Guru; 23 Definition(s)

Introduction

Guru means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Guru is Brahma, Vishnu and Siva all rolled into one. Guru is Gu and Ru; Gu is darkness and Ru is remover. Guru dispels darkness, sin, and ignorance. Once Guru purifies himself both externally and internally and assumes the body of the deity he worships and propitiates, the body of the Guru is the same as the deity; his disciple receives a bit of the effulgence from the grace of the Guru. Initiation by mind (manasi Diksa is the best of all Diksas. I will give you an idea of external purification of the body that the disciple should undergo at the beginning. He awakens in the morning; clears his mind of all impure thoughts; scrapes the coated tongue, cleans the mouth and face, and takes a bath.

In Kashmir Saivism Guru is not necessary for initiation. Abhi says that by acquiring Pratyabhijna, one can bypass Guru initiation. When all the Malas are removed, Spiritual knowledge descends into the soul of the individual and that is called SaktipAta, also called Sattinipatam (ºò¾¢¿¢À¡¾õ) in Saiva Siddhanta of Tamil Nadu.

Source: bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Guru (गुरु) is the name of a meter belonging to the Pratiṣṭhā or Supratiṣṭhā class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of five syllables the first, the third and the last long, is guru”.

2) Guru (गुरु) or Gurusaṃyoga or Gurusañcaya refers to one of the three yogas or saṃyogas: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the guru-sañcaya is in heavy syllables, slow tempo and ogha-pravṛtti e.g., gheto ketaṃ candrāṃ khetaṃ dvaṃ dvam khetaṃ dhvaṃ dvaṃ dvaṃ drāghetaṃ battaṃ khettaṃ”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Syllables in a pada are also classified as metrically short (laghu "light") or long (guru "heavy"): a syllable is metrically short only if it contains a short vowel and is not followed by consecutive consonants in the same pada. All other syllables are long, by quality (having a long vowel or diphthong) or by position (being followed by a consonant cluster).

Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana

Guru (गुरु):—One of the two sons of Saṅkṛti (son of Nara, who was one of the five sons of Manyu). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.21.2)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Guru (गुरु).—The following five persons are to be considered as gurus: Father, mother, Preceptor, Agni (Fire) and Ātman (soul), (Śloka 27, Chapter 214, Vana Parva).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Guru (गुरु).—A son of Samkṛti.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 21. 2.

1b) A son of Bhautya Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 114. Vāyu-purāṇa 110. 51.

1c) Devotion to, praised by Kaca; his daughter cannot be married by a pupil, as she stands in relation of a sister.1 Guru (śuśrūṣa) service of the teacher pleases Hari. Kṛṣṇa's discourse on service to guru, and his tribute to his teacher Sāndīpāni. It is said that guru's blessings make a man rise to his full stature.2 Different kinds of guru—mahāguru, ācārya, deśīka and others.3 Implicit obedience to. Transgressing his orders leads one to be born an aerial spirit: fit to be honoured like a king and a god.4

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 25. 69; 26. 6-8, 12-16.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 80. 28-43.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 8. 3-6.
  • 4) Ib. 43. 37-59.

1d) The planet Bṛhaspati.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 93. 14.

1e) A sage.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 45.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Guru (गुरु, “heavy”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Guru is the characteristic of a drug referring to its ‘heaviness’, while its opposing quality, Laghu, refers to its ‘lightness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Guru, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’), while it aggrevates the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system) and the Pitta (bodily humour in control of digestion and metabolism). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Earth (pṛthivī) and Water (ap).

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Guru (गुरु) is another name for Kapikacchu, a medicinal plant identified with Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean or cowhage or cowitch) from the Fabaceae or “bean family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.50-53 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Guru and Kapikacchu, there are a total of twenty-six Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Guru (गुरु, “thursday”) corresponds with jupiter and refers to the fifth of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (eg., guru) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Guru (गुरु, “preceptor”) is an official title designating one of the seventy-two officers (niyoga) of the Bāhattaraniyogādhipati circle, according to the Inscriptional glossary of Andhra Pradesh (Śāsana-śabdakośāmu). The bāhattaraniyoga-adhipati is the highest executive officer of this circle (including a Guru). For example: During the reign of Gaṇapatideva, the area extending between Pānagal to Mārjavāḍi was entrusted to Gaṇḍapeṇḍāru Gangayasāhiṇi as Bāhattaraniyogādhipati. Later on, this office was entrusted to Kāyastha Jannigadeva.

