Mukti: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Mukti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mukti (मुक्ति) refers to “salvation”, which are mentioned as obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] for achieving glory with plenty of vehicles, worship for a thousand times shall be performed. A person desiring salvation (mukti) shall worship Śiva five crores of times with deep devotion. [...] with Śamī leaves he will secure salvation (mukti). With Mallikā flowers he will secure an auspicious woman”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mukti (मुक्ति).—An Uttama siddhi.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 5. 23; 36. 51.

1b) One of the two Gods forming a boat to cross the ocean of saṃsāra;1 four-fold of which Gayā is best.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 37.
  • 2) Ib. 105. 16.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Mukti (मुक्ति) refers to “release” according to the Purāṇas.—The word mokṣa means release (mukti) and it denotes release from the bondage of the mundane life and the repeated cycles of birth and death. [...] The Purāṇas which are dedicated to the glorification of a particular deity uphold that emancipation consists in reaching the blessed region inhabited by that deity.

The Saurapurāṇa refers the term like mokṣa, mukti, nirvāṇa and nirvṛti for emancipation. This Purāṇa has declared in undubious terms that the realisation of indentity between the individual and supreme consciousness breaks the fetters of this worldly existence and the devotee gets parama nirvāṇa. It is by means of unbounded grace of Lord Śiva that an individual self can expect to reach this highest state of redemption. It is a divine gift conferred upon a devout devoitee of Śiva. [...] Śiva gives mukti to his devotees and it is only Śivabhakti which is able to free a person from the bondage of Saṃsāra.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (vaishnavism)

Mukti (मुक्ति, “emancipation”) is the realization of God, accompanied as a consequence by that cessation of the bondage of egoism which is the same thing as existence in one’s true nature. Emancipation (mukti) may be achieved both in life and after death; when one realizes the true nature of God, one’s false apprehension of His nature vanishes and this is one’s state of mukti ; at death also there may be a revelation of God’s true nature, and a direct and immediate realization of His nature as God. This existence in one’s own nature is the same thing as the realization of one’s own nature as the supreme soul (paramātman). Bhakti is also described as being itself the emancipation (mukti). True philosophic knowledge (tattva-jñāna) is the secondary effect of bhakti.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Mukti (मुक्ति) refers to “complete emancipation from the bondage of the material energy that is expressed by the false conceptions of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. There are five types of mukti: sārūpya–obtaining the same form as Bhagavān; sāmīpya–living in close proximity to Bhagavān; sālokya–living on the same planet as Bhagavān; sārṣṭi–having the same opulence as Bhagavān;and sāyujya–becoming one with Bhagavān by merging with His bodily effulgence, the brahmajyoti. Of these five, sāyujya is rejected by the Vaiṣṇavas”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Mukti (मुक्ति, “liberation”) refers to one of the ten effects of vyaya (“loss”), according to the Mānasāra. Vyaya is the second of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular vyaya (e.g., mukti) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Like in the case of the fruits of āya, all ten effects of vyaya must be considered as auspicious.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)

Mukti (मुक्ति).—According to the Kaulajñānanirṇaya, mukti (liberation) can be achieved with the perfect knowledge of Śiva. A liberated man can liberate others.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mukti (मुक्ति) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Muktikī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Mukti] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukti (मुक्ति).—f (S) The enlargement of the spirit from corporeal and individual existence, exemption of it from further migration, and reabsorption of it into its source, the divine monad Brahma, the substratum and substance of universal being. mukti is distinguished into sāyujya, salōkatā, samīpatā, sarūpatā. 2 Liberation, loosening, setting free: also liberated state.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukti (मुक्ति).—f Final beatitude. Liberation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukti (मुक्ति).—f. [muc-ktin]

1) Release, liberation, deliverance; स मुक्तिः सातिमुक्तिः (sa muktiḥ sātimuktiḥ) Bṛ. Up.3.1.3.

2) Freedom, emancipation.

3) Final beatitude or emancipation, absolution of the soul from metempsychosis; अधिगत्य जगत्यधीश्वरादथ मुक्तिं पुरुषोत्तमात्ततः (adhigatya jagatyadhīśvarādatha muktiṃ puruṣottamāttataḥ) N.2.1. (where mukti has sense 1 also).

4) Leaving, giving up, abandoning, avoiding; संसर्गमुक्तिः खलेषु (saṃsargamuktiḥ khaleṣu) Bh.2.62.

5) Throwing, hurling, letting off, discharging.

6) Unloosing, opening.

7) Discharge, paying off (as a debt).

Derivable forms: muktiḥ (मुक्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukti (मुक्ति).—f.

(-ktiḥ) 1. Final beatitude, the delivery of the soul from the body and exemption from further transmigration; the re-absorption of the emancipated spirit into its great primary source, identification with God. 2. Liberation, setting or becoming free or loose. E. muc to let loose, aff. ktin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukti (मुक्ति).—i. e. 2. muc + ti, f. 1. Leaving off, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 52. 2. Deliverance, release (muktiṃ prāpnumaḥ, We shall be released), [Pañcatantra] 106, 1; ii. [distich] 44. 3. The delivery of the soul from the body, and exemption from further transmigration, final beatitude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukti (मुक्ति).—[feminine] liberation, release from (—°); final emancipation or beatitude; putting off, giving up, relinquishing (—°); casting, throwing, hurling.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukti (मुक्ति):—[from muc] f. setting or becoming free, release, liberation, deliverance from ([compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc., etc.

2) [v.s. ...] final liberation or emancipation, final beatitude (= mokṣa, q.v.), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] abandonment, putting off, giving up ([compound]), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] throwing, casting, hurling, shooting, sending, [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] discharge (of a debt; cf. ṛṇa-m)

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a divine being (the wife of Satya), [Catalogue(s)]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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