Varga, Vargā: 15 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Varga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Varg.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Varga (वर्ग).—Name given to the different classes of consonants which are headed by an unaspirate surd; e. g. कवर्ग, चवर्ग, टवर्ग, तवर्ग (kavarga, cavarga, ṭavarga, tavarga) and पवर्ग (pavarga). The several consonants in each group or class, are, in their serial order, named वगेप्रथम, वर्गद्वितीय (vageprathama, vargadvitīya) etc. On the analogy of these five classes, the semivowels are called by the name यवर्ग (yavarga) and sibilants, are called by the name शवर्ग (śavarga),

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Varga (वर्ग).—1. Square, in arithmetic or geometry; abbr. as va in algebra. 2. The first twenty-five consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet. Note: Varga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vargā (वर्गा).—A celestial maid. There is a story in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 220, describing how Vargā and her friends were changed into crocodiles and had to live in water for a long time.

Once there lived an 'apsaras' (celestial maid) named Vargā in Devāraṇya. She had four friends called Saurabheyī, Samīcī, Budbudā and Latā. Once they were going to the house of Kubera their patron. On the way they saw a hermit. They saw the whole forest shining with the radiance of the power of penance of the hermit. They decided to entice the hermit somehow. With this intention they entered his hermitage. Seeing their dalliance and coquetry, the hermit got angry and cursed them to become crocodiles for a hundred years. They implored him with tears, for liberation from the curse. The hermit told them that in due course a noble man would come and get them out of water and that then they would obtain their original form. They walked towards a lake. (See full article at Story of Vargā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Varga (वर्ग) refers to “- 1. level of elevation §§ 3.1, 12, 29; 4.6 ... —2. generic name of āyādi formulas § 2.6.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Varga.—(CII 1), a group or cadre of officers. Note: varga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

varga (वर्ग).—m (S) A class, order, division, tribe, set; a number of beings or things ranged under a common denomination. Some compounds are common; as pradhānavarga, dāsavarga, brāhmaṇavarga, matsyavarga, dhānya- varga, rasavarga. 2 The square of a number. 3 A chapter, section, part, book.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

varga (वर्ग).—m A class. The square of a number. A section.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Varga (वर्ग).—[vṛj-ghañ]

1) A class, division, group; company, society, tribe, collection (of similar things); न्यषेधि शेषो- ऽप्यनुयायिवर्गः (nyaṣedhi śeṣo- 'pyanuyāyivargaḥ) R.2.4; 11.7; so पौरवर्गः, नक्षत्रवर्गः (pauravargaḥ, nakṣatravargaḥ) &c.

2) A party, side; वर्गाबुभौ देवमहीधराणाम् (vargābubhau devamahīdharāṇām) Ku.7.53.

3) A category.

4) A class of words grouped together; as मनुष्य- वर्गः, वनस्पतिवर्गः (manuṣya- vargaḥ, vanaspativargaḥ) &c.

5) A class of consonants in the alphabet; (as kavarga, cavarga etc.).

6) A section, chapter, division of a book.

7) Particularly, a subdivision of an Adhyāya in Ṛigveda.

8) The square power.

9) Strength.

1) Sphere, province.

11) The whole class of objects of worldly existence (dharma, artha and kāma).

Derivable forms: vargaḥ (वर्गः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varga (वर्ग).—m.

(-rgaḥ) A class, a tribe, a multitude of similar things, whether animate or inanimate; as Ka-varga, the class of guttural letters; Tri-varga, a class of three objects, (as love, duty, and wealth); the Sudra-varga, the Sudra tribe. 2. A chapter, a book, a section. 3. A square number, (in arithmetic.) 4. Strength. E. vṛj to quit, to except, (any thing else), aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varga (वर्ग).—i. e. vṛj + a, m. 1. A class (a multitude of similar things), [Pañcatantra] 33, 14. 2. A troop, [Pañcatantra] 192, 23. 3. A chapter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varga (वर्ग).—[adjective] & [masculine] removing, remover; [masculine] group, section, division, party, class, [especially] of words or sounds ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Varga (वर्ग):—m. (accented only in [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]) ([from] √vṛj) one who excludes or removes or averts, [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad]

2) (ifc. f(ā). ) a separate division, class, set, multitude of similar things (animate or inanimate), group, company, family, party, side (mostly ifc. e.g. catur-, tri-v q.v.; often [plural] for sg.), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Prātiśākhya] etc.

