Sukha, aka: Sukhā; 19 Definition(s)
Sukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)
Sukha (सुख, “pleasure”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.(Source): Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
1a) Sukha (सुख).—Born of Śānti.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 51.
1b) A son of Siddhi.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 61; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 37.
1c) A son of Śuki and Garuḍa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 450.
2a) Sukhā (सुखा).—The city of Varuṇa to the west of Meru: on the Mānasa: midnight here when midday at Amarāvatī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 32. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 89; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 9.
2b) One of the three Devagaṇas of the first Sāvarṇi Manu: 20 in number.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 12, 18-19.
2c) Ṛ. a mahānadī between the Nīlā and Kumuñja hills; on its shores is a tālavana.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 37. 23.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Sukha (सुख) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Sukha (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of bis body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a cuckoo. A viṇā is in hîs both hands.
The illustrations (of, for example Sukha) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Sukha (सुख, “joyful”):—One of the names of the city where Varuṇa resides with his two wifes (Ṛddhi and Vāruṇī). Varuṇa is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things.(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)(Source): Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms
1. Sukha. A monk, generally known as Sukha Samanera. In his past life he had been Bhattabhatika (q.v.). In his last life he was born in the house of a supporter of Sariputta. During her pregnancy, his mother gave alms to five hundred monks, with Sariputta at their head. When he was seven years old, he entered the Order under Sariputta, on which occasion his parents held a special almsgiving lasting for seven days.
Once, while going with Sariputta for alms, he noticed several things, and like the novice Pandita (q.v.) asked the Elder numerous questions. Then he expressed a wish to return to the monastery. Sariputta agreed, and Sukha turned back saying, Sir, when you bring my food, pray bring me food of one hundred flavours. If you cannot obtain it through your own merit, you can obtain it through mine. So saying, he returned to his cell and meditated on the nature of the body. Sakkas throne was heated, and he sent the Four Regent Gods to keep away all noise from Sukhas cell. He also bade the Sun and Moon stand still. Sukha, helped by this silence, became an anagami.
Meanwhile, Sariputta had gone to a house where he knew he could get the food desired by Sukha, and, having eaten there, returned with Sukhas portion to the monastery. The Buddha, thinking that Sariputtas arrival might impede Sukhas attainment of arahantship, appeared near the gate of Sukhas cell and stood guard. As he stood there, the Buddha asked Sariputta four questions. When the last question was answered, Sukha became an arahant. Thereupon Sariputta opened the door and gave Sukha his food. Sukha ate it and washed the bowl. The Four Regent Gods left their post, Sakka let go the rope of the door of the novices cell, and the Sun and Moon started once more on their course. Evening at once came on, and the Buddha, on being asked the reason, explained that it was a usual occurrence when they who possess merit engage in meditation. DhA.iii.95ff.; op. the story of Pandita.
2. Sukha. A general of Manabharana (2). Cv.lxxii.123f.
3. Sukha. A Jivitapotthaki, one of the generals of Parakkamabahu I. Cv.lxx.174.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
N (Happiness, joy, pleasure, well being, fortune, prosperity).(Source): Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Sukha means physical pleasure.(Source): Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
happy feeling; bliss (Visuddhimagga (IV, 100));(Source): Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss.
It is one of the three feelings (s. vedanā) and may be either bodily or mental.
The texts distinguish between the happiness of the senses and the happiness of renunciation (A. II), worldly (carnal; sāmisa) and unworldly (non-carnal; nirāmisa) happiness (M. 10).
See A.II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is an indispensable condition for attaining concentration of mind (samādhi, q.v.), and therefore it is one of the 5 factors (or constituents) of the 1st absorption (jhānanga; s. jhāna) and is present up to the 3rd absorption inclusively. "The mind of the happy one has concentration as its fruit and reward" (A.X,1). - "In him who is filled with happiness, right concentration has found a foundation" (A.X,3).(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Sukha (सुख, “bliss”).—According to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Bliss (sukha) is of two types, internal bliss (ādhyātmika-sukha) and the bliss of nirvāṇa (nirvāṇa-sukha). This bliss is not the result of the five coarse objects (rajas-). This mental bliss (cittasukha) is like water from a spring that gushes forth spontaneously from the rocks and does not come from the outside. By practicing the mind of evenness (samacitta), by observing chastity (brahmacarya), by practicing the ten wholesome paths of action, one is pure (śuci) and faultless: this is what is called internal bliss.
