Lakshana, Lakṣaṇa, Laksana, Lakṣaṇā: 21 definitions


Lakshana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Lakṣaṇa and Lakṣaṇā can be transliterated into English as Laksana or Lakshana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) refers to “characteristic feature”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, there are thirty-six lakṣaṇas (‘characteristic features’) that make a perfect poetic composition (kāvyabandha). The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature.

There are thirty-seven lakṣaṇas:

  1. bhūṣaṇa (the ornamental quality),
  2. akṣarasaṃghāta (due word combinations),
  3. śobhā (beauty),
  4. udāharaṇa (example),
  5. hetu (motivation),
  6. saṃśaya (hesitation),
  7. dṛṣṭānta (graphic illustration),
  8. prāpti (attainment),
  9. abhiprāya (confidence),
  10. nidarśana (counter-argument),
  11. nirukta (etymology),
  12. siddhi (success),
  13. viśeṣana (recognition),
  14. guṇātipāta (contrast of virtues),
  15. guṇātiśaya (special virtues),
  16. tulyatarka (persuasion through comparison),
  17. padoccaya (lengthy statement),
  18. diṣṭa (description),
  19. upadiṣṭa (apt statement),
  20. vicāra (progress),
  21. viparyaya (transposition),
  22. bhraṃśa (slip of the tongue),
  23. anunaya (mediation),
  24. mālā (garland),
  25. dākṣiṇya (reasonable conduct),
  26. garhaṇa (hypocrisy),
  27. arthāpatti (admission),
  28. prasiddhi (progress to success),
  29. pṛcchā (query),
  30. sārūpya (identity),
  31. manoratha (hint at a desire),
  32. leśa (wit),
  33. saṃkṣobha (affliction),
  34. guṇakīrtana (extolling virtues),
  35. anuktasiddhi (vague success),
  36. priyokti (pleasant speech),
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (L) next»] — Lakshana in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—Daughter of Duryodhana. Wife of Sāmba. (See for details under Sāmba).

2) Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—A celestial maiden. This maiden took part in the birth day celebrations of Arjuna. (Śloka 62, Chapter 122, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).

3) Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—(LAKṢMAṆĀ) III. One of the eight queens of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lakṣaṇā was the daughter of Bṛhatsena, King of Madra. (Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa). Śrī Kṛṣṇa got ten sons of her some of whom are Praghoṣa, Gātravān, Siṃha and Bala. (10th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—An elephant, son of Añjanā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 339.

2) Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—An Apsaras.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 6.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) means the “definition” of a topic, and refers to one of the three methods of expositions laid down in the Nyāyabhāṣya (verse 1.1.2) by Vātsyāyana.

Source: Google Books: Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1

Definition, (lakṣaṇa) sets forth a peculiar property, constituting the essential character of a thing.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—Faculty of indication or implication residing in a word. It subordinates or abandons the real meaning of a word and helps comprehend a different but related meaning.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—A rule or a sūtra composed by the ancient Sūtrakāras; the word is very frequently used in this sense by the Bhāşyakāra and later commentators; cf. लक्ष्यलक्षणे व्याकरणम् (lakṣyalakṣaṇe vyākaraṇam); cf. also लक्षणं हि नाम ध्वनति, भ्रमति मुहूर्तमपि नावतिष्ठते (lakṣaṇaṃ hi nāma dhvanati, bhramati muhūrtamapi nāvatiṣṭhate) M.Bh. on P.I.1.3 Vārt 10;

2) Lakṣaṇa.—Characteristic or sign; cf. लक्षणेनाभिप्रती आभिमुख्ये (lakṣaṇenābhipratī ābhimukhye) P. II. 1. 14; cf. also P.I.4.90 and III. 2.12;

3) Lakṣaṇa.—Indirect way of expression; cf. लक्षणप्रतिपदोक्तयोः प्रतिपदोक्तत्यैव ग्रहणम् (lakṣaṇapratipadoktayoḥ pratipadoktatyaiva grahaṇam) Par. Śek. Pari. 105.

--- OR ---

Lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—Implication; potentiality of implication; this potentiality of words viz. लक्षणा (lakṣaṇā) is not recognised by grammarians as a potentiality different from the अभिधाशक्ति (abhidhāśakti) or the power of denotation. Later grammarians, however, like the Ālamkārikas, have used the word in the sense of potentiality of implication as different from that of denotation; cf. अन्त्यशब्दे लक्षणा न च (antyaśabde lakṣaṇā na ca) Paribhāşenduśekhara.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (L) next»] — Lakshana in Kavya glossary
Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) refers to “definition”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 10.81.—Cf. Uddeśa (“enunciation”).

