Kushala, Kusala, Kuśala, Kuṣala: 29 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Kushala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kuśala and Kuṣala can be transliterated into English as Kusala or Kushala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kuśala (कुशल) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Kuśala) various roles suitable to them.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Kuśala is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Kuśala (कुशल).—One of the seven sons of Dyutimān, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74.

2) Kuśala (कुशल).—One of the seven regions situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. It is also known by the name Mādhava. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

3) Kuśala (कुशल).—One of the seven major mountains in Śālmalidvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 89. These mountains are big, yellow in colour and filled with gold. Śālmalidvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Dyutimān.

Priyavrata and Dyutimān are both sons of Priyavrata, who is the son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kuśala (कुशल).—A holy place near mount Krauñca. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 21).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kuśala (कुशल).—A son of Dyutimat after whom Kauśala deśa came to be called.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 22-24; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 21; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 48

1b) The name of the forest where Diti performed penance to get a son to slay Indra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 94.

1c) A class of people in Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 16.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kuśala (कुशल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.50) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kuśala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kuśala (कुशल).—Name of a grammarian who wrote a commentary on the Kātantra Vyākaraṇa; see कातन्त्रपञ्जिक्रा (kātantrapañjikrā).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kuśala (कुशल) refers to “competent” and is mentioned in verse 3.10 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] (though) being hungry already at dawn because of the length of the nights in this period, one shall (first) perform the necessary business as mentioned (above) and then practise inunction (of the body) by wind-destroying oils, oiling at the head, massage, wrestling with competent [viz., kuśala] people, and treading with one’s feet; (all this) in a proper way”.

Note: Kuśala (“competent”) has been translated by bag-yod-pa (“careful”)

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsWholesome, skillful, good, meritorious. An action characterized by this moral quality (kusala kamma) is bound to result (eventually) in happiness and a favorable outcome. Actions characterized by its opposite (akusala kamma) lead to sorrow.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

T ((That which is) good, free from fault). Proper, convenient, skilful. N Good action, benevolent deed, meritorious action.

Any positive action by means of thought, speech and body is a kusala. It does naturally beget some benefit to the one who does perform it.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Kusala is wholesome.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'karmically wholesome' or 'profitable', salutary, morally good, (skillful)

Connotations of the term, according to Com. (Atthasālini), are: of good health, blameless, productive of favourable karma-result, skillful. It should be noted that Com. excludes the meaning 'skillful', when the term is applied to states of consciousness.

It is defined in M.9 as the 10 wholesome courses of action (s. kammapatha). In psychological terms, 'karmically wholesome' are all those karmical volitions (kamma-cetanā) and the consciousness and mental factors associated therewith, which are accompanied by 2 or 3 wholesome roots (s. mūla), i.e. by greedlessness (alobha) and hatelessness (adosa), and in some cases also by non-delusion (amoha: wisdom, understanding). Such states of consciousness are regarded as 'karmically wholesome' as they are causes of favourable karma results and contain the seeds of a happy destiny or rebirth. From this explanation, two facts should be noted:

  • (1) it is volition that makes a state of consciousness, or an act, 'good' or 'bad';

  • (2) the moral criterion in Buddhism is the presence or absence of the 3 wholesome or moral roots (s. mūla).

The above explanations refer to mundane (lokiya, q.v.) wholesome consciousness. Supermundane wholesome (lokuttara-kusala) states, i.e. the four paths of sanctity (s. ariyapuggala), have as results only the corresponding four fruitions; they do not constitute karma, nor do they lead to rebirth, and this applies also to the good actions of an Arahat (Tab. I, 73-80) and his meditative states (Tab. 1, 81-89), which are all karmically inoperative (functional; s. kiriya).