2) There are two types of bliss (sukha), the bliss that involves feeling (savedita-sukha) and the bliss that involves the abandonment of feeling (veditanirodha-sukha). In the latter, the five aggregates (pañcaskandha) are completely eliminated and there is no further rebirth; this is the bliss of nirvāṇa-without-residue.(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Sukha (सुख, “happiness”) refers to one of the “eight worldly conditions” (lokadharma) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 61). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., sukha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
General definition (in Jainism)
Sukha (सुख, “pleasure”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.20.—“The function of matter (pudgala) is also to contribute to pleasure (sukha), suffering (duḥkha), life (jīvita) and death (maraṇa) of living brings”. What is pleasure (sukha)? Owing to the rise of the sātā-vedanīya (experience of pleasure) karma and due to the external efficient causes like place, time, substance or modes, the disposition of agreeableness of the soul is called pleasure.(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Sukhā (सुखा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa that remains unidentified. Can Sukhā be identified with the stream Suknag?(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
sukha : (nt.) happiness; comfort.
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sukhaṃ : (adv.) easily; comfortably.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Sukha, (adj. -n.) (Vedic sukha; in R. V. only of ratha; later generally) agreeable, pleasant, blest Vin. I, 3; Dh. 118, 194, 331; Sn. 383; paṭipadā, pleasant path, easy progress A. II, 149 sq.; Dhs. 178; kaṇṇa-s. pleasant to the ear D. I, 4; happy, pleased D. II, 233.—nt. sukhaṃ wellbeing, happiness, ease; ideal, success Vin. I, 294; D. I, 73 sq.; M. I, 37; S. I, 5; A. III, 355 (deva-manussānaṃ); It. 47; Dh. 2; Sn. 67; Dhs. 10; DhsA. 117; PvA. 207 (lokiya° worldly happiness).—kāyika sukkha bodily welfare Tikp 283; cp. Cpd. 1121; sāmisaṃ s. material happiness A. I, 81; III, 412; VbhA. 268. On relation to pīti (joy) see Vism. 145 (saṅkhāra-kkhandha-saṅgahitā pīti, vedanā-kkhandha-saṅgahitaṃ sukhaṃ) and Cpd. 56, 243.—Defined further at Vism. 145 & 461 (iṭṭha-phoṭṭhabb-ânubhavana-lakkhaṇaṃ; i.e. of the kind of experiencing pleasant contacts).—Two kinds, viz. kāyika & cetasika at Ps. I, 188; several other pairs at A. I, 80; three (praise, wealth, heaven) It. 67; another three (manussa°, dibba°, nibbāna°) DhA. III, 51; four (possessing, making good use of possessions, having no debts, living a blameless life) A. II, 69.—gātha-bandhana-sukh’atthaṃ for the beauty of the verse J. II, 224.—Opp. asukha D. III, 222, 246; Sn. 738; or dukkha, with which often combd (e.g. Sn. 67, 873, with spelling dukha at both pass.).—Cases: Instr. sukhena with comfort, happily, through happiness Th. 1, 220; DhsA. 406; Acc. sukhaṃ comfortably, in happiness; yathā s. according to liking PvA. 133; sukhaṃ seti to rest in ease, to lie well S. I, 41; A. I, 136; Dh. 19, 201; J. I, 141. Cp. sukhasayita.—s. edhati to thrive, prosper S. I, 217; Dh. 193; Sn. 298; cp. sukham-edha Vin. III, 137 (with Kern’s remarks Toev. II. 83). s. viharati to live happily, A. I, 96; III, 3; Dh. 379.—Der. sokhya.