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) is the name of a plant mentioned in connection with a Tantric ceremony, according to the Vajraḍākatantra chapter 38.—Five techniques to please Dūtīs as well as the Yogin himself and to enlarge a Yogin’s gentials are introduced. Various kinds of woods and plants in addition to honey and butter are utilized for this purpose. [...] If a Yogin crushes gaṇḍūṣa and lakṣaṇa (according to the commentary they are names of plants), cooks them with sesame oil and rubs it on his foot, he will be praised by Dūtīs.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण, “mark”) or lakṣaṇaśūnyatā refers to “marked emptiness” one of the “twenty emptinesses” (śūnyatā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 41). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., lakṣaṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) refers to the “thirty-two marks of a great man” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 83):

  1. cakrāṅkitapāṇipādatala (wheels on his palms and soles),
  2. supratiṣṭhitapāṇipādatala (palms and soles well-placed),
  3. jālābaddhāṅgulipāṇipādatala (fingers, palms and soles bound with nets),
  4. mṛdutaruṇahastapādatala (hands and soles that are soft and tender),
  5. saptotsada (seven prominent marks),
  6. dīrghāṅguli (long fingers),
  7. āyatapārṣṇi (heels that are long and deep),
  8. ṛjugātra (upright limbs),
  9. utsaṅgapāda (high ankles),
  10. urdhvāgraroma (bristling hair),
  11. aiṇeyajaṅgha (antelope-like calves),
  12. pralambabāhu (arms that hang low),
  13. koṣagatavastiguhya (what is covered by a cloth is ensheathed),
  14. suvarṇavarṇa (golden in colour),
  15. śuklacchavi (fine skin),
  16. pradakṣiṇāvartaikaroma (each hair arises singly and turns to the right),
  17. ūrṇālaṅkṛtamukha (a circle of hair decorates his forehead),
  18. siṃhapūrvāntakāya (a torso like a lion’s),
  19. susaṃvṛttaskandha (upper back that is even all round),
  20. citāntarāṃsa (between the shoulders it is firm),
  21. rasarasāgra (his taste buds are supremely sensitive),
  22. nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala (his (body) is well-proportioned like a banyan tree),
  23. uṣṇīṣaśiraska (he has a protuberance on the head),
  24. prabhūtajivha (his tongue is large),
  25. siṃhahanu (his jaw is like a lion’s),
  26. śuklahanu (his jaw is fine),
  27. samadanta (his forty teeth are even),
  28. haṃsavikrāntagāmi (a gait like that of a goose),
  29. aviraladanta (the teeth are without gaps),
  30. samacatvāriṃśaddanta (the forty teeth are even),
  31. abhinīlanetra (the eyes are very dark),
  32. gopakṣanetra (and the eyes have eyelashes like a cow’s).

3) Lakṣaṇa also refers to the “sixteen marks of being receptive to knowledge” (regarding the four noble truths) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 97):

  1. Being receptive to the dharma knowledge of suffering (duḥkhe dharma-jñāna-kṣānti),
  2. The dharma knowledge of suffering (duḥkhe dharma-jñāna),
  3. Being receptive to the conformity knowledge of suffering (duḥkhe ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣānti),
  4. The conformity knowledge of suffering (duḥkhe ’nvaya-jñāna);
  5. Being receptive to the dharma knowledge of arising (samudaye dharma-jñāna-kṣānti),
  6. The dharma knowledge of arising (samudaye dharma-jñāna),
  7. Being receptive to the conformity knowledge of arising (samudaye ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣānti),
  8. The conformity knowledge of arising (samudaye ’nvaya-jñāna);
  9. Being receptive to the dharma knowledge of cessation (nirodhe dharma-jñāna-kṣānti),
  10. The knowledge of cessation (nirodhe dharma-jñāna),
  11. Being receptive to the conformity knowledge of cessation (nirodhe ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣānti),
  12. The conformity knowledge of cessation (nirodhe ’nvaya-jñāna);
  13. Being receptive to the dharma knowledge of the path (mārge dharma-jñāna-kṣānti),
  14. The dharma knowledge of the path (mārge dharma-jñāna),
  15. Being receptive to the conformity knowledge of the path (mārge ’nvaya-jñāna-kṣānti),
  16. And the conformity knowledge of the path (mārge ’nvaya-jñāna).
Source: A Prayer for Rebirth in the Sukhāvatī

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण) refers to “thirty-two major marks of distinction” mentioned in the 17th century Sukhāvatī.—The lists of the thirty-two bodily marks of a mahāpuruṣa (skyes bu chen po) given in the Dīghanikāya (Mahāpadāna-sutta & Lakkhaṇa-suttanta), Lalitavistara, and Dharmasaṃgraha do not follow the same order and contain variations.

