Cihna, Cihnā: 21 definitions


Cihna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chihna.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the hasta-prāṇa, or ‘Twelve Lives of the Hands’: Cihna (mark): the various Cihnas are the marks of those things which are evident, and of those unseen, their state ofmovement or rest, and eight others, viz. their form, face, situation, banner, weapons, virtues, range, and habits, as set forth in dance.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to a “sign” (e.g., of success), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is a Siddha: “[...] (Such a man) does not feel fear (even if) there is terrible cold or heat outside or he suffers a bad accident. He is very intelligent and his accomplishment is close at hand. He is not greedy or sick and is forbearing. (His) urine is good and sweet smelling and (he passes) little stool. (He possesses) a serene beauty and the first sign [i.e., cihnaprathamaṃ hi cihnam] of success in Yoga (that he displays) is its fine profundity. [??] and (instead of criticizing, he) praises the good qualities (of people) when they are out of sight”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Cihnā (चिह्ना) refers to “she who has distinctive marks”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] O Mother! Great Goddess! Supreme Goddess! People proclaim you Lakṣmī, Parā Prakṛti, who has chowries as lovely distinctive marks (cāmara-cāru-cihnā) and who bears a sole [royal] parasol covering the entire world. They proclaim you as the conferer of fame, the primordial power, and the supervisor of both higher and lower realms”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to the “mark” (e.g., of a lotus), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.29-36, while describing the appearance and worship of Rudra]—“The Buddha, the great Yogi, sits on a lotus, [head] bent, listening, and wearing mendicant’s rags. [He possesses] beautiful lotus eyes, has a lotus-shaped mark (padma-cihna), and is fixed with a jewel. [He is] established in the world, positioned in samādhi, his hands [making the] wish-granting and protection [mudrās]. Deva holds a rudrākṣa and a lotus. Thus, [the Mantrin] should worship and meditate upon Buddha, [who] grants the fruits of mokṣa to women”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to the “symbols” (of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.30 (“The Celebration of Pārvatī’s Return”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] O sage, on hearing the sweet songs, and seeing the delightful dance, the people entered into raptures of ecstacy. Pārvatī became unconscious. She saw Śiva’s handsome form, bearing trident and other symbols (cihna) before her vision. He had smeared the ashes all over His body. He was wearing a garland of bones. His face was beaming with his shining three eyes. He had the sacred thread of a serpent. Exquisitely white in complexion, the handsome lord Śiva, the friend of the distressed, the ocean of mercy was repeating the words ‘Choose the boon (or the bridegroom)’. On seeing Him thus in her mind she bowed to Him. Mentally she had chosen the boon when she had said, ‘Be my husband’.”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Tessitori Collection I (astronomy)

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to “signs (connected with each of the twelve months)”, according to the Bhaḍalī (classified as literature dealing with astronomy, astrology, divination, medicine), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Bhaḍalī deals with the signs (cihna) connected with each of the twelve months (mahīnā) in turn (atha …): what do meteorological and astral conditions enable to foresee for the country or for people’s individual destinies, especially in term of climatic conditions, crops and health? [...] The principle of Bhaḍalī is to ‘describe ten chieftains (variables) responsible for the development of ‘ethereal embryo’ of rain. These where: wind, clouds, lightning, colors of the sky, rumbling, thunder, dew snow, rainbow and occurrence of orb around the moon and the sun. Bhadli considered the interactions of these variables with inter-planetary, stellar systems during each of the 12 lunar months to characterize rainfall patterns throughout the year’ (p. 348)

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to “signs (manifesting externally)”, according to the Dattātreyayogaśāstra 67c-d-69a-b:—Accordingly, “When purification of the channels occurs, signs (cihna) manifest externally on the Yogin’s body. I shall mention all of them; lightness of body, radiance, an increase in digestive fire and then leanness of the body should certainly arise”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

1) Cihna (चिह्न) refers to the “symptoms” (of a bite—e.g., by a rat or snake), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).

2) Cihna (चिह्न) refers to “marks (on the body)” (created when being hit with a stick) (the absence of which indicates a symptom of a snake-bite), as taught in the Damśarūpa (“aspects of snake-bites”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—Explaining in a scientific manner, the sage Kāśyapa in his Kāśyapasaṃhitā proceeds to demonstrate the correct methods of ascertaining death. If a snake-bite victim does not have horripilation when sprinkled with water, there are no marks (cihna) on his person when beaten with a cane, when there is no bleeding despite inflicting a cut in the body and the body does not float when immersed in water, one can discern that it is a case of death.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Cihna (चिह्न) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Cihna).

2) Cihna (चिह्न) is also the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Cihna (चिह्न) refers to the “sign of (one’s own seed)”, according to the Kalaśa Pūjā [i.e., Kalasha Worship] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “By transformation of the sign of one's own seed (svasva-bījacihna-pariṇāma), Reflected upon the circle of one's own divinities. A victorious heart, with a curved mouth, the honorable knowledge being, Beheld in the front, having first prepared holy water for the feet, offer it”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cihna.—(EI 33), flag; cf. Cihna-dhara (BL), standard-bearer. Note: cihna is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cihna (चिह्न).—1 U. (cihnayati-te) To mark, stamp (properly a Denom. from the noun चिह्न (cihna).

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Cihna (चिह्न).—

1) Mark, spot, stamp, symbol; emblem, badge, symptom; ग्रामेषु यूपचिह्नेषु (grāmeṣu yūpacihneṣu) R.1.44;3.55; संनिपातस्य चिह्नानि (saṃnipātasya cihnāni) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.177.

2) A sign, indication; प्रसादचिह्नानि पुरःफलानि (prasādacihnāni puraḥphalāni) R.2.22; प्रहर्षचिह्न (praharṣacihna) 2.68.

3) A sign of the zodiac.

4) Stamp, print, impression; पद° (pada°).

5) Aim, direction.

Derivable forms: cihnam (चिह्नम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cihna (चिह्न).—Sautra root. 10th cl. (cihnayati-te) To mark, to spot, to stamp. E. cu-ubha-saka-seṭ . sautro'yaṃ dhātuḥ iti kecit .

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Cihna (चिह्न).—n.

(-hnaṃ) 1. A mark of any kind, a spot, stain, sign, symbol, &c. 2. A banner, a standard. 3. A symptom. E. c to pound, affix nak, and the radical vowel changed to i, or cihna to mark, ka aff. or cihna-ac caha-na upadhāyā ittvam vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cihna (चिह्न).— (probably for cikhna, from a reduplicated form of khan by the aff. a), n. 1. A mark of any kind, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 12, 44. 2. Insignia, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 7. 3. An attribute, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 15, 9. 4. A sign, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 193. 5. Caracter, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 32, 35.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cihna (चिह्न).—[neuter] sign, mark; adj. —° = seq. [participle]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cihna (चिह्न):—n. a mark, spot, stamp, sign, characteristic, symptom, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Raghuvaṃśa ii, 7; Ratnāvalī i, 6/7])

2) a banner, insignia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) a zodiacal sign, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iii, 3]

4) (in [grammar]) aim, direction towards, [Vopadeva v, 7.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cihna (चिह्न):—cihnayati 10. a. To mark.

2) (hnaṃ) 1. n. A mark of any kind; a banner; a symptom.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Cihna (चिह्न) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Iṃdha, Iṇha, Ciṃdha, Ciṇha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Cihna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Cihna (ಚಿಹ್ನ):—[noun] = ಚಿಹ್ನೆ [cihne].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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