—atthin fem.—nī longing for happiness Mhvs 6, 4. —āvaha bringing happiness, conducive to ease S. I, 2 sq. , 55; Dh. 35; J. II, 42. —indriya the faculty of ease S. V, 209 sq.; Dhs. 452; It. 15, 52. —udraya (sometimes spelt °undriya) having a happy result A. I, 97; Ps. I, 80; Pv IV. 178 (=sukha-vipāka PvA. 243); Vv 318. —ūpaharaṇa happy offering, luxury J. I, 231. —edhita read as sukhe ṭhita (i.e. being happy) at Vin. III, 13 & S. V, 351 (v. l. sukhe ṭhita); also at DhA. I, 165; cp. J. VI, 219. —esin looking for pleasure Dh. 341. —kāma longing for happiness M. I, 341; S. IV, 172, 188. —da giving pleasure Sn. 297. —dhamma a good state M. I, 447. —nisinna comfortably seated J. IV, 125. —paṭisaṃvedin experiencing happiness Pug. 61. —ppatta come to well-being, happy J. III, 112. —pharaṇatā diffusion of well-being, ease Nett 89 (among the constituents of samādhi). —bhāgiya participating in happiness Nett 120 sq. , 125 sq. , 239 (the four s. dhammā are indriyasaṃvara, tapasaṃkhāta puññadhamma, bojjhaṅgabhāvanā and sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggasaṅkhāta nibbāna). —bhūmi a soil of ease, source of ease Dhs. 984; DhsA. 346. —yānaka an easy-going cart DhA 325. —vinicchaya discernment of happiness M. III, 230 sq. —vipāka resulting in happiness, ease D. I, 51; A. I, 98; DA. I, 158. —vihāra dwelling at ease S. V, 326. —vihārin dwelling at ease, well at ease D. I, 75; Dhs. 163; J. I, 140. —saṃvāsa pleasant to associate with Dh. 207. —saññin conceiving happiness, considering as happiness A. II, 52. —samuddaya origin of bliss It. 16, 52. —samphassa pleasant to touch Dhs. 648. —sammata deemed a plea‹-› sure Sn. 760. —sayita well embedded (in soil), of seeds A. III, 404=D. II, 354. (Page 716)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
sukha (सुख).—n (S) Ease, comfort, pleasurable quiet and rest; also enjoyment or pleasure; satisfaction or gratification of the body or of the spirit: also happiness. The word has ample range; implying however rather tranquil complacency than delight or joy. Compounds are elegant and numerous; as ātmasukha, ratisukha, viṣayasukha, indriyasukha, bhavasukha. Valuable compounds also are formed with sukha prefixed, bearing the sense Easy to be done; as sukhakara Easy to be done: also that does easily; sukhakhādya Easy to be eaten; sukhachēdya Easy to be cut, cloven, split &c.; sukhadōhya Easy to be milked; sukhabhēdya Easy to be broken: also easy to be divided or parted; sukhasādhya Easy to be attained or accomplished--to be got or done; sukhōccāraṇīya Easy to be pronounced; sukhōdya Easy to be spoken or uttered. The above compounds are predicates or adjectives: other compounds with sukha as prefix occur, and both as classical and as popular; as sukhabhāga, sukhavāsa, sukhānubhava, sukhēcchā (Desire of ease, pleasure, or happiness), and sukhaḍhāḷa, sukhavastū, sukhasōhaḷā &c. Such and others similar appear in their order. sakalasukhasampattivasati Receptacle or seat of all happiness and opulence. A phrase of flatterers or well-wishers. sukhācā vicāra The consideration (i.e. the conception, notion, thought) of pleasure or happiness; as duḥkha bā davaḍī hā saṃsāra || sukhācā vicāra nāhīṃ ēthēṃ ||. sukhācā bhāūbanda -bhāgī -vāṭēkarī -sōbatī A summer-friend. sukhācā śabda dēkhīla nāhīṃ There is not (with him, you &c.) even a gentle or civil word. sukhācē kallōḷa Rolling billows of delight or pleasure; surges of joy. Ex. ajñāna bāpuḍēṃ tujhēṃ laḍivāḷa || sukhācē kallōḷa karī māyēṃ ||. sukhānēṃ or sukhēṃ With pleasure, i. e. readily, heartily, willingly: also with ease, easily. sukhāsa paḍaṇēṃ -yēṇēṃ -vāṭaṇēṃ impersonally--To be easy, comfortable, agreeable, happy, well with or unto.