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

1) Guru (गुरु).—Possessed of a special effort as opposed to लघु (laghu); cf. तद् गुरु भवति (tad guru bhavati) M. Bh. Ahnika 1। (|)

2) Guru.—Heavy, a technical term including दीर्घ (dīrgha) (long) vowel as also a ह्रस्व (hrasva) (short) vowel when it is followed by a conjunct consonant, (cf. संयोगे गुरु । दीर्घ च। (saṃyoge guru | dīrgha ca|) P. I. 4.11, 12) or a consonant after which the word terminates or when it (the vowel) is nasalized; cf. Tai. Pr. XXII. 14, cf. also R. Pr. I. 5.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Guru (गुरु) or Ga refers to the dīrgha (long) letter in a verse.— The whole chanda literature has several technical terms, by which it is controlled. Single letters are used to denote a specific instance. The letter ga stands for guru letter while the letter la stands for laghu letter. In a verse the letter which is guru is also known as dīrgha (long) and which is laghu is also known as hrasva (short). The dīrgha letter consists of two mātrās while the hrasva letter consists of one mātrā.

Guru symbols can be identified as the shape of tāṭaṅka, hāra or keyūra, and the laghu can be identified as menu, kāhāla (daṇḍa) or śara.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
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context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Guru (गुरु) refers to one of the 18 names of Jupiter (Bṛhaspati) according to the Bṛhaspati-kavaca-mantra from the Brahmayāmalatantra. In jyotiṣa there is a saying that when Jupiter protects there is none that can destroy. The eighteen names of Jupiter (viz., Guru) relate to eighteen body parts starting from the top of head (śiras). One method uses this formula: Each name associates with two drekkāṇa reckoned from lagna in the horoscope.

Source: Pt. Sanjay Rath: Bṛhaspati Kavacha Mantra
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Guru (गुरु, “teacher”) forms part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person. A given teacher-student relationship obtained in Indian culture. The teacher, the Guru, the Ācārya, was highly honoured and was seen as the guide who helped students escape the darkness of ignorance and attain the light of knowledge. The teacher’s house was the centre of the ācāryakula, the gurukula. The student and the teacher had a symbiotic relationship and students were treated as members of the teacher’s family.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

The Lakṣmī Tantra (13.34) asserts that a guru, irrespective of his sect or creed, is a manifestation of Śakti’s aspect as savior. He is like a doctor who knows the exact treatment for his disciple’s ailment, the bondage of saṃsāra. He holds the key to the mysteries of the scriptures; he is the repository of the secret lore of the mantras and their applications in ritual and meditation.

Source: Google Books: Understanding Mantras

A Guru (गुरु) is one who conveys the meaning [of the text to] his pupils in whatever manner is appropriate to them, using Sanskrit, Prakrit, or such means as the regional languages. (see the Śivadharmottara 2.3)

Source: Alexis Sanderson: The Śaiva Literature

Guru (गुरु).—The Pārānandasūtra prescribes that the disciple has to undergo dīkṣā or initiation from a qualified guru, who should preferably be jīvan-mukta, i.e., one who is liberated and is not tainted in any way. The preceptor should collect the materials of the five makāras and hand over to the disciple a bowl for drinking wine, mudrā (fried cereal), and a woman (generally a courtesan).

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (hinduism)

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Guru (गुरु, “cold”) refers to one of the eight types of Sparśa (touch), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the touch attribute to the body are called touch (sparśa) body-making karma (eg., guru).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

guru : (m.) a teacher. (adj.), heavy; venerable.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Guru, (adj.-n.) (a younger form of garu (q. v.); Sk. guru) venerable, reverend, a teacher VvA.229, 230 (°dakkhiṇā a teacher’s fee); PvA.3 (°janā venerable persons); Sdhp.227 (°ûpadesa), 417. (Page 253)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

guru (गुरु).—m (S) A spiritual parent; the conductor of the various ceremonies necessary during infancy and youth, up to the period of investiture with the sacred thread. 2 A religious teacher; one who instructs in the Shastras. Hence (fig. and in a bad sense) One who prompts, puts up to, abets. 3 A father or any venerable male relation. 4 A name of bṛhaspati, the Guru of the gods and Regent of the planet Jupiter. 5 The planet Jupiter. 6 A pimple of the small-pox inflamed by scratching.