3) ([especially]) any series or group of words classified together (as manuṣya-vanas-pati-v etc.), or a class or series of consonants in the alphabet (seven such classes being given, viz. ka-varga, ‘the class of Guttural letters’ ca-kāra-v, or ca-v, ‘the Palatals’ ; ṭa-v ‘the Cerebrals’; ta-v ‘the Dentals’; pa-v ‘the Labials’; ya-v ‘the Semivowels’; śa-v ‘the Sibilants’, and the aspirate h cf. varga-dvitīya and -prathama), [Prātiśākhya; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Vopadeva]

4) everything comprehended under any department or head, everything included under a category, province or sphere of [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) = tri-varga (q.v.), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) a section, chapter, division of a book, ([especially]) a subdivision of an Adhyāya in the Ṛg-veda (which [according to] to the mere mechanical division, contains 8 Āṣṭakas or 64 Adhyāyas or 2006 Vargas; cf. maṇḍala) and a similar subdivision in the Bṛhad-devatā

7) (in [algebra]) the square of a number, [Colebrooke] (e.g. pañca-v, square of five cf. bhinna-v)

8) = bala, strength, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 9]

9) Name of a country, [Buddhist literature]

10) Vargā (वर्गा):—[from varga] f. Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Varga (वर्ग):—(rgaḥ) 1. m. A class; a section; a square number.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Varga (वर्ग):—(von varj)

1) nom. ag. Abwender, Beseitiger: vargo si pāpmānaṃ me vṛṅdhi [Kauṣītakyupaniṣad 2, 7.] Vgl. iṣvarga . —