Kusala belongs to a threefold division of all consciousness, as found in the Abhidhamma (Dhs.), into

  • wholesome (kusala),

  • unwholesome (akusala) and

  • karmically neutral (avyākata),

which is the first of the triads (tika) in the Abhidhamma schedule (mātikā); s. Guide, pp. 4ff., 12ff; Vis.M. XIV, 83ff.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

By kusala is meant (moral) "good " in the sense of destroying or disturbing contemptible states; or in the sense of wholesomeness, faultlessness, and accomplishment by skill...

The Atthasalini, in the same section (63), defines kusala as follows :

  • its characteristic is that it has faultless. happy results,
  • its function is the destruction of immoralities,
  • its manifestation is purity.
  • its proximate cause is wise attention

The Atthasalini gives a second method of defining kusala:

  • its characteristic is faultlessness by being opposed to fault,
  • its function is purity.
  • its manifestation is desirable results,
  • its proximate cause is wise attention.
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Kuśala (कुशल) or Daśakuśala refers to the “ten unwholesome things” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 56):

  1. prāṇātipāta (killing living creatures),
  2. adattādāna (taking what has not been given),
  3. kāmamithyācāra (sexual misconduct),
  4. mṛṣāvāda (false speech),
  5. paiśunya (malicious speech),
  6. pāruṣya (rough speech),
  7. sambhinnapralāpa (frivolous talk),
  8. abhidhyā (avarice),
  9. vyāpāda (ill-will),
  10. mithyādṛṣṭi (wrong view).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., kuśala). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Kuśala (कुशल, “wholesomeness”) or Kuśalamātsarya refers to “selfishness regarding wholesomeness” and represents one of the “five selfishnesses” (mātsarya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 78).

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

Sanskrit word. It means good Karma.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kuśala.—(IA 17), used in the sense of puṇya, religious merit; cf. kuśala-mūla. Note: kuśala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (K) next»] — Kushala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kusala : (nt.) good action; merit; virtue. (adj.), clever.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kusala, (adj.) (cp. Sk. kuśala) 1. (adj.) clever, skilful, expert; good, right, meritorious M. I, 226; Dh. 44; J. I, 222. Esp. appl. in moral sense (=puñña), whereas akusala is practically equivalent to pāpa. ekam pi ce pāṇaṃ aduṭṭhacitto mettāyati kusalo tena hoti It. 21; sappañño paṇḍito kusalo naro Sn. 591, cp. 523; Pv. I, 33 (=nipuṇa). With kamma=a meritorious action, in kammaṃ katvā kusalaṃ D. III, 157; Vv III, 27; Pv. I, 1011 see cpds.—ācāra-k° good in conduct Dh. 376; parappavāda° skilled in disputation Dpvs. IV, 19; magga° (and opp. amagga°) one who is an expert as regards the Path (lit. & fig.) S. III, 108; samāpatti°, etc. A. V, 156 sq.; sālittaka-payoge k° skilled in the art of throwing pot‹-› sherds PvA. 282.—In derivation k. is explained by Dhpāla & Bdhgh by kucchita and salana, viz. kucchita-salanādi atthena kusalaṃ VvA. 169; kucchite pāpadhamme salayanti calayanti kappenti viddhaṃsenti ti kusalā DhsA. 39; where four alternative derivations are given (cp. Mrs. Rh. D. , Dhs. trsl. p. lxxxii).—2. (nt.) a good thing, good deeds, virtue, merit, good consciousness (citta omitted; cp. DhsA. 162, 200, etc.): yassa pāpaṃ kataṃ kammaṃ kusalena pithīyati, so imaṃ lokaṃ pabhāseti “he makes this world shine, who covers an evil deed with a good one” M. II, 104=Dh. 173=Th. 1, 872; sukhañ ca k. pucchi (fitness) Sn. 981; Vv 301 (=ārogyaṃ); D. I, 24; J. VI, 367; Pv. I, 13 (=puñña); PvA. 75; Miln. 25.—In special sense as ten kusalāni equivalent to the dasasīlaṃ (cp. sīla) M. I, 47; A. V, 241, 274. All good qualities (dhammā) which constitute right and meritorious conduct are comprised in the phrase —kusala-dhammā Sn. 1039, 1078, expld. in extenso Nd2 s. v. See also cpd. °dhamma.—Kusalaṃ karoti to do what is good and righteous, i.e. kāyena, vācāya, manasā It. 78; cp. Dh. 53; sabba-pāpassa akaraṇaṃ kusalassa upasampadā sacittapariyodapanaṃ etaṃ Buddhānusāsanaṃ D. II, 49=Dh. 183; cp. Nett 43, 81, 171, 186. Kusalaṃ bhāveti to pursue righteousness (together with akusalaṃ pajahati to give up wrong habits) A. I, 58; IV, 109 sq.; It. 9.—akusala adj. : improper, wrong, bad; nt. : demerit, evil deed D. I, 37, 163; bālo+akusalo Sn. 879, 887; =pāpa PvA. 60, cp. pāpapasuto akatakusalo ib. 6. kusalaṃ & akusalaṃ are discussed in detail (with ref. to rūpâvacara° fivefold, to arūpâvacara° & lokuttara° fourfold, to kāmâvacara° eight & twelvefold) at Vism. 452—454.—kusalâkusala good and bad M. I, 489; S. V, 91; Miln. 25; Nett 161, 192; Dhs. 1124 sq.—sukusala (dhammānaṃ) highly skilled D. I, 180 (cp. M. II. 31).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuśala (कुशल).—n (S) pop. kuśaḷa n Well-being, happiness, ease; state of comfort and security.