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sukhā (सुखा).—a (Commonly sukā) Dry; not wet, moist, succulent, sappy &c.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
sukha (सुख).—n Ease; enjoyment, pleasure. sukhakara Easy to be done; that does easily. sukhācā śabda A gentle or civil word. sukhānēṃ, sukhēṃ With pleasure, i. e., readi- ly, heartily; easily. sukhācā sōbatī A summerfriend.
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sukhā (सुखा).—&c See sakaṭaṇēṃ &c.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sukha (सुख).—a. [sukha-ac]
1) Happy, delighted, joyful, pleased.
2) Agreeable, sweet, charming, pleasant; विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः (viviktavarṇābharaṇā sukhaśrutiḥ) Ki.14.3; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः (diśaḥ prasedurmaruto vavuḥ sukhāḥ) R.3.14; so सुखश्रवा निस्वनाः (sukhaśravā nisvanāḥ) 3.19.
3) Virtuous, pious.
4) Taking delight in, favourable to; Ś.7.18.
5) Easy practicable; श्रेयांसि लब्धुमसुखानि विनान्तरायैः (śreyāṃsi labdhumasukhāni vināntarāyaiḥ) Ki.5.49.
6) Fit, suitable.
-khā 1 The capital of Varuṇa.
2) (In phil.) The effort to win future beatitude.
3) Piety, virtue.
-kham 1 Happiness, joy, delight, pleasure, comfort; यदेवोपनतं दुःखात् सुखं तद्रसवत्तरम् (yadevopanataṃ duḥkhāt sukhaṃ tadrasavattaram) V. 3.21.
2) Prosperity; अद्वैतं सुखदुःखयोरनुगुणं सर्वास्ववस्थासु यत् (advaitaṃ sukhaduḥkhayoranuguṇaṃ sarvāsvavasthāsu yat) U.1.39.
3) Well-being, welfare, health; देवीं सुखं प्रष्टुं गता (devīṃ sukhaṃ praṣṭuṃ gatā) M.4.
4) Ease, comfort, alleviation (of sorrow &c.); oft in comp; as in सुखशयित, सुखोपविष्ट, सुखाश्रय (sukhaśayita, sukhopaviṣṭa, sukhāśraya) &c.
5) Facility, easiness, ease.
6) Heaven, Paradise.
1) Happily, joyfully; भ्रातृभिः सहितो रामः प्रमुमोद सुखं सुखी (bhrātṛbhiḥ sahito rāmaḥ pramumoda sukhaṃ sukhī) Rām.7.41.1.
2) Well; सुखमास्तां भवान् (sukhamāstāṃ bhavān) 'many you fare well'.
3) At ease, comfortably; असंजातकिणस्कन्धः सुखं स्वपिति गौर्गडिः (asaṃjātakiṇaskandhaḥ sukhaṃ svapiti gaurgaḍiḥ) K. P. 1.
4) Easily, with ease; अज्ञः सुखमाराध्यः सुखतरमाराध्यते विशेषज्ञः (ajñaḥ sukhamārādhyaḥ sukhataramārādhyate viśeṣajñaḥ) Bh.2.3; सुखमुपदिश्यते परस्य (sukhamupadiśyate parasya) K.
4) Rather, willingly.
5) Quietly, placidly; सुखं रात्रीः शयिता वीतमन्युः (sukhaṃ rātrīḥ śayitā vītamanyuḥ) Kaṭh.1.11.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 79 books and stories containing Sukha or Sukhā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 8 - The fourth dhyāna < [Chapter XXXIX - The Ten Powers of the Buddha according to the Abhidharma]
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4. Third dhyāna < [Part 3 - Definition of the various dhyānas and samāpattis]
The Buddha and His Teachings (by Narada Thera)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
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