The list given here follows the order, but not always the exact wording, of the Mahāvyutpatti (236-67):

  1. protuberance on the top of the head (uṣṇīṣaśiraska);
  2. the hair on the head curled towards the right (pradakṣiṇāvartakeśa);
  3. a prominent forehead (samalalāta);
  4. a hairy mole between the eye-brows (ūrṇākośa);
  5. deep blue eyes and eyelashes like a cow’s (abhinīlanetragopakṣma);
  6. forty teeth (catvāriṃśaddanta);
  7. even teeth (samadanta);
  8. well spaced teeth (aviraladanta);
  9. bright white teeth (suśukladanta);
  10. a perfect sense of taste (rasarasāgra);
  11. jaws like a lion’s (siṃhahanu);
  12. a long and slender tongue (prabhūtatanujihva);
  13. a voice like Brahmā’s (brahmasvara);
  14. an evenly rounded bust (susaṃvṛtaskandha);
  15. seven prominences [hands, feet, shoulders, back of the neck] (saptotsada);
  16. no indentation between the shoulders (citāntarāṃsa);
  17. delicate and gold-like complexion (sūkṣmasuvarṇachavi);
  18. hands reaching the knees while standing and without bending (sthitānavanatapralambabāhu);
  19. the front part of the body is like a lion’s (siṃhapūrvārdhakāya);
  20. (bodily) symmetry of the nyagrodha tree (nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala);
  21. one clockwise curling hair to each pore (ekaikaromapradakṣiṇāvarta);
  22. body-hairs growing upwards (ūrdhvagaroma);
  23. male organs concealed in a sheath (kośopagatavastiguhya);
  24. well rounded thighs (suvartitoru);
  25. concealed ankles [or Skt ?arched feet] (utsaṅgapāda);
  26. soft and tender palms and soles (mṛdutaruṇahastapādatala);
  27. webbed hands and feet (jālāvanaddhahastapāda);
  28. long fingers and toes (dīrghāṅguli);
  29. palms and soles marked with wheels (cakrāṅkitahastapāda);
  30. well positioned feet (supratiṣṭhitapāda);
  31. projecting heels (āyatapādapārṣṇi);
  32. legs like an antelope’s (aiṇeyajaṅgha).

The list of the eighty minor marks (anuvyañjana) also follows the order of the Mahāvyutpatti (269-348).

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Lakṣaṇa.—(IA 18), the sexual parts; the male organ; cf. nirlakṣitavya, to be castrated. (CII 1), branding. (SII 3; SITI), a document or deed; an inscription. Note: lakṣaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

1) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—n (S) A mark. 2 An indication or a sign; a characteristic; a token, evidence, symptom; a quality or property; anything by which a matter is designated or distinguished. Ex. dhūma pāhilā asatāṃ ēthēṃ agni āhē asēṃ jñāna hōtēṃ mhaṇūna dhūma hēṃ la0 agni hēṃ lakṣya; phaṭakana dusaṛyāsa śivī dētāsa hēṃ tujhē aṅgīṃ vāīṭa la0 āhē; Pr. nāṃva mōṭhēṃ āṇi la0 khōṭēṃ. 3 A definition; description of a thing through explication of its essence or enumeration of its properties. 4 In nidāna or pathology. The third of the five departments,--the Symptoms or concomitant derangements. 5 (Used for lavalakṣaṇa) Handsomeness, comeliness. 6 S Sight or seeing.

2) lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—f S (Looking at or viewing.) The looking, aspect, or bearing (of a word or phrase); the respecting, and thus the indicating, of some sense beyond that literally and rigidly conveyed by it; metaphorical or figurative import. Ex. cōrācē bhayānēṃ sārā gāṃva paḷālā ēthēṃ gāṃva hyā śabdācī la0 gāṃvāntīla lōkācā jō samudāya tyājavara hōtī.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

1) Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—n A mark; a sign; a token. A definition.

2) lakṣaṇā (लक्षणा).—f The aspect or bearing (of a phrase) metaphorical or figurative import.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—[lakṣyate'nena lakṣ-karaṇe lyuṭ Uṇ.3.8.]

1) A mark, token, sign, indication, characteristic, distinctive mark; वधूदुकूलं कलहंसलक्षणम् (vadhūdukūlaṃ kalahaṃsalakṣaṇam) Ku.5.67; अनारम्भो हि कार्याणां प्रथमं बुद्धिलक्षणम् (anārambho hi kāryāṇāṃ prathamaṃ buddhilakṣaṇam) Subhāṣ; उपकारापकारौ हि लक्ष्यं लक्षण- मेतयोः (upakārāpakārau hi lakṣyaṃ lakṣaṇa- metayoḥ) H.4.15; अव्याक्षेपो भविष्यन्त्याः कार्यसिद्धेर्हि लक्षणम् (avyākṣepo bhaviṣyantyāḥ kāryasiddherhi lakṣaṇam) R.1.6;19.47; गर्भलक्षण (garbhalakṣaṇa) Ś.5; पुरुषलक्षणम् (puruṣalakṣaṇam) 'the sign or organ of virility'.

