Amarakosha, Amarakoṣa, Amarakośa, Amara-kosha: 8 definitions

Introduction

Amarakosha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Amarakoṣa and Amarakośa can be transliterated into English as Amarakosa or Amarakosha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Amarakoṣa (अमरकोष) refers to “an ancient authoritative Sanskrit thesaurus”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

[«previous (A) next»] — Amarakosha in Kosha glossary
Source: University of Cambridge: Amarakośavivṛti

The Amarakośa by Amarasiṃha, probably a Buddhist author, is the most renowned Sanskrit lexicographical work, seemingly composed around the middle of the first millennium CE. “The bulk of the Amarakośa is a synonymic dictionary whose articles are grouped subjectwise”.

Source: Shodhganga: Technical study of the dictionaries published in Sanskrit language since 1800 AD

Amarakośa (अमरकोश) or Nāmaliñgānuśāsana is on majority a synonymous dictionary authored by Amarasimha of the 6th C.A.D. (or earlier). The dictionary is divided into three sections called kāṇṇās and hence popularly known as Trikāṇḍa. A major part of the lexicon deals with the synonyms and a small section, viz., nānārthavarga is devoted to homonyms;where the arrangement is according to the final consonants. The indeclinables are treated in one section while the last section is devoted to general rules for determining the genders. It is however difficult to trace a particular word in the kośa as there is no index of words treated. It may also be noticed that the genders of words are expressed by the inflexional endings. At times the gender is indicated by labels like stri, pum, etc. Though there have been many lexicons prior to it, the Amarakośa has been most frequently referred to as an authority, in support of descriptions of words used by them while commenting on any Sanskrit text. The Catalogus Cataloqorum of Aufrecht mentions about forty commentaries on Amarakośa. The author has consulted his predecessors in compiling the lexicon as acknowledged by him in the introductory stanzas.

context information

Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (A) next»] — Amarakosha in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The Amarakosha from amara "immortal" and kosha "treasure, casket, pail, collection, dictionary", also Namalinganushasana (Sanskrit: नामलिङ्गानुशासनम्, IAST: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsanam) from nama-linga-anu-shasana "instruction concerning nouns and gender" is a thesaurus of Sanskrit written by the Jain or Buddhist scholar Amarasimha. Amarasimha was one of the Navaratnas ("nine gems") at the court of Chandragupta II, a Gupta king who reigned around AD 400. Some sources indicate that he belonged to the period of Vikramaditya of 7th century.

The Amarakosha consists of verses that can be easily memorized. It is divided into three khāṇḍas or chapters. The first, svargādi-khāṇḍa ("heaven and others") has words pertaining to gods and heavens. The second, bhūvargādi-khāṇḍa ("earth and others") deals with words about earth, towns, animals and humans. The third, sāmānyādi-khāṇḍa ("common") has words related to grammar and other miscellaneous words.

Source: Indian National Science Academy: Annual Report 2015-16 (h)

Amarakośa (अमरकोश), technically known as Namaliṅgānuśāsana, composed by Amarasimha around 5th or 6th century AD is the most popular Sanskrit Lexicon available today. Namaliṅgānuśāsana literally means names, genders and rules pertaining to them. It is encompassed within its three parts (kānḍas) and distributed in several chapters (vargās).

Amarakośa even though primarily meant as a linguistic study containing meaning of terms, words with several meanings (nānārthapāda) and several words with same meaning (paryāyapāda), provides sufficient material for a comprehensive analysis of an ancient Indian Society particularly with reference to their social, economic and other activities.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Amarakosha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Amarakośa (अमरकोश) or Amarakoṣa (अमरकोष).—Name of the most popular Sanskṛt lexicon called after the author अमरसिंह (amarasiṃha). °कौमुदी (kaumudī) Title of a commentary on अमरकोश (amarakośa).

Derivable forms: amarakośaḥ (अमरकोशः), amarakoṣaḥ (अमरकोषः).

