Hesitation (saṃśaya, lit. “doubt”).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

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Saṃśaya (संशय).—A son of Unmāda and grandson of Nārāyaṇa and Śrī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 4.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

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Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

1) Saṃśaya (संशय, “doubt”) refers to the third of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Saṃśaya means uncertainty. If different conflicting views are found about the same object, then doubt arises in the mind as to which is the reliable view. Gautama defines it as that in which different conflicting judgements arise about the real nature of an object because of the recognition of properties which are common to many things or which are not common to any object or due to contradiction or irregularity of perception and non-perception. Saṃśaya (doubt) is not an error, not absence of knowledge, it is not sure knowledge.

Saṃśaya is of five types:

  1. Due to recognition of common properties,
  2. Due to cognition of properties not common,
  3. Due to conflicting testimony,
  4. Due to irregularity of perception, and
  5. Due to irregularity of non-perception.

2) Saṃśaya (संशय, “doubt”) refers to one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—Doubt (saṃśaya) is defined as the cognition of various conflictive properties in the same object. In it the mind takes note of different alternate characteristics of some given object. The alternatives which the mind notices in the same object in case of doubt are called koṭis. There may be two or more koṭis in different instances of doubt. In doubt there are three characteristics. Firstly, the knowledge must be of more than one property. Secondly, there properties must be irreconcilable with one another. Thirdly, these contradictory properties must be apprehended in the same thing. The knowledge in the form of ‘Is it a post or a man’ is an example of doubt (saṃśaya).

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Samshaya in Mimamsa glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Saṃśaya (संशय) is one of the five types of adhikaraṇa (exegetical format).—Saṃśaya refers to formulating the doubt as to the correct and relevant meaning of the sentence.

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubt”; mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—Doubt (saṃṣāya) is one of the important functions of intelligence; blind acceptance of something does not give evidence of intelligence. Therefore the word saṃśaya is very important; in order to cultivate intelligence, one should be doubtful in the beginning. But doubting is not very favorable when information is received from the proper source. In Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says that doubting the words of the authority is the cause of destruction.

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam
Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Samshaya in Theravada glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

A divine musician or a musical instrument. VvA.93, 372.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

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Saṃśaya (संशय) refers to “doubtful attitude” and represents one of the five types of “wrong belief derived from teachings” (grahīta), itself representing one of the two types of mithyādarśana (wrong belief) which is one of the five causes of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.1.—What is meant by doubtful attitude wrong belief (saṃśaya)? To doubt in the belief on the existents is doubtful attitude wrong belief.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

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saṃsaya : (m.) doubt.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

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saṃśaya (संशय).—m (S) Doubt, uncertainty, undeterminedness of opinion or mind. 2 Suspicion, surmise, apprehension of ill.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃśaya (संशय).—m Doubt; surmise, suspicion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samshaya in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Saṃśaya (संशय).—

1) Doubt, uncertainty, irresolution, hesitation; मनस्तु मे संशमेव गाहते (manastu me saṃśameva gāhate) Ku.5.46; त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते (tvadanyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hyupapadyate) Bg.6.36.

2) Misgiving, suspicion.

3) Doubt or indecision (in Nyāya), one of the 16 categories mentioned in the Nyāya philosophy; एकधर्मिकविरुद्धभावा- भावप्रकारकं ज्ञानं संशयः (ekadharmikaviruddhabhāvā- bhāvaprakārakaṃ jñānaṃ saṃśayaḥ); it is also regarded as one of the two kinds of अयतार्थज्ञान (ayatārthajñāna).

4) Danger, peril, risk; न संशयमनारुह्य नरो भद्राणि पश्यति (na saṃśayamanāruhya naro bhadrāṇi paśyati) H.1.7; याता पुनः संशयमन्यथैव (yātā punaḥ saṃśayamanyathaiva) Māl.1.13; Ki.13.16; Ve.6.1.

5) Possibility.

6) A subject of dispute or controversy; अग्निहोत्रादहमभ्यागताऽस्मि विप्रर्षभाणां संशयच्छेदनाय (agnihotrādahamabhyāgatā'smi viprarṣabhāṇāṃ saṃśayacchedanāya) Mb.3.186.22.

Derivable forms: saṃśayaḥ (संशयः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 38 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Pranasamshaya
Prāṇasaṃśaya (प्राणसंशय).—risk or danger to life, peril of life, a very great peril. Derivable ...
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Samshayastha
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Samshayopama
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Samshayopeta
Saṃśayopeta (संशयोपेत).—a. doubtful, uncertain, irresolute. Saṃśayopeta is a Sanskrit compound ...
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Samshayatman
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Samshayacheda
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Anarthasamshaya
Anarthasaṃśaya (अनर्थसंशय).—[anarthakārī saṃśayaḥ śāka. ta.] 1) a great evil, hazardous adventu...
Samshayagata
Saṃśayagata (संशयगत).—a. fallen into danger; Ś.6. Saṃśayagata is a Sanskrit compound consisting...
Samshayachedin
Saṃśayachedin (संशयछेदिन्).—a. clearing all doubt, decisive; Ś.3.Saṃśayachedin is a Sanskrit co...
Dharma
Dharma (धर्म) refers to the “code of life” upon whose conduct Hinduism is based. Hinduism is a ...
Adhikarana
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Padartha
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Kashaya
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