Panka, Paṅka, Pamka, Pāṅkā: 21 definitions


Panka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Paṅka (पङ्क) refers to “mud”, as mentioned in verse 5.6-8 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Not shall one drink (water that is) turbid and covered (āstṛta) with mud [viz., paṅka], tape-grass, grass, and leaves, unseen by sun, moon, and wind, rained upon, thick, heavy, [...]: (such water) one shall not drink”.

Note: Paṅka (“mud”) has been translated tautologically by ’dam-rdzab, that is, “mud & mire”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Paṅka (पङ्क) refers to “mud” (e.g., ‘the mud of fear’), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “I salute the venerable Kulālī, the supreme break-through, the awakening to the door of liberation. Her body is the bliss of the divine Command and, on the (transcendental) plane of Akula, she is universal consciousness. [...] The whole reality has been attained whose glorious power is unperturbed and from which the mud of fear [i.e., ātaṅka-paṅka] has been removed”.

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context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Paṅka (पङ्क) refers to the “mud” (of old age and death), according to  the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 40.—Accordingly: [...] Furthermore, the Buddha is superior to the noble Cakravartin king. The noble Cakravartin king has not eliminated all the passions; the Buddha has eliminated them definitively. The noble Cakravartin king is plunged in the mud (paṅka) of old age (jarā) and death (maraṇa); the Buddha has come out of it. The noble Cakravartin king is subject to the emotions; the Buddha has transcended them. [...]

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Paṅka (पङ्क) refers to the “mud” (of the cycle of rebirth), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Who has not been [your] relative? Which  living beings have not been your enemies, you who is mercilessly immersed in the mud of the miserable and unfathomable cycle of rebirth (paṅka-magnadurantāgādhasaṃsārapaṅkamagnasya)? Here [in the cycle of rebirth] a king becomes an insect and an insect becomes the chief of the gods. An embodied soul might wander about, tricked by [their] karma without being able to help it”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Paṅka.—(EI 33), a share; cf. paṅga. Note: paṅka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

paṅka : (m.) mud; mire; impurity; defilement.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Paṅka, (cp. Epic Sk. paṅka, with k suffix to root *pene for *pele, as in Lat. palus; cp. Goth. fani mire, excrements, Ohg, fenna “fen, ” bog; also Ital. fango mud, Ohg. fūht wet. See Walde Lat. Wtb. under palus. BSk. paṅka, e.g. Jtm 215 paṅka-nimagna) mud, mire; defilement, impurity S. I, 35, 60; III, 118; A. III, 311; IV, 289; Sn. 970 (°danta rajassira with dirt between their teeth and dust on their heads, from travelling); III, 236 (id.); IV, 362 (id.); Sn. 535, 845, 945, 1145 (Nd2 374: kāma-paṅko kāma-kaddamo etc.); Dh. 141, 327; Nd1 203; Pv III, 33; IV, 32; Miln. 346; Dhs. 1059, 1136. (Page 382)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṅka (पंक).—m (pāka S) Sugar or molasses boiled (in preparation for sweetmeats &c.), syrup. 2 S Mud.

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pāṅka (पांक).—m (paṅka S Mud, or pāka S Cooking.) Sugar clarified and inspissated in preparation for sweetmeats, syrup.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paṅka (पंक).—m Sugar or molasses boiled (in preparation for sweetmeats &c.), syrup. Mud.

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pāṅka (पांक).—m Syrup.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṅka (पङ्क).—[pañc-vistāre karmaṇi karaṇe vā ghañ kutvam]

1) Mud, clay, mire; अनीत्वा पङ्कतां धूलिमुदकं नावतिष्ठते (anītvā paṅkatāṃ dhūlimudakaṃ nāvatiṣṭhate) Ś.2.34; पङ्कक्लिन्नमुखाः (paṅkaklinnamukhāḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 5.14; Kirātārjunīya 2.6; R.16.3.

2) Hence a thick mass, large quantity; कृष्णागुरुपङ्कः (kṛṣṇāgurupaṅkaḥ) K.3.

3) A slough, quagmire.

4) Sin.

5) Ointment, unguent; पङ्कोऽरुणः सुरभिरात्मविषाण ईदृक् (paṅko'ruṇaḥ surabhirātmaviṣāṇa īdṛk) Bhāgavata 5.2.11.

Derivable forms: paṅkaḥ (पङ्कः), paṅkam (पङ्कम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṅka (पङ्क).—mn.

(-ṅkaḥ-ṅkaṃ) 1. Mud, mire, clay. 2. Sin. E. paci to spread, aff. karmaṇi, karaṇe vā ghañ and ca changed to ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṅka (पङ्क).—m. Mud, mire, clay, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 191. 2. Ointment, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 6; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 57 (mire and ointment).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṅka (पङ्क).—[substantive] mud, dirt.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paṅka (पङ्क):—mn. ([gana] ardharcādi, said to be [from] √1. pac ‘to spread’) mud, mire, dirt, clay (ifc. f(ā). ), [Suparṇādhyāya; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) ointment, unguent (in [compound]; cf. kuṅkuma-, candanaetc.), [Kāvya literature; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) moral impurity, sin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṅka (पङ्क):—[(ṅkaḥ-ṅkaṃ)] 1. m. n. Mud; sin.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paṅka (पङ्क) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paṃka, Paṃkā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Panka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Paṃka (पंक) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paṅka.

2) Paṃkā (पंका) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Paṅkā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paṃka (ಪಂಕ):—

1) [noun] wet, soft earth or earthy matter, as on the ground after rain, at the bottom of a pond or along the banks of a river; mire; mud.

2) [noun] a paste of sandal powder.

3) [noun] any unclean or soiling matter, as mud, dust, dung, trash, etc.; filth.

4) [noun] transgression of divine law; any act regarded as such a transgression, esp. a wilful or deliberate violation of some religious or moral principle; any reprehensible or regrettable action, behaviour, lapse, etc.;a sin.

5) [noun] (fig.) a distressed or wretched condition.

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Paṃka (ಪಂಕ):—[noun] = ಪಂಖ [pamkha].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Paṅkā (பங்கா) noun < Urdu paṅkhā. Punkah, a large swinging fan; ஆட்டுதற்குரிய தூங்குவிசிறி வகை. [attutharkuriya thunguvisiri vagai.] (W.)

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Pāṅkā (பாங்கா) noun < Urdu bānkā. A kind of bugle-horn; வாங்கா என்ற ஊதுகொம்பு. (அபிதானசிந்தாமணிமேகலை) [vanga enra uthugombu. (apithanasindamani)]

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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