Amarakośa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms amara and kośa (कोश).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Amarakośa (अमरकोश) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—lex. by Amarasiṃha. Jones. 412. Cop. 15. 102. Pet. 728. Io. 258. 674. 1424. 1758. 2336. 2413. 2447. 2475. 2776. 2808. 2814. 2827. 2846. 3146. 3147. 3162. 3175. W. p. 223. 224. Oxf. 182^b. 351^a. Paris. (B 96. 179. 191. D. 33. 171. Gr. 33-36). Kh. 21. B. 3, 36. Report. Xxi. Ben. 33. 39. Bik. 267. Kāṭm. 9. Pheh. 5 (and—[commentary]). Rādh. 10. Oudh. Xvii, 18. Np. I, 54. Jac. 696. Bhk. 29. Kāśīn. 4. Poona. 201. 221-23. 229. Ii, 85. H. 156-59. Proceed. Asb. 1869, 224. Taylor. 1, 24. 109-11. 140. 243-45. 392-94. 396-98. 428. 477. Oppert. 18. 531. 632. 1091. 1658. 2184. 2554. 3755. 4384. 5486. 6551. 6713. 6736. 6861. 7087. 7265. Ii. 140. 387. 439. 942. 1091. 1411. 1762. 1933. 2060. 2132. 2156. 2186. 2296. 2633. 2692. 3508. 3677. 4676. 5111. 5680. 6312. 6838. 8042. 8252. 8872. 10048. 10143. Rice. 288. 290. Peters. 3, 397. Bp. 61. 265. 467. Bühler 544. 557.

