Jambuka: 18 definitions

Introduction

Jambuka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Jambuka (जम्बुक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “jackal”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Jambuka is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Jambūka (जम्बूक).—A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 74).

2) Jambuka (जम्बुक).—(JAMBUMĀLIKA). A Śūdra Sage. The child of a brahmin died when Śrī Rāma, after his twelve years' exile in forest had returned to Ayodhyā and was ruling the country in an ideal manner. The brahmin and his wife carried the dead body of their child to the palace with loud lamentations. Everybody felt surprised how there could be child-death in the land when the King was ruling it in the most dhārmic (righteous) manner. Then did Nārada, who was present in the assembly, point out that in a corner of Rāmarājya a Śūdra Sage was doing tapas and that it was the reason for the untimely death of the brahmin child. At once Śrī Rāma set out in search of the Śūdra Sage after directing Śatrughna to see that no enemy entered the country, and asking Lakṣmaṇa to take care of the dead body of the brahmin child. After a rather detailed search Śrī Rāma found Jambuka at the mountain called Śailam doing tapas hanging from the branch of a tree on his legs with head down. He told Śrī Rāma that he was the Śūdra Sage called Jambuka and was performing tapas thus so that he might ascend to heaven in his very body. Śrī Rāma at once cut off the head of the Śūdra Sage, who attained, as soon as Rāma’s sword fell on him, mokṣa (salvation), and the dead child of the brahmin returned to life again. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jambuka (जम्बुक).—A son of Āpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 30.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Jambuka (जम्बुक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.69, IX.44.71) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Jambuka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Jambuka (जम्बुक) refers to the animal “Red fox” (Vulpes vulpes).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Jambuka] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

l. Jambuka Thera - He was born in Rajagaha of rich parents but from infancy he would eat nothing but excrement. When he grew older he was ordained with the Ajivakas, who pulled out his hair with a palmyra comb. When the Ajivakas discovered that he ate filth, they expelled him and he lived as a naked ascetic, practising all kinds of austerities and accepting no offerings save butter and honey placed on the tip of his tongue with the point of a blade of grass. His fame spread far. When he was fifty five years old, the Buddha visited him and spent the night in a cave near his abode. During the night, Jambuka saw mighty gods come to pay homage to the Buddha and was so impressed that the next day he sought the Buddhas counsel. The Buddha told him of his past evil deeds which had condemned him to practise austerities for so long and counselled him to give up his evil ways. In the course of the sermon, Jambuka grew ashamed of his nakedness and the Buddha gave him a bath robe. At the end of the discourse Jambuka became an arahant, and when the inhabitants of Anga and Magadha came to him with their offerings, he performed a miracle before them and paid homage to the Buddha, acknowledging him as his teacher.

In the time of Kassapa Buddha, Jambuka was a monk and had a lay patron who looked after him. One day a pious monk came to his vihara, and the layman, being pleased with him, showed him much attention. The resident monk, very jealous, reviled the visitor, saying, It would be better for you to eat filth than food in this laymans house, to tear your hair with a palmyra comb than let his barber cut it for you, to go naked than wear robes given by him, to lie on the ground than on a bed provided by him. The Elder, not wishing to be the cause of his sinning, left the monastery the next day. Because of this act, the meditations practised by Jambuka for twenty thousand years were of no avail, and he was born in Avici, where he suffered torments during an interval between two Buddhas. In this last life, too, he was condemned to suffer in many ways, as related above (DhA.ii.52-63; Thag.283-6; ThagA.i.386f).

In the time of Tissa Buddha he was a householder and made offerings at the Buddhas Bodhi tree, fanning the Buddhas seat with a fan. He is probably identical with Sihasanavijaniya of the Apadana (Ap.ii.403).

It is said (Mil.350; AA.i.57) that when the Buddha preached to Jambuka, eighty four thousand others realised the Truth.

2. Jambuka - A parrot, an incarnation of the Bodhisatta, adopted as his son by Brahmadatta, king of Benares. He preached to the king on the fivefold power - of limbs, of wealth, of counsel, of caste and of wisdom - the last being the best. The king thereupon appointed him commander in chief. J.v.111, 120, 125.

3. Jambuka - A dog, companion of the she goat in the Putimamsa Jataka. J.iii.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Jambuka (जम्बुक) is the name of an Arhat, mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 36.—Accordingly, “at the time of the Buddha Kāśyapa, Jambuka as an elder lived with a lay devotee. A wandering monk, in the course of his alms-round, came to the layman and was welcomed there. In a fit of jealousy, Jambuka insulted the visitor and declared that for his part he would never accept anything from lay people and rather preferred to eat dung, tear out his hair, go naked and sleep on the ground...”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Jambuka (जम्बुक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Jambukī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Jambuka] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

2) Jambuka (जम्बुक) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Jambukī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Jambuka] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Jambuka (जम्बुक) is the name of a caitya (‘shrine’, dedicated to a deity), located in the town Ulluka-tīra-nagara, according to the Bhagavatī-sūtra, also known as The Vyākhyāprajñapti (“Exposition of Explanations”). The Bhagavatī-sūtra is the largest of twelve Jain āgamas and was composed by Sudharmāsvāmī in the 6th century.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (J) next»] — Jambuka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jambuka : (m.) a jackal.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jambuka, (Sk. jambuka, to jambh?) a jackal J. II, 107; III, 223. (Page 279)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jambūka (जंबूक).—m S A jackal.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jambūka (जंबूक).—m A jackal.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jambuka (जम्बुक) or Jambūka (जम्बूक).—(- f.)

1) A jackal.

2) A low man.

3) The rose apple tree.

4) An epithet of Varuṇa.

Derivable forms: jambukaḥ (जम्बुकः), jambūkaḥ (जम्बूकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jambuka (जम्बुक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A jackal. 2. The deity of water, Varuna. 3. A low man. 4. The rose apple. jam to eat, affix ukac and vuk augment, eating flesh, &c. or jambu as above, and ka added the affix also being ūkac, jambūka . jambaḥ iva kāyati kai-ka .

--- OR ---

Jambūka (जम्बूक).—m.

(-kaḥ) See jambuka.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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