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kuśala (कुशल).—a Happy, well, that is in ease and comfort. 2 also kuśalabuddhi a Expert, skilful, clever.

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kusaḷa (कुसळ).—n The beard, awn, or bristles of grains and grasses. v bōca, śira, lāga, aḍaka, mōḍa. Pr. dusaṛyācē ḍōḷyāntalēṃ ku0 (disatēṃ) āpalyā ḍōḷyāntalēṃ musaḷa (disata nāhīṃ). Matt. vii. 3.

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kusaḷa (कुसळ).—, f (kuśaḷa) A witch or cunning woman: also a clever or skilful woman gen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuśala (कुशल).—n Well-being, happiness. a Happy.Expert.

--- OR ---

kusaḷa (कुसळ).—n The bristles of grains and grasses.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuśala (कुशल).—a.

1) Right, proper, good, auspicious; कुशलं खलु तुभ्यमेव तद्वचनं कृष्ण यदभ्यधामहम् (kuśalaṃ khalu tubhyameva tadvacanaṃ kṛṣṇa yadabhyadhāmaham) Śi.16.41; न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्यते (na dveṣṭyakuśalaṃ karma kuśale nānuṣajyate) Bg.18.1.

2) Happy, prosperous.

3) Able, skilful, clever, proficient, wellversed; कृतान्तः कुशलः पुत्र येनास्मि व्यसनीकृतः (kṛtāntaḥ kuśalaḥ putra yenāsmi vyasanīkṛtaḥ) Rām.7.54.16. with loc. or in comp.; दण्डनीत्यां च कुशलम् (daṇḍanītyāṃ ca kuśalam) Y.1.313,2.181; Ms.7.19; R.3.12.

-lam 1 Welfare, a happy or prosperous condition, happiness; पप्रच्छ कुशलं राज्ये राज्याश्रममुनिं मुनिः (papraccha kuśalaṃ rājye rājyāśramamuniṃ muniḥ) R.1.58; अव्यापन्नः कुशलमबले पृच्छति त्वाम् (avyāpannaḥ kuśalamabale pṛcchati tvām) Me.13; अपि कुशलं भवतः (api kuśalaṃ bhavataḥ) 'are you doing well' (how do you do?).

2) Virtue.

3) Cleverness, ability.

-laḥ An epithet of Śiva.