—[commentary] Report. Xxii. NW. 614. Oppert. 1386. 3377. 4013. (Pañcabhaṭṭīya). Ii, 4677. 5914.
—[commentary] Amaraviveka. Rādh. 10.
—[commentary] Bṛhadvṛtti. Oppert. 2557.
—[commentary] Vyākhyāpradīpa by Acyuta Upādhyaya. Colebrooke Ii^2, 51.
—[commentary] by Appayya Dīkṣita. Oppert. 7820.
—[commentary] Kriyākalāpa by Āśādhara. Bp. 104.
—[commentary] Kāśikā by Kāśīnātha. B. 3, 36.
—[commentary] Amarakośodghāṭana by Kṣīrasvāmin. Io. 495. 2776. L. 861. K. 92. Kh. 67. B. 3, 36. Report. Xxii. [Oudh 1876-1877], 6. Viii, 8. Xiii, 52. Xv, 42. Np. I, 54. Ii, 100. Burnell. 45^a. Gu. 5. Kāśīn. 4. H. 160. Oppert. 2555. Ii. 1836. 1977. 6191. Peters. 3, 397.
—[commentary] Bālabodhinī by Gosvāmin. K. 92.
—[commentary] Kaumudī, commenced by Nayanānanda Śarman, and completed by his pupil Rāmacandra Śarman. Io. 1161. Paris. (B 97).
—[commentary] Amarakośapañjikā or Padārthakaumudī by Nārāyaṇa Śarman, composed in 1619. Io. 13. 14. 469. 906. L. 922. Oppert. 2556. 2558. 2751. 4984. 5420. 5885. Ii, 6193.
—[commentary] Śabdārthasaṃdīpikā by Nārāyaṇa Vidyāvinoda, son of Bāṇeśvara. Io. 713.
—[commentary] Subodhinī by Nīlakaṇṭha Śarman. Io. 342.
—[commentary] Amarakośamālā by Paramānanda. Sūcīpattra. 5. L. 2064.
—[commentary] Amarakośapañjikā by Bṛhaspati. Report. Xxii.
—[commentary] Mugdhabodhinī by Bharatasena. Io. 9-11. 458-61. L. 529. 926. Np. Ii, 100.
—[commentary] Vyākhyāsudhā or Subodhinī by Bhānujī Dīkṣita. Io. 674. 1424. 2474. W. p. 223. Oxf. 182^b. Paris. (D 38. 39). K. 92. B. 3, 36. Ben. 33. 39. Rādh. 10. Jac. 696. Burnell. 46^a. Gu. 5. Mysore. 9. Bhk. 29. Bhr. 200. 649. H. 161-63. Oppert. 5887. 6823. 7821. Bühler 544.
—[commentary] Gurubālaprabodhinī by Bhānu Dīkṣita. Taylor. 1, 243. Oppert. Ii, 929. 1745. 2127. 3011. 4557. 6257. 8203.
—[commentary] by Mañjubhaṭṭa. Oppert. 4985. 5886. 6863.
—[commentary] Sārasundarī, composed in 1666, by Mathureśa Vidyālaṃkāra, son of Śivarāma. Io. 1589 -91. L. 572. 2465.
—[commentary] Amarapadapārijāta by Mallinātha. Mysore. 9. Oppert. 6822. 6862. 7819.
—[commentary] Vidvanmanoharā or Budhamanoharā by Mahādevatīrtha. L. 846. Ben. 33. Oudh. Viii, 8.
—[commentary] Amarakośaviveka by Maheśvara. L. 3045. B. 3, 36. Oudh. Xvii, 18.
—[commentary] by Mukunda Śarman, who follows the grammatical system of Vopadeva. L. 1208.
—[commentary] Trikāṇḍacintāmaṇi by Raghunātha Cakravartin. Io. 1391. L. 1726. Np. Ii, 100. 102.
—[commentary] by Rāghavendra. L. 2178.
—[commentary] Trikāṇḍaviveka by Rāmanātha. Io. 832. 1324. Np. Ii, 100.
—[commentary] Vaiṣamyakaumudī by Rāmaprasāda. Io. 1115.
—[commentary] by Rāmaśarman. Io. 377. L. 2512.
—[commentary] by Rāmasvāmin. Khn. 50.
—[commentary] by Rāmāśrama (i. e. Bhānujī). Poona. 221.
—[commentary] Pradīpamañjarī by Rāmeśvara Śarman. Io. 489.
—[commentary] Padacandrikā, composed in 1431, by Rāyamukuṭa or Bṛhaspati. Io. 15. 541. 542. 558. L. 1702. B. 3, 36. Rādh. 10. Oudh. Xviii, 22. Rice. 290. Bp. 61. 265. 467. Bühler 557.
—[commentary] by Lakṣmaṇa Śāstrin, son of Viśveśvara Śāstrin. Io. 1758.
—[commentary] by Liṅgabhaṭṭa. Np. Viii, 16. Poona. 229. Rice. 290. 292. Bühler 557.
—[commentary] by Liṅgaya Sūri. K. 90. Burnell. 45^b. Oppert. Ii, 3959. 6192.
—[commentary] Padamañjarī by Lokanātha. Io. 569.
—[commentary] Vyākhyāmṛta by Śrīkara Ācārya. L. 2751.
—[commentary] by Śrīdhara. Oudh. Xv, 48.
—[commentary] Ṭīkāsarvasva by Sarvānanda. K. 92. Burnell. 46^a. Taylor. 1, 482. Bṛhadamarakośa quoted by Rāyamukuṭa Oxf. 191^b, by Bhānujī Oxf. 182^b.

Amarakośa has the following synonyms: Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana, Trikāṇḍa.

2) Amarakośa (अमरकोश):—add Ben. 36. Burnell. 44^b. read Io. 2474 instead of 2447.
—[commentary] read 4103 instead of 4013.
—[commentary] by Kṣīrasvāmin. read Oudh. Xv, 48.
—[commentary] by Bhānujī. add L. 852. Jac. 696. read Ben. 36 instead of 33.
—[commentary] by Sarvānanda. add Oppert. Ii, 6274.