2) A symptom (of a disease).

3) An attribute, a quality.

4) A definition, accurate description; असाधारणधर्मो लक्षणम् (asādhāraṇadharmo lakṣaṇam); नामधेयेन पदार्थमात्रस्याभि- धानमुद्देशः, तत्रोद्दिष्टस्यातत्त्वव्यवच्छेदको धर्मो लक्षणम् (nāmadheyena padārthamātrasyābhi- dhānamuddeśaḥ, tatroddiṣṭasyātattvavyavacchedako dharmo lakṣaṇam) Vātsyāyana Bhāṣya 1.1.2.

5) A lucky or auspicious mark on the body (these are considered to be 32); द्वात्रिंशल्लक्षणोपेतः (dvātriṃśallakṣaṇopetaḥ); लक्षणसंपन्नान्नां गवामधः सस्नौ (lakṣaṇasaṃpannānnāṃ gavāmadhaḥ sasnau) K.64.

6) Any mark or features of the body (indicative of good or bad luck); क्व तद्विधस्त्वं क्व च पुण्यलक्षणा (kva tadvidhastvaṃ kva ca puṇyalakṣaṇā) Ku.5.73; क्लेशावहा भर्तुरलक्षणाहम् (kleśāvahā bharturalakṣaṇāham) R.14.5.

7) A name, designation, appellation (oft. at the end of comp.); विदिशालक्षणां राजधानीम् (vidiśālakṣaṇāṃ rājadhānīm) Me.24.

8) Excellence, merit, good quality; as in आहितलक्षण (āhitalakṣaṇa) R. 6.71 (where Malli. renders it by prakhyātaguṇa and quotes Ak.:-guṇaiḥ pratīte tu kṛtalakṣaṇāhitalakṣaṇau).

9) An aim, a scope, an object.

1) A fixed rate (as of duties); नदीतीरेषु तद्विद्यात् समुद्रे नास्ति लक्षणम् (nadītīreṣu tadvidyāt samudre nāsti lakṣaṇam) Ms.8.46.

11) Form, kind, nature.

12) Effect, operation.

13) Cause, occasion.

14) Head, topic, subject.

15) Pretence, disguise (= lakṣa); प्रसुप्तलक्षणः (prasuptalakṣaṇaḥ) Māl.7.

16) A line, spot.

17) Observation, seeing.

18) Indicatory characteristic; लक्ष्यते येन तल्लक्षणम्, धूमो लक्षणमग्नेरिति हि वदन्ति (lakṣyate yena tallakṣaṇam, dhūmo lakṣaṇamagneriti hi vadanti) ŚB. on MS.1.1.2.

19) A chapter; धर्मो द्वादशलक्षण्या व्युत्पाद्यः (dharmo dvādaśalakṣaṇyā vyutpādyaḥ).

2) A sexual organ; लक्षणं लक्षणेनैव वदनं वदनेन च (lakṣaṇaṃ lakṣaṇenaiva vadanaṃ vadanena ca) Mb.13.4.58.

-ṇaḥ 1 Name of Lakṣmaṇa.

2) The crane.

-ṇā 1 An aim, object.

2) (In Rhet.) An indirect application or secondary signification of a word, one of the three powers of a word; it is thus defined:-मुख्यार्थबाधे तद्योगे रूढितोऽथ प्रयोजनात् । अन्योऽर्थो लक्ष्यते यत् सा लक्षणारोपिता क्रिया (mukhyārthabādhe tadyoge rūḍhito'tha prayojanāt | anyo'rtho lakṣyate yat sā lakṣaṇāropitā kriyā) K. P.2. लक्षणा शक्यसंबन्धस्तात्पर्यानुपपत्तितः (lakṣaṇā śakyasaṃbandhastātparyānupapattitaḥ) Bhāṣā P.; see S. D.13. also श्रुतिलक्षणाविषये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा (śrutilakṣaṇāviṣaye ca śrutirnyāyyā na lakṣaṇā) ŚB. on MS.6.2.2; A. Rām.7.5.26-27.

3) A goose.

4) Name of Duryodhana's daughter.