--- OR ---

guru (गुरु).—a (S) Heavy or weighty. 2 Great or large. 3 Heavy of digestion. 4 Long; having a sound equal to two matra or simple sounds--a vowel. 5 Difficult, arduous, hard. 6 Honorable, venerable, reverend.

--- OR ---

gurū (गुरू).—m (gōvara) A flowing pustule in measles or small-pox. A blind or unflowing pustule is mukāgurū.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

guru (गुरु).—m A spiritual parent. A religious teacher, one who instructs in the Shastras; a teacher gen. Hence (fig.) One who prompts, puts up to, abets. A father or any venerable relation. gurucī vidyā gurulā phaḷalī Used where a man's evil counsel turns back against himself. śiṣyāparādhē gurōrdaṇḍaḥ The Guru should be punished for the faults of his pupil.

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guru (गुरु).—a Heavy or weighty. Great or large. Difficult, arduous.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Guru (गुरु).—a. (-ru, -rvī f.) [ग कु उच्च (ga ku ucca) Uṇ.1.24.] (compar. garīyas; superl. gariṣṭha)

1) Heavy, weighty (opp. laghu); (fig. also); तेन धूर्जगतो गुर्वी सचिवेषु निचिक्षिपे (tena dhūrjagato gurvī saciveṣu nicikṣipe) R.1.34;3.35; 12.12; विमुच्य वासांसि गुरूणि साम्प्रतम् (vimucya vāsāṃsi gurūṇi sāmpratam) Ṛs.1.7.

2) Great, large, long, extended.

3) Long (in duration or length). आरम्भगुर्वी (ārambhagurvī) Bh.2.6; गुरुषु दिवसेष्वेषु गच्छत्सु (guruṣu divaseṣveṣu gacchatsu) Me.85.

4) Important, momentous, great; विभवगुरुभिः कृत्यैः (vibhavagurubhiḥ kṛtyaiḥ) Ś.4. 19; स्वार्थात्सतां गुरुतरा प्रणयिक्रियैव (svārthātsatāṃ gurutarā praṇayikriyaiva) V.4.31; Ku.3.13; Bh.3.7; R.14.35.

5) Arduous, difficult (to bear); कान्ताविरहगुरुणा शापेन (kāntāvirahaguruṇā śāpena) Me.1.

6) Great, excessive, violent, intense; गुरुः प्रहर्षः प्रबभूव नात्मनि (guruḥ praharṣaḥ prababhūva nātmani) R.3.17; गुर्वपि विरहदुःखम् (gurvapi virahaduḥkham) Ś.4.16; Bg.6.22.

7) Venerable, respectable.

8) Heavy, hard of digestion (as food).

9) Best, excellent.

1) Dear, beloved.

11) Haughty, proud (as a speech).

12) (In prosody) Long, as a syllable, either in itself, or being short, followed by a conjunct consonant &c.; e. g. ई (ī) in ईड् (īḍ) or त (ta) in तस्कर (taskara) (It is usually represented by ga in works on prosody; māttau gau cecchālinī vedalokaiḥ &c.).

13) Irresistible, unassailable; जागर्ति दंशाय (jāgarti daṃśāya)...गुरुर्भुजङ्गी (gururbhujaṅgī) Māl.6.1.

14) Mighty; powerful.

15) Valuable, highly prized; पूर्वं पूर्वं गुरु ज्ञेयम् (pūrvaṃ pūrvaṃ guru jñeyam) Y.2.3.

16) Grievous; Me.85.

-ruḥ 1 (a) A father; न केवलं तद्गुरुरेकपार्थिवः क्षितावभूदेकधनुर्धरोऽपि सः (na kevalaṃ tadgururekapārthivaḥ kṣitāvabhūdekadhanurdharo'pi saḥ) R.3.31,48;4.1; 8.29. (b) Forefather, ancestor; त्वां मैत्रावरुणोऽभिनन्दतु गुरुर्यस्ते गुरूणामपि (tvāṃ maitrāvaruṇo'bhinandatu gururyaste gurūṇāmapi) U.5.27. (c) Father-in-law; त्वं हि मे गुरुः (tvaṃ hi me guruḥ) (taddharmataḥ snuṣā te'ham) Rām.7.26.28-29.