3) Amarakośa (अमरकोश):—Asb. 1893, 256. Cu. add. 1650. 1651. Fl. 457 (Kāṇḍa 1). 458 (Kāṇḍa 3). Oudh. Xx, 72 (and—[commentary]). Peters. 4, 32. Rgb. 505. 506. 510 (Kāṇḍa 3). Stein 52. 53.
—[commentary] by Kṣīrasvāmin. Rgb. 505. 506. 511.
—[commentary] Amarakośapañjikā by Nārāyaṇa Śarman. L. 3368.
—[commentary] Vyākhyāsudhā by Bhānujī Dīkṣita. Peters. 4, 32. Stein 53.
—[commentary] by Mallinātha. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 42.
—[commentary] Budhamanoharā by Mahādeva. Fl. 457 (Kāṇḍa 1). Rgb. 512 (Kāṇḍa 1. 2).
—[commentary] by Raṅgācārya. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 42.
—[commentary] by Rāmakṛṣṇa Dīkṣita. Rgb. 510 (Kāṇḍa 3).
—[commentary] Padacandrikā by Rāyamukuṭa. Peters. 4, 23. Stein 53.
—[commentary] by Liṅgayasūri. Bl. 126 (Liṅgaṇabhaṭṭa). Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 42.
—[commentary] by Veṅkaṭācārya. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 42.
—[commentary] by Sarvānanda. ibid.
—[commentary] Kāmadhenu by Subhūticandra (q. v.).

4) Amarakośa (अमरकोश):—lexicon. Ulwar 1228-31.
—[commentary] by Kṣīrasvāmin. ibid. 1229.
—[commentary] Vyākhyāsudhā by Bhānujī Dīkṣita. ibid. 1230.
—[commentary] Padacandrikā by Rāyamukuṭa. ibid. 1231.
—[commentary] by Liṅgābhaṭṭa. Hz. 458 (kāṇḍa 1). 298 (kāṇḍa 1. 2. by Liṅgaya Sūri).

5) Amarakośa (अमरकोश):—by Amarasiṃha. Ak 679. 680 (inc.). As p. 12 (6 Mss.). Cr. (and C.). L.. 788-793. Śg. 2, 87. 88. Tod 92 (from the beginning to 2, 6, 2, 29). Whish 119. 160. C. Gurubālaprabodhikā. Śg. 2, 81. See Gurubālaprabodhinī in Cc. I. C. Amarakośodghāṭana by Kṣīrasvāmin. As p. 11. 12. Bc 491 (inc.). L.. 794 (Breaks off in 3, 4, 25, 191. Loiseleur). Whish 155, 1 (Breaks off in 3, 4, 16, 98). C. Kaumudī, commenced by Nayanānanda and completed by his pupil Rāmacandra. As p. 11. C. Padārthakaumudī by Nārāyaṇa. As p. 12. C. Mugdhabodhinī by Bharatasena. As p. 12. C. Amarakośaviveka by Maheśvara. As p. 11. C. Vyākhyāsudhā by Bhānujī Dīkṣita. As p. 12 (2 Mss. Kāṇḍa 1). L.. 793 (first Kāṇḍa). Tod 92 (from the beginning up to 2, 6, 2, 29). C. Abhidhānaprakāśikā by Raghunandana Nyāyapragalbha. Hpr. 1, 6. C. Trikāṇḍacintāmaṇi by Raghunātha Cakravartin. As p. 12. Hpr. 1, 9. Tod 144. C. by Ratneśvara Cakravartin, son of Ramānātha. Hpr. 1, 7 (up to the end of the Brahmavarga). 2, 7. C. by Ramānātha Cakravartin. As p. 12 (2 Mss.). C. Nāmaliṅgākhyakaumudī by Rāmakṛṣṇa. As p. 12. C. Padacandrikā by Rāyamukuṭa Ak 680 (inc.). As p. 12 (2 Mss.). Bd. 569 (Kāṇḍa 2). C. by Liṅgasūri or Liṅgabhaṭṭa. Bd. 570 ([fragmentary]). Śg. 1, 36 (Liṅgayya Sūri). 2, 84 p. 186 (Avyayavarga, Liṅgasaṃgraha [fragmentary]). C. Padamañjarī by Lokanātha. Hpr. 1, 10. C. Jñānadīpikā by Śrīpati Cakravartin. Hpr. 1, 8 (till 2, 4, 2, 22). C. Ṭīkāsarvasva by Sarvānanda. Hz. 1246. Śg. 2, 82 p. 184. 83.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Amarakoṣa (अमरकोष):—[=a-mara-koṣa] [from a-mara > a-mamri] m. Name of the Sanskṛt dictionary of Amara or Amara-siṃha.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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