Derivable forms: lakṣaṇam (लक्षणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—nt., mark (Sanskrit); (1) in Laṅk 37.10 ff.; 38.5 ff., external mark, manifested aspect, of the vijñāna (compare Suzuki, Studies, 183); contrasted with prabandha, q.v.; fuller expression seems to be svajāti-lakṣaṇa, see Laṅk 38.16 ff., esp. 18 f., svajātilakṣaṇe punar nirudhya- māne (mss.) ālayavijñānanirodhaḥ syāt, suggesting that with its suppression, the ālaya-vijñāna itself is suppressed; for the aṣṭalakṣaṇa vijñāna see vij° 2; (2) in Divy 513.15, 24, sauvarṇena lakṣaṇena laḍḍīś (sc. of a state horse) chorayati, removes the dung with a golden… (? some sort of implement; acc. to Index, spoon?), perh. shovel or the like; (3) = svabhāva (2), q.v., characteristic, of existing things, there being three such, viz. parikalpita, paratan- tra, pariniṣpanna, qq.v.: Mvy 1662 (to 1665 incl.); Sūtrāl. xi.38—41 (Lévi, indice); svabhāva-lakṣaṇa-traya- kuśalena bhavitavyam Laṅk 67.2; (4) characteristic mark of a superior person (a cakravartin or a Buddha), of which there are standardly 32 (anomalously 28 in Gv 353.7, aṣṭaviṃśatibhir mahāpuruṣalakṣaṇair upeto; no list). There are various lists; in Pali (lakkhaṇa), DN ii.17.10 ff. and iii.143.5 ff. (here followed by lengthy treat- ments of each item); MN ii.136.6 ff.; in BHS, LV 105.11 ff. [Page458-1b+ 37] (here referred to as LVa) and 429.3 ff. (LVb); Mvy 235 ff.; Dharmas (here abbreviated Dh) 83; Gv 399.20 ff., with valuable brief explanations of each term; Bbh 375.9 ff., with a few brief glosses, but followed on 378.3 ff., 381.8 ff., by more extensive treatments of the various items, with a few minor variants which are mostly not recorded here; finally, Mv i.226.16 ff. = ii.29.19 ff. has, in 7 lines of verse, extremely brief one-word designations for the 32 items, in part so corrupt in the text that I have failed to identify a few items (here, Mv without reference refers to this list); again, Mv ii.304.14 ff. has a very loose, inaccurate, and incomplete list, mingled with some anuvyañjana and other extraneous materials; this is cited below by page and line when it is important. Finally, a few stray lakṣaṇa are unsystematically mentioned in RP 46.13— 47.12, and again 50.11-51.5; they will be referred to by page and line under the appropriate items. In modern literature, correlations of various Pali and BHS lists (but without the Gv, Bbh, and Mv lists) have been recorded by Burnouf, Lotus, 558 ff.; Müller, note on Dharmas 83 (but note that in a number of cases Müller here cites Dharmas itself inconsistently with his own text). In Mvy and LVa (as also in the stray fragmentary lists of RP) the order of all other texts is reversed, so as to begin with the head instead of the feet; in citing numbers I have reversed the numbering of these two lists, to facilitate comparison with the other lists; therefore when I cite ‘Mvy 32, LVa 32’, I refer to Mvy and LVa 1; ‘Mvy 31, LVa 31’ means Mvy 2, LVa 2, etc. I believe the following list is substantially correct and original, tho the precise language is not always certain; all important variants are cited. The order of the items in BHS varies greatly, no two lists being alike; but the relative order in the Pali lists is, I believe, always or nearly always supported by some BHS evidence, and I see no serious reason to doubt that it represents the original; it is therefore adopted