2) Any venerable or respectable person, an elderly personage or relative, the elders (pl.) शुश्रूषस्व गुरून् (śuśrūṣasva gurūn) Ś.4.18; Bg. 2.5; Bv.2.7,18,19,49; आज्ञा गुरूणां ह्यविचारणीया (ājñā gurūṇāṃ hyavicāraṇīyā) R. 14.46.

3) A teacher, preceptor; गुरुशिष्यौ (guruśiṣyau).

4) Particularly, a religious teacher, spiritual preceptor. तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रतिननन्दतुः (tau gururgurupatnī ca prītyā pratinanandatuḥ) R.1.57; (technically a Guru is one who performs the purificatory ceremonies over a boy and instructs him in the Vedas; sa gururyaḥ kriyāḥ kṛtvā vedamasmai prayacchati Y.1.34).

5) A lord, head, superintendent, ruler; सर्वे गुरुहिते स्थिताः (sarve guruhite sthitāḥ) Rām.4.4.6; कर्णाश्रमाणां गुरवे स वर्णी (karṇāśramāṇāṃ gurave sa varṇī) R.5.19 the head of the castes or orders; गुरुर्नृपाणां गुरवे निवेद्य (gururnṛpāṇāṃ gurave nivedya) 2.68.

6) Name of Bṛhaspati, the preceptor of the gods; गुरुं नेत्रसहस्रेण चोदयामास वासवः (guruṃ netrasahasreṇa codayāmāsa vāsavaḥ) Ku.2.29; Pt.1.23.

7) The planet Jupiter; गुरुकाव्यानुगां बिभ्रच्चान्द्रीमभिनभः श्रियम् (gurukāvyānugāṃ bibhraccāndrīmabhinabhaḥ śriyam) Śi.2.2.

8) The propounder of a new doctrine.

9) The lunar asterism called पुष्य (puṣya).

1) Name of Droṇa, teacher of the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas.

11) Name of Prabhākara, the leader of a school of the Mīmāṃsakas (called after him Prābhākara).

12) The supreme spirit.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Gurudakṣiṇā (गुरुदक्षिणा).—fee given to a spiritual preceptor; उपात्तविद्यो गुरुदक्षिणार्थी (up...
Jagadguru
Jagadguru (जगद्गुरु) is the name of an undatable writer of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika system.—D.C. Bhaṭṭāc...
Devaguru
Devaguru (देवगुरु).—1) an epithet of Kaśyapa (the father of gods). 2) of Bṛhaspati (the precept...
Guruprasada
Guruprasāda (गुरुप्रसाद).—the product of a Guru's blessing, i. e. learning. Derivable forms: gu...
Gurukula
Gurukula (गुरुकुल) refers to “centres of learning around great teachers (Guru)” and forms part ...
Kulaguru
Kulaguru (कुलगुरु).—1) a family priest or teacher. 2) a geneologist. Derivable forms: kulaguruḥ...
Guru Purnima
Guru Purnima is special festival within traditional Buddhism, occurring on July 16.—Guru Purnim...
Gurulaghava
Gurulāghava (गुरुलाघव).—relative importance or value; विरोधिषु महीपाल निश्चित्य गुरु- लाघवम् (v...
Gurvakshara
Gurvakṣara (गुर्वक्षर).—Long syllable. Note: Guru-akṣara is a Sanskrit technical term used in a...
Gurupuja
Gurupūjā (गुरुपूजा).—1) the ceremonies in propitiation of Bṛhaspati when a work is to be perfor...
Vidyaguru
Vidyāguru (विद्यागुरु).—an instructor in (sacred) science. Derivable forms: vidyāguruḥ (विद्याग...
Gurukara
Gurukāra (गुरुकार) refers to “respect”, as defined in the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLVI...
Mahaguru
Mahāguru (महागुरु).—a highly respectable or venerable person; (these are three, the father, mot...
Gurutalpaga
Gurutalpaga (गुरुतल्पग).—m. 1) one who violates his teacher's bed (wife), (ranked in Hindu law ...

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