Garta, Gartā: 17 definitions


Garta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Gart.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Garta (गर्त) is a Sanskrit word referring to water-stream whose course do not run beyond 2004 yards. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 4.203)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Garta (गर्त).—A son of Vasiṣṭha and Ūrjā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 41.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Garta (गर्त) refers to “under the ground” (i.e., “holes”), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Rāhu also presides over the most wicked in the family, over torturers, ungrateful men, thieves, persons who are untruthful, uncleanly and ungenerous; over ass-riders, duelists, persons of easily irritable temperament, [+ garta-āśraya ?] infants in the womb and Cāṇḍālas. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Garta (गर्त) or Sugarta refers to a “pit” (suitable for planting seeds), according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly: “A healthy seed of a properly ripened Mangifera indica should be soaked in the blood of a tortoise and a hare and then should be dried in the direct heat of the sun. After a month it should be planted in a pit (su-gartaka), previously prepared as per the method described before. Thereafter it should be showered with the milk of a she-goat. Then it blossoms into a tree with thousands of branches and produces lovely flowers and fruits round the year. This is no wonder”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Garta (गर्त) refers to a “(big) ditch”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 21).—Accordingly, “The immoral person is not respected (satkṛta) by people; his house is like a cemetery into which people do not go; he loses all his virtues like a rotten tree that people despise; [...] he is like bad grain, having the outer appearance of good seed but which is inedible; he is like a den of thieves where it is not good to stop; he is like a great sickness which no one dares to approach; he does not succeed in avoiding suffering; he is like a bad path difficult to travel on; he is dangerous to visit like an evil thief whom it is difficult to befriend; he is like a big ditch (garta) that people who walk avoid; he is bad company like a poisonous snake; [...] Even though he is called Bhikṣu because he has a shaved head, the yellow robe and presents his ‘ticket’ in the proper order, in reality he is not a Bhikṣu”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Garta (गर्त) or Garteśvara refers to one of the “eight passionless ones” (Aṣṭavaitarāga or Aṣṭavītarāga), according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Garta (गर्त) refers to a “hollow” (i.e., Gartamadhya—“the channel in one’s head”), according to chapter 50 of the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “Now, I will explain the characteristic of Mahākaṅkāla. [...] [The currents] rest in the middle of the skull by means of the mirror-like consciousness. Assuming the appearance of streams of immortal nectar [poured out] from a pot, they flow in the middle of a hollow (garta-madhya) [viz, channel in his head]. He should meditate that [this awakening] mind undergoes states such as absorption and enjoyment. [If he performs] the yoga of a donkey in that hollow, he sees the seven-time born. The appearances of mother-borns are three; likewise, the father-borns are three. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Garta (गर्त) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.126. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Garta or Gartā.—(EI 3, 27; CII 3), a trench or pit; a boundary trench; a pit or valley; cf. sa-garta-uṣara (IE 8-5); also found as the termination of names of villages. Note: garta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Garta (गर्त) or Gartā (गर्ता).—[gṝ-tan Uṇādi-sūtra 3.86]

1) A hollow, hole, cave; ससत्त्वेषु गर्तेषु (sasattveṣu garteṣu) Manusmṛti 4.47,23.

2) A grave.

-rtaḥ 1 The hollow of the loins.

2) A kind of disease.

3) Name of a country, a part the Trigartas q. v.

4) Ved. A throne.

5) A chariot; the seat of a chariot; तिष्ठद्धरी अध्यस्तेव गर्ते (tiṣṭhaddharī adhyasteva garte) Ṛgveda 6.2.9.

6) A table for playing at dice.

7) A house.

8) The post of an assembly room.

Derivable forms: gartaḥ (गर्तः), gartam (गर्तम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Garta (गर्त).— (probably 2. gṛ10), m., f. , and n. 1. A hole, Mahābhārata 1, 1034; [Pañcatantra] 81, 22; Mahābhārata 7, 4953. 2. A ditch, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 47; 203.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Garta (गर्त).—1. [masculine] high seat, throne; the seat of a warchariot, carriage i.[grammar]

--- OR ---

Garta (गर्त).—2. [masculine] [neuter], ā [feminine] hollow, cave, ditch, grave; a water-hole (only [masculine]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Garta (गर्त):—1. garta m. a high seat, throne (of Mitra and Varuṇa), [Ṛg-veda] (‘a house’ [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska])

2) the seat of a war-chariot, [vi, 20, 9]

3) ([Nirukta, by Yāska iii, 5]) a chariot, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra xvi, 7]

4) a table for playing at dice, [Nirukta, by Yāska iii, 5.]

5) 2. garta m. (= karta q.v.) a hollow, hole, cave, grave, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Kauśika-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) a canal, [Manu-smṛti iv, 203]

7) the hollow of the loins, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) a kind of disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Name of a country (part of Tri-garta, in the north-west of India), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. [Pāṇini 4-2, 137])

10) n. a hole, cave, [Mahābhārata vii, 4953]

11) Gartā (गर्ता):—[from garta] a f. a hole, cave, [Pañcatantra i; ii, 6, 34/35]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Śiva-purāṇa]

13) [from garta] b f. of ta q.v.

[Sanskrit to German]

Garta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Garta (गर्त) [Also spelled gart]:—(nm) a pit; recess.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Garta (ಗರ್ತ):—

1) [noun] a chair of State for a sovereign; a throne.

2) [noun] a two or four-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses, used in ancient warfare; a chariot.

3) [noun] the seat in a chariot for a warrior to sit on.

4) [noun] a chequered cloth, which the game of dice is played on.

5) [noun] a hole; a hollow or depressed place.

6) [noun] the hollow of the loins.

7) [noun] a deep wound.

8) [noun] a large hollow in the side of a cliff, hill, etc. or underground; a cave.

9) [noun] water moving rapidly in a circle so as to produce a depression in the centre into which floating objects may be drawn; a whirlpool; an eddy.

10) [noun] a building for people to live in; a house.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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