here. 1. supratiṣṭhitapāda (Pali suppatiṭṭhitapāda), Mvy 3; [Page459-a+ 71] LVb, Gv, Bbh 1; LVa 1 inserts sama before pāda; Mv probably means this by 1 samā; Mv ii.304.14 samā…caraṇā supratiṣṭhitā; Dh 2 -pāṇipādatala(tā) for -pāda. —2. adhastāt pādatalayoś cakre jāte…(epithets), so Bbh 2, similarly LVa, Gv 2; Pali heṭṭhāpādatalesu cakkāni jātāni…(epithets); Mv 2 heṣṭā, also heṣṭā…Mv ii.304.16; LVb 2 compresses the epithets into a long cpd. ending cakrāṅkitapādatala; Mvy 4 cakrāṅkita-hasta-pāda, and so Dh 1 adding -tala and with pāṇi for hasta, which, tho supported by Tibetan phyag, is only a false interpretation of adhastāt or semi-MIndic heṣṭā.—3. āyatapādapārṣṇi (Pali āyatapaṇhi), so Mvy 2, Bbh 4, Gv 5 (LVa 6 āyata- pārṣṇipāda); or āyatapārṣṇi, LVb 3, Dh 7, with Pali; Mv 4 āyatā.—4. dīrghāṅguli (Pali dīgha°), LVb 4, LVa 7, Mvy 5, Dh 6, Gv (2d ed.) 6 dīrghā asyāṅgulayo, Bbh 3; Mv 3 dīrghā; Mv ii.305.1.—5. mṛdutaruṇahastapāda (Pali mudutaluṇahatthapāda); LVa 4, LVb 6; Bbh 5 (mss. om. hasta, Tibetan phyag, for which ed. pāṇi); Dh 4 and Mvy 7 add -tala; Gv 7 mṛdūni…hastapādatalāni; Mv 11 mṛdu; compare RP 47.10.—6. jāla-(jālāvanaddha-?)- hastapāda; Pali jālahatthapāda, to which Bbh 6 jāla- pāṇipāda is closest; LVa 3, LVb 7 jālāṅgulihastapāda; Mvy 6 jālāvanaddha-hastapāda, compare Mv ii.304.14 (com- bined with No. 1 above) jālāvanaddhā (caraṇā); Dh 3 corrupt, jālābalabaddhāṅgulipāṇipādatala(tā); Gv 4 hasta- pādatale jālinī (2d ed.); Mv 12 jālā.—7. ucchaṅkha-(?)- pāda (Pali ussaṅkha°), so Gv 3, and so read (ucchaṅkha) Mv 5 and Mv ii.304.19, also with Mironov Mvy 8; Mvy Kyoto ed. utsaṅga°, so LVa 5, Dh 9, and Bbh 7 (-caraṇa for pāda); LVb 8 ucchaṅga°.—8. aiṇeyajaṅgha (Pali eṇi-j°), so Gv 8, Mvy 1, Dh 11; eṇeya° LVb 10, Bbh 8 (and RP 51.3); eṇeyamṛgarājajaṅgha LVa 8; Mv 6 eṇi; Mv ii.305.3 eṇī-j°; RP 47.12 eṇajaṅgha.—9. sthitāna- vanata-pralambabāhu Mvy 15, and sthito'vanata° (as Mvy) LVa 15; compare Pali ṭhitako va anonamanto ubhohi pāṇitalehi jaṇṇukāni parimasati…; Bbh 9 anavana- takāya; LVb 12, Dh 12, Gv 15 pralambabāhu; compare Gv 13 anūnagātraḥ, (read) anunnatagātro'pariṇatagātraḥ; Mv(?); Mv ii.305.8 anonatena kāyena pāṇīhi jānukāṃ spṛśe; compare RP 47.9 dīrgha-parigha-bāhū.—10. kośopagata-vastigu- hya (Pali kosohitavatthaguyha; it seems that vattha is a mistake for vatthi, compare Pali vatthi-kosa), so Mvy 10, LVa 10, LVb 11; or kośagata-vas° Bbh 10, Gv 10, Dh 13; Mv 9 kośa; Mv ii.305.10 kośavastiguhya; RP 47.11 guhyakośo. —11. suvarṇavarṇa (Pali suvaṇṇavaṇṇa, with appended kañcanasannibhataca, compare Bbh), so Dh 14; LVb 15 suvar- ṇachavi; Gv 29 suvarṇavarṇachavi; Bbh 15 kāñcanasaṃni- bhatvac (compare Pali); Mv 22 suvarṇa; Mv ii.305.7 kāñcana- chaviśobhanā; in LVa 16 and Mvy 16 combined with next, sūkṣmasuvarṇachavi (Lefm. adds varṇa, by em., after suvarṇa); kanakavarṇa RP 47.10; 51.5.—12. sūkṣma- chavi (Pali sukhumachavi), so LVb 14 (mṛdutaruṇa-sū°), Gv 28; Dh 15 śuklachavi(-tā); for LVa and Mvy see prec.; Bbh 16 ślakṣṇatvāt (but 379.18 sūkṣma-ślakṣṇa-tvacatā, and 381.11 sūkṣmatvaktā) tvaco rajo…nāvatiṣṭhate, and ślakṣṇa, instead of sūkṣma, is read also in Mv 16; Mv ii.305.14 and RP 51.5 ślakṣṇachavī.—13. ekaikaroma (or °man; Pali ekekaloma), so LVa 12; Gv 30; Mv ii.305.15; Mv 14 ekā; LVb 16 ekaikanicitaromakūpa; Bbh 14 °romā, adding…pradakṣiṇāvartaṃ; Mvy 12 °roma-pradakṣiṇā- vartaḥ; Dh 16 pradakṣiṇāvartaikaroma(-tā); compare RP 47.11; see next.