2) m. am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 19, 17.] a) eine gesonderte, der Gleichartigkeit wegen zusammengestellte Anzahl von Dingen; Abtheilung, Gruppe, Klasse, Verein [Amarakoṣa 2, 5, 41.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1413.] z. B. von Backsteinen, Versen [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 16, 7, 25. 24, 3, 5.] [LĀṬY. 10, 14, 4.] saptaka [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 7, 52.] caturvidha [Suśruta 1, 5, 7. 12. 70, 8. 132, 1.] [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 16, 7. 8. 52.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 14, 32. 53, 49. 76, 2. 96, 3.] vargavargasthaiḥ kākaiḥ gruppenweise stehend [95, 8.] aṣṭaśatasāhasrā gavāṃ vargāḥ śataṃ śatam [Mahābhārata 4, 288.] apsarasām [Kumārasaṃbhava 3, 17.] vargāvubhau devamahīdharāṇām [7, 53.] dāsa so v. a. die Sclaven, Dienerschaft [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 3, 246. 4, 180. 185.] bandhuvargāḥ [Mahābhārata 3, 2683.] nṛśaṃsa [5, 1639.] mitra [13, 309.] bhṛtya [2186.] paura [?15, 439. 446. Harivaṃśa 11015 (S. 790). Rāmāyaṇa 2, 30, 45. 45, 2. KĀM. NĪTIS. 3, 39. Raghuvaṃśa 2, 4. 11, 7. Vikramorvaśī 3, 9. Mālavikāgnimitra 67, 11. Spr. 1940. 2542. 4645. Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 1, 30. 8, 1, 6. Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 514. Halāyudha 2, 353. Kathāsaritsāgara 4, 20. 18, 83. 26, 145. Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 308. Prabodhacandrodaja 36, 9. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 25, 42. 7, 6, 12. Pañcatantra 33, 14. Vetālapañcaviṃśati in Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 1, 13. SARVADARŚANAS. 57, 11. 100, 22.] ātma, para die eigene —, die fremde Partei [VṚDDHA-Cāṇakya 11, 2.] sva [Pañcatantra 192, 22. fg.] nakṣatratraya [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 14, 1.] mṛduvargastvanurādhācitrāpauṣṇendavāni [98, 10.] ṣaḍindriya [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 14, 1.] saṃvatsara [WEBER, Nakṣ. 2, 283. fg.] Häufig in comp. mit einem Zahlworte: tri (s. auch bes.) eine aus drei bestehende Abtheilung, - Gruppe, Trias [Mahābhārata 5, 1484. 12, 426.] [Pañcatantra III, 243.] [Daśakumāracarita 63, 15. fg.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 5, 18.] caturvarga (s. auch bes.). [Hitopadeśa I, 8.] pañca (s. auch bes.) [Spr. 4902.] [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 875.] ṣaḍvarga [Mahābhārata 1, 1948.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 20, 134.] nava [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 24, 3, 25.] daśa [22, 10, 11.] dvādaśa [Oxforder Handschriften No. 875.] prativargam [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 9, 4, 20.] eine Reihe nach irgend einem Eintheilungsgrunde zusammengehöriger Wörter [Amarakoṣa 2, 1, 1. 3, 4, 1, 1.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 3.] Consonantenreihe im Alphabet (es werden deren 7 angenommen; s. [BÖHTLINGK,] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher II, S. 525]) [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 1, 3.] cakāra [4, 4. 5, 3.] sparśa [6, 8. 14, 7.] [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 1, 64. 3, 92. 94. 4, 92.] [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 2, 14. 38.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 2, 25. fg.] kādyā vargāḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 96, 15.] vargāṣṭaka (nach dem Comm. kacaṭatapayaśalavargāṇāmaṣṭakam) [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 308. fg.] — b) Alles was zu Jmdes Gebiet gehört, unter Jmd steht (= parigraha) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 13, 7. 15, 22. 17, 7. 32, 12.] kṣetraṃ yadyasya sa tasya vargaḥ [BṚH. 1, 9. 8, 10. 23, 5.] kṣetraṃ horātha drekkāṇo navāṃśo dvādaśāṃśakaḥ . triṃśāṃśakaśca vargo yaṃ sarvasya sva udāhṛtaḥ .. [GĀRGI] im Comm. zu [1, 9]; vgl. [VARĀH. LAGH. 1, 23] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 283.] — c) = trivarga d. i. kāma, artha und dharma [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 21, 29.] — d) Section, Abtheilung in einem Buche [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 11, 46.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 2, 24.] Unterabtheilung eines Adhyāya im Ṛgveda und in der Bṛhaddevatā, [Geschichte des Weda und G. d. W.] [5.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 254. fgg. 1, 112. fg.] — d) Quadrat, die zweite Potenz [Algebra 8. 11.] pañca das Quadrat von fünf [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 7, 6.] [GAṆITĀDHY.] [SPAṢṬĀDHY. 21. 28.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 450.] Vgl. bhinna . — e) = bala [das 2, 9.] — f) Nomen proprium eines Landes [Lebensbeschreibung Śākyamuni’s 235 5]). —

2) f. ā Nomen proprium einer Apsaras [Mahābhārata 1, 7853. 2, 394.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Varga (वर्ग) [Also spelled varg]:—(nm) a class, category, group; group of letters pronounced from the same part of the vocal organ (as [kavarga, cavarga] etc.); a square; square number; —, [ucca] the upper class; —[aura jāti/varṇa] class and caste; ~[gata] pertaining to a class, characteristic of a class; •[viśeṣatāeṃ] class characteristics; -[dvaṃdva] class struggle, class conflict; —, [nimna] the lower class; —, [nimna madhya] lower middle class; -[pahelī] crossword puzzle; ~[phala] square; -[bheda] class distinction/discrimination; ~[mukta] classless; ~[mūla] square root; ~[vāra] classwise; -[saṃgharṣa] class struggle, class conflict; -[samāja] class society; —[svārtha] class interest; —[hita] class interest; ~[hīna] classless; •[samāja] classless society.

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