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Kuṣala (कुषल).—a. Clever, expert.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kuśala (कुशल).—nt. (= Pali kusala, synonym of puñña; in Sanskrit Lex. only, also syn. of puṇya), good in a moral sense (not so in Sanskrit literature), merit, righteous action; there are 10 kuśala (= Pali 10 kusala or sīla), Mahāvyutpatti 1685, listed 1686 —98, = (kuśala) karmapatha, q.v. for list. See the next items.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuśala (कुशल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā or -lī-laṃ) 1. Happy, well, right. 2. Expert, skilful. 3. Clever. 4. Eloquent. n.

(-laṃ) 1. Adequacy, ability. 2. Virtue, virtuous action. 3. Well-being, happiness. E. ku the earth. and śal to go, affix ac; also kuṣala and kusala.

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Kuṣala (कुषल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā or -lī-laṃ) Clever, expert, skilful: see kuśala.

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Kusala (कुसल).—adv. n.

(-laṃ) Well, happy, &c. see kuśala.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuśala (कुशल).— (perhaps for ku-śara, and akin to śaraṇa), I. adj., f. . 1. Happy, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 18, 10. 2. Healthy, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 70, 12. 3. Expert, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 33; skilful, [Nala] 19, 19; 20; with loc., [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 190; gen., [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 181; infin., Mahābhārata 1, 53. Ii. lam, adv. Well, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 14, 29; mildly, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 48. Iii. m. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 6, 359. Iv. n. 1. Well-being, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 52, 5. 2. Happiness, [Pañcatantra] 192, 23; prosperity (of devotion), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 127. 3. Salutation, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 73, 8.

— Instr. lena, adverbially, Cheerfully, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 34, 22.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuśala (कुशल).—[adjective] in good condition, in order, all right, proper, suitable, well, healthy; equal to, capable of, clever, skilful, versed in ([locative], [genetive], [infinitive], or —°). [feminine] kuśalī [Name] of [several] plants. [neuter] right condition, welfare, health, luck; also = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Kuśala (कुशल) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Pañjikāpradīpa [grammatical] Quoted in Kāvyakāmadhenu Oxf. 176^a.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuśala (कुशल):—mf(ā)n. (gaṇas sidhmādi, śreṇy-ādi, and śramaṇādi) right, proper, suitable, good (e.g. kuśalaṃman, to consider good, approve, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra])

2) well, healthy, in good condition, prosperous, [Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

3) fit for, competent, able, skilful, clever, conversant with ([locative case] [Pāṇini 2-3, 40; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc. [genitive case] [Pāṇini 2-3, 40; Yājñavalkya ii, 181] [infinitive mood] [Mahābhārata], or in [compound] [gaṇa śauṇḍādi; Gaut, [Manu-smṛti] etc.])

4) m. [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata vi, 359]

5) m. Name of the Brāhmans in Kuśadvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 16]

6) Name of Śiva

7) of a prince, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

8) of a grammarian (author of the Pañjikā-pradīpa)

9) Kuśalā (कुशला):—[from kuśala] f. Name of a woman [gana] bāhv-ādi

10) Kuśala (कुशल):—n. welfare, well-being, prosperous condition, happiness, [Taittirīya-upaniṣad; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc. ([kuśalam-√pracch, to ask after another’s welfare, to say ‘how do you do?’ [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.; kuśalaṃ te (optionally with [dative case] [Pāṇini 2-3, 73]), ‘hail to thee!’ (used as a salutation, especially in greeting a Brāhman), [Mahābhārata] etc.])

11) benevolence, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 34, 22]

12) virtue, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) cleverness, competence, ability, [Pañcatantra]

14) Name of a Varṣa governed by Kuśala, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

15) n. (in [compound]) [gana] vispaṣṭādi

16) happily, cheerfully, (with √ās, ‘to be well’), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

17) n. (also) religious merit, [Inscriptions; Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 124]

18) Kuśāla (कुशाल):—m. Name of a prince, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

19) Kuṣala (कुषल):—for kuśala q.v., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Kusala (कुसल):—for kuśala q.v.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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