—14. ūrdhvāgraroma, °man (Pali uddhagga- loma), so Dh 10; Mvy 11 ūrdhvaga-roma; Bbh 13 ūr- dhvaṃga°; Gv 31 ūrdhvāṅga°; Mv 15, mss. intend ūr- dhvāgra or ūrdhaṃga; LVa 11 ūrdhvāgrābhipradakṣiṇā- vartaromā(ḥ); LVb 9 ūrdhavāṅgadakṣiṇāvartaromakūpa; see prec.—15. bṛhad-ṛju-gātra (Pali brahmujjugatta), so Gv 16, Bbh 21; Mv 7 bṛhat; Mv ii.305.18 prahavarjugātra (corruption for brahmarj°?); Dh 8 ṛjugātra(-tā); LVb 5 bahujanatrātā, obvious corruption; not in LVa, Mvy (replaced, perhaps, by suvartitoru, Lefm. suvivart°, 9 in [Page459-b+ 71] both?).—16. saptotsada (Pali sattussada), LVa 18; LVb 17; Mvy 18; Gv 9; Dh 5; Bbh 17 °da-kāya; Mv 20 utsadā; RP 47.9.—17. siṃhapūrvārdhakāya (Pali sīha- pubbaddhakāya), LVa 14; LVb 18; Mvy 14; Bbh 18; Gv 11; Dh 18 (°ānta° for °ārdha°); Mv ii.305.6; probably concealed in Mv 18 or 19, corrupt.—18. citāntarāṃsa (or °śa, Dh; Pali citantaraṃsa), LVa, Mvy 17; LVb 19; Bbh, Dh 20; Gv 12; probably citā to be read in Mv 17.— 19. nyagrodhaparimaṇḍala (Pali nigrodha°), LVa, LVb, Mvy 13; Dh 22; Bbh 11; Gv 33; Mv 10 nyagrodha.— 20. susaṃvṛttaskandha (Pali sama-vatta-kkhandha), LVa, Mvy, Bbh, Dh 19; LVb 20; Gv 14 (omits su); Mv 24 samā (compare Pali); Mv ii.305.17 (omits su); RP 47.9 śānta- saṃvṛtta-skandhaḥ; the erroneous spelling °saṃvṛta° in Dh, Mvy text (but Index and Mironov saṃvṛtta), and Gv (but followed in gloss by vṛttāv asya skandhāv…pīnau, etc.).—21. rasarasāgra(-vant? Pali rasaggasaggi); °gra- (-tā) Mvy 23; Dh 21; °gra-vant LVa 22; LVb 25; °gra- prāptaḥ Bbh 27; rasaṃ Mv 21; °griṇaḥ Mv ii.306.4; in Gv 17 represented by kambugrīva(-tā) (400.25), on which see BR s.v. kambu; it is paraphrased by adīnakaṇṭhaḥ, with not inferior neck, but for the real meaning see following passage cited s.v. rasaharaṇī, proving connexion with (rasa-) rasāgra, q.v.; compare also RP 47.9 kambu-rucira- grīvā (among lakṣaṇa).—22. siṃhahanu (Pali sīha°), LVa 20; LVb 21; Mvy 11; Gv 18; Dh, Bbh 25; Mv 23 sīho (or siṃho); Mv ii.306.4; RP 46.15.—23. catvāriṃ- śaddanta (Pali cattālīsadanta), Mvy 27; compare Mv ii.306.5; catvāriṃśatsamadanta LVb, Bbh 22, Gv 19 (1st ed.); samacatvāriṃśaddanta LVa 26; Gv 19 (2d ed.); not identified in Mv; compare RP 46.17; 50.17.—24. samadanta (Pali id.), Mvy 26; Dh 27; Gv 21; Mv 26 samā; for Bbh, LVa, LVb, see under prec.; they seem to combine the two (but note that Gv has this item separately, while including sama with the prec.); RP 46.17.—25. aviraladanta (Pali avivara°, but v.l. aviraḷa°), LVa, Mvy 25; LVb 24; Bbh 23; Dh 29; Gv 20 aviralāviṣamadanta(-tā); compare RP 50.17.— 26. suśukla-daṃṣṭra, or °danta (Pali susukkadāṭha): °daṃṣṭra Gv 401.13 (in gloss on No. 24 above); śukra- daṃṣṭrā (v.l. suśukladanta) Mv ii.306.6; °danta LVb 23; Mvy, Bbh 24; śukla-danta LVa 24; śukla-hanu(-tā) Dh 26; śuklā Mv 25; compare RP 46.17.—27. prabhūtajihva (Pali pahūtajivha), LVa 21; LVb 29; Dh 24; Gv 22 (su-pra°); prabhūtatanujihva Mvy 21; Bbh 26; Mv ii.306.7; pra- bhūtā Mv 27; jihvā prabhūtā RP 46.18; 50.15.—28. brah- masvara (Pali brahmassara), LVa, Gv 23; LVb 26; Mvy 20; Bbh 28 (with gloss kalaviṅkamanojñabhāṇī; some Pali texts gloss karavīkabhāṇī); Mv 28 brahmā; Mv ii.306.11; not in text of Dh, but one ms. is cited in Müller's note as reading corruptly prastasvara(-tā), which should doubtless be emended and adopted, deleting Dh 28 haṃ- savikrāntagāmi(tā), which is properly an anuvyañjana; compare RP 47.1 brahmaghoṣā.