Sandhya, Sandhyā, Shandhya: 12 definitions

Introduction

Sandhya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas

Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) refers to the morning, mid-day or evening prayer. It is used throughout vedic and purāṇic literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—One of the seven major rivers situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. It is also known by the name Raudrā. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, who is the son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—The previous birth of Arundhatī, wife of Vasiṣṭha. (For more details see under Vasiṣṭha Para 1, Sub-Section 1).

2) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—Mother of the giantess Sālakaṭaṅkā. It is stated in Uttara Rāmāyaṇa that this Sālakaṭaṅkā. the daughter of Sandhyā was married by the giant Vidyutkeśa.

3) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—Time of union or conjunction. There are three Sandhyās in a day. These are morning sandhyā (Prātaḥsandhyā), noon sandhyā (Madhyāhna sandhyā) and evening sandhyā (Sāyaṃ Sandhyā). The meeting time of night and day, is morning Sandhyā, the joining time of the first half and the second half of the day, is noon (Madhyāhna Sandhyā), and the joining time of day and night, is evening Sandhyā (Sāyaṃ sandhyā). Brahmins should keep the three Sandhyās properly. The morning sandhyā is of three kinds. Good, Medium and Bad. When the morning stars are seen and the sunrise is approaching it is good morning; when the stars are not seen and the sun is not risen it is medium sandhyā and the morning time after the sunrise is bad Sandhyā. In sāyaṃsandhyā also there is this difference of time, as good, medium and bad. The time till the sunset is good; the time after the sunset and before the rising of the stars is medium and the evening after the rising of the stars is bad. In the Vedas it is metaphorically mentioned that Brahmins are trees, and the three sandhyās are their roots, the Vedas, their branches and the rites and rituals ordained in the Vedas their leaves. From this it is clear that Brahmins should on no account leave unobserved, worships at these three sandhyās. The Brahmin who does not observe these three sandhyās carefully will, in his life time, become a śūdra and after the death, will be born again as a dog. Moreover the Brahmin who does not do the three evening, morning and noon worships, will have no right to conduct any other Vedic rites.

After the sun-rise and sun-set, within three nāzhikas (a nāzhika-24 minutes) the morning and evening worship should be finished. There is atonement ordered for morning and evening prayers conducted after the stipulated time. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 11).

4) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—A holy river who worships Varuṇa in his assembly. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 23).

5) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—The presiding Devatā of dusk. She is called Pratīcyādevī as well. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 16).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) refers to a prayer uttered by Brahmins, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.13, “Sandhyā prayer performed before the prescribed time is ineffective. Hence Sandhyā shall be performed at the prescribed time. The expiatory rite for the omission of Sandhyā prayer for a day is the repetition of Gāyatrī a hundred times more than the usual number of times for ten days. If the omission is for ten days or more, Gāyatrī must be repeated for a hundred thousand times as atonement. If one omits Sandhyā for a month one has to be re-invested with the sacred thread”.

2) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) is the name of a daughter of Brahmā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.1.—“[...] Formerly, on seeing my daughter Sandhyā in the company of my sons I was afflicted by the arrows of the cupid and much upset. When remembered by Dharma, Rudra, the highest lord and the greatest yogin came there. He reproached me as well as my sons and went back to His abode. [...] Since she was born when Brahmā was deeply contemplating, the woman of lovely features will be famous as Sandhyā. She will be as lustrous as the jasmine flower”.

Sandhyā, lit. ‘twilight’, is personified as the daughter of Brahmā. It is said that Brahmā attempted to do violence to her but was reproached by Śiva. According to another version Sandhyā changed herself to a deer for escape from the evil intention of Brahmā whereupon Brahmā assumed the form of a stag and pursued her through the sky. Śiva saw this and shot an arrow which cut off the head of the stag. Brahmā then reassumed his own form and paid homage to Śiva.

Sandhyā is also known as Divakṣāntā, Sāyaṃsandhyā and Jayantikā, according to Chapter 2.2.2: “O sage, when I created Marīci, Atri, Pulaha, Pulastya, Aṅgiras, Kratu, Vasiṣṭha, Nārada, Dakṣa and Bhṛgu, my mental sons of lordly stature, a beautiful woman of handsome features was born of my mind. She was variously called Sandhyā, Divakṣāntā, Sāyaṃ Sandhyā and Jayantikā, She was very beautiful with finely-shaped eyebrows capable of captivating the minds of even sages. Neither in human world nor in that of the Devas was there such a woman of complete perfection in all qualities. Nor was there such a woman in nether worlds in all the three times (past, present and future)”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

1) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) refers to “one of three particular junctures in a day” (sunrise, midday or sunset).—(cf. Glossary page from Arcana-dīpikā).

2) Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) or Sandhyopāsanā refers to “chanting the dīkṣā-mantras given by the Guru”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—After performing ācamana, perform one’s morning sandhyā [also called āhnika, the chanting of the dīkṣāmantras given by the guru]. Two daṇḍas, or forty-eight minutes, before sunrise, until the sun is half-visible above the horizon, is the morning sandhyā, and the period from sunset until the stars appear in the sky is the evening sandhyā. Sandhyā is performed facing east in the morning and noon, and facing north in the evening.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Sandhyā (सन्ध्या) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The spring of Sandhyā now known as Sundabrar is situated in a side valley opening to the south of the village of Devalgom circa 75° 22' long. 33° 32' lat.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sandhyā.—(CITD), the morning, noon and evening prayers of a Brāhmaṇa. (CII 3; IA 17), a period at the commencement of each of the four Hindu ages; the sandhyā of the Kali-yuga lasts for 36,000 years of men, and is still running; cf. sandhyāṃśa. Note: sandhyā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sandhyā (संध्या).—f (S) The period of evening twilight. 2 Religious meditation, repetition of mantras, sipping of water &c., to be performed by the three first classes of Hindus at particular periods in the day, especially at sunrise, sunset, and noon. 3 The period intervening between one Yuga or age and another. 4 Twilight (whether of the morning or evening). 5 An intervening period,--the forenoon, the afternoon, or midday.

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sāndhya (सांध्य).—a S Relating to the evening, vespertine.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sandhyā (संध्या).—f Evening. Religious repetition of mantra at sunrise, sunset, and noon.

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sāndhya (सांध्य).—a Relating to the evening.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sandhyā (सन्ध्या).—f.

(-ndhyā) 1. Twilight, either morning or evening. 2. The period that elapses between the expiration of one Yuga or age, and the commencement of another. 3. A period of time, forenoon, after moon or mid-day. 4. Religious abstraction, meditation, repetition of Mantras, sipping water, &c., to be performed by the three first classes of Hindus, at stated periods in the course of every day, especially at sunrise, sunset, and at noon. 5. Reflection. 6. Promise, assent. 7. Boundary, limit. 8. Joining, union. 9. A flower; according to some the tuberose, to others, the jasmine. 10. Twilight, personified as the daughter of Brahma, and wife of Siva. 11. The name of a river. E. sandhi a joint, (of the day,) and yat aff.; or sam + dhyai-aṅ sandhau bhavaḥ yat vā .

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Sāndhya (सान्ध्य).—mfn.

(-ndhyaḥ-ndhyī-ndhyaṃ) Produced at or relating to the evening, &c. E. sandhyā twilight, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sāndhya (सान्ध्य).—i. e. saṃdhyā + a, adj. Relating to twilight or the evening, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 8; [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣāṇḍhya (षाण्ढ्य):—n. ([from] ṣaṇḍha) the state of being a eunuch, impotence, [Caraka] (printed śāṭhya).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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