—29. abhinīlanetra (Pali °netta), LVa, LVb 27, Bbh 29, Dh 31; Mv 29 nīla; Mv ii.306.15; Gv 24 (2d ed.); Mvy 28 abhinīlanetra-gopakṣmā, combining this with next. Cf. RP 46.15; 50.13.—30. go- pakṣma, or °man (Pali gopakkhuma), Bbh 30 °mā (n. sg.), Gv 25 °maḥ; °ma-netra LVa 28, and intended by corrupt readings LVb 28; Dh 32; Mv 30 °ma (mss.); for Mvy see prec.—31. ūrṇā bhruvāntare jātāvadātā mṛdutūlasaṃ- nibhā (? exact language uncertain, but Pali uṇṇā bhamu- kantare jātā odātā mudutūlasannibhā); Pali seems sup- ported by Mv ii.306.17—18, where read bhruvāntare(ṇa) …ūrṇā hi prakāśāvadātā (mss. cited as °śā ca vātā) mṛduka-(so v.l.)-tūlasādṛśā; LVa 29 ūrṇā…bhruvor madhye jātā himarajataprakāśā; Dh 17 ūrṇālaṃkṛtamu- khatā; Gv 26 bhruvāntare…ūrṇā jātābhūn mṛdvī… śuddhā prabhāsvarā himaguḍikā-tuṣāravarṇā…; Bbh 32 ūrṇā…bhruvor madhye jātā śvetā śaṅkhasaṃnibhā pra- dakṣiṇāvartā (compare LV, Mvy); LVa 31 (compare LVb below, LVa 29 above, Bbh, and Mvy)…pradakṣināvartakeśaḥ; [Page460-a+ 71] Mvy 29 ūrṇākośaḥ (so read), and 31 pradakṣiṇāvartakeśaḥ; LVb 31 bhrūmadhye-sujātapradakṣiṇāvartottaptaviśud- dhavarṇābhāsorṇa(ḥ, n. sg., Bhvr.); Mv 31 ūrṇā. Cf. RP 46.14; 50.12.—32. uṣṇīṣaśīrṣa (see s.v. uṣṇīṣa; Pali uṇhīsasīsa), LVa 32; Mv 32; Mv ii.307.4; Bbh 31 (°ṣāḥ); °śiraska(-tā) Mvy 32; Dh 23; mūrdhni…uṣṇīṣam Gv 27; uṣṇīṣaśīrṣānavalokitamūrdha LVb 30; uṣṇi RP 46.13; 50.11.—A few secondary insertions in individual lists are here ignored. References to the 32 lakṣaṇa, usually as seen on a Buddha, are frequent, e.g. SP 47.10; and see s.v. lakṣa for two cases where Senart assumes, wrongly I think, that Mv substitutes that word for lakṣaṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. A mark, a spot. 2. A name, an appellation. 3. Sight, seeing. 4. An indication, a predicate, any thing by which an object is designated or distinguished. 5. A symptom or any indication of actual disease. m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. The younger brother of Rama. 2. The Indian crane. f.

(-ṇā) 1. The female of the Indian crane. 2. A goose. 3. An ellipsis, a word, &c. understood, though not inserted. 4. The force or application of a word or phrase. E. lakṣ to see, to mark, aff. lyuṭ; or lakṣ as before, Unadi aff. na and aṭ augment; also with muṭ augment, lakṣmaṇa, which in the masc. and fem. forms is the more usual reading.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Lakṣaṇa (लक्षण).—i. e. lakṣ + ana, I. n. 1. Seeing, sight. 2. A characteristic mark, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 130; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 70; a spot. 3. A holy mark, [Hitopadeśa] 99, 7; a lucky mark, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 197, 11. 4. Form, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 20, 38. 5. A name, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 35 (read yātrālakṣaṇam, called yātrā). 6. An indication, a definition, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 112. 7. Settlement, 8, 406. 8. A symptom of actual disease. Ii. m. 1. The Indian crane. 2. A proper name. Iii. f. . 1. Metonymy, as distinguished from a word’s literal meaning, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 212, 16; Bhāṣāp. 81. Cf. Sāhitya, Darp. ii. 2. The female of the Indian crane. 3. A goose.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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