Aruna, Aruṇa, Aruṇā: 39 definitions


Aruna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is another name for Indravāruṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth, bitter apple or desert gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.70-72 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Aruṇā and Indravāruṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Raktaguñjā, one of the two varieties of Guñjā: a medicinal plants identified with Abrus precatorius (Indian licorice or rosary pea) from the Fabaceae or “legume family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.113-116.

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Aruṇa (अरुण) (lit. “one who is reddish-brown”) is a synonym (another name) for the Pigeon (Kapota), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Aruṇa (अरुण) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Aruṇa (अरुण):—Dawny red.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Aruṇa (अरुण).—Birth. Son of Kaśyapa by Vinatā. Kaśyapa, son of Brahmā, married Vinatā and Kadrū, and being so much pleased by their services he gave them boons. Kadrū got the boon to have 1000 nāga (serpent) sons, and Vinatā to have two sons more powerful and vital than the sons of Kadrū. After this Kaśyapa went into the forest again for Tapas. After a period, Kadrū gave birth to 1000 eggs and Vinatā to two. Both the mothers kept their eggs in pots so that they were in the right temperature. After 500 years the pot broke up and Kadrū had her 1000 sons. Vinatā felt pained at this and opened one of her pots. A child only half-developed emerged from the egg and he was Aruṇa. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 16, Verses 5-7). After another 500 years the other egg of Vinatā hatched itself and a glowing son emerged. He was Garuḍa. (See full article at Story of Aruṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A king of the solar dynasty, and father of Triśaṅku. (Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha).

3) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A sage in ancient India. A community of Ṛṣis was denoted by this name. Those Ṛṣis were called Aruṇas. The Ajas, Pṛśnis, Sikatas, Ketus and Aruṇas-they attained Svarga by self study. (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7).

4) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A serpent. Karkkoṭaka, Vāsuki, Takṣaka, Pṛthuśravas, Aruṇa, Kuñjara, Mitra, Śaṃkha, Kumuda, Puṇḍarīka, and the chief of serpents, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Mahābhārata, Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

5) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A Ṛṣi. Taittarīya Āraṇyaka refers to him as born from the flesh of Brahmā at the time of creation.

6) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A Dānava (Asura) born in the dynasty of Vipracitti. He did tapas for long years repeating the Gāyatrī mantra, and got from Brahmā the boon not to die in war. Becoming very arrogant on account of this boon he left Pātāla (nether region) for the earth and deputed a messenger to challenge Indra for war. At that time a heavenly voice called out that as long as Aruṇa did not give up the Gāyatrī he could not be worsted in war. Then the Devas sent Bṛhaspati to Aruṇa to make him give up Gāyatrī. Aruṇa questioned Bṛhaspati as to why he of the enemy camp had come to him (Aruṇa). Bṛhaspati replied: "You and I are not different; both of us are worshippers of Gāyatrī Devī. Being told so Aruṇa gave up worship of Gāyatrī Devī, and she felt offended at this and sent thousands of beetles against him. Thus, without fighting Aruṇa and his army were extinguished. (Devī Bhāgavata).

7) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A son of Narakāsura. When Narakāsura was killed Aruṇa along with his six brothers fought against Śrī Kṛṣṇa and was killed.

8) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—An Apsarā woman born of Pradhā, wife of Kaśyapa. Pradhā and Kaśyapa had the following children. Alambuṣā, Miśrakeśī, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Rakṣitā, Rambhā and Manoramā. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 50, 51).

9) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—A tributary of the river Sarasvatī. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 15).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A son of Danu:1 the Rākṣasa with the sun in the months nabha and nabhasya.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 30.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 10; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 10.

1b) A sage of the eleventh epoch of Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 25.

1c) The son of Haryaśva, and father of Tribandhana.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 7. 4.

1d) A son of Mura (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12.

1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 33.

1f) A hill near (on the other side of, Vāyu-purāṇa) Kailāsa, the residence of Girīśa and full of medicinal herbs. At its foot is the Śailodā lake from which rises the R. Śilodā on whose bank is the forest Surabhī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 18-23; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 17-22.

1g) A son of Viṅatā and brother of Garuḍa.1 The charioteer of the Sun. He is said to yoke the seven horses bearing the names of metres (chandas).2 Came to see Parīkṣit practising prāyopaveśa.3 Married Gṛdhrī (Śyenī, Vāyu-purāṇa) who gave birth to Sampāti and Jaṭāyu;4 A personification of Dawn: Image of.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 29; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 34; 150. 151-2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 18.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 21. 15-16; Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 32; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 37.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 19. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 66.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 446; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 326.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 261. 7.

1h) A son of Raivata.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 21.

1i) A sādhya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 43.

1j) The sons of Dullola.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 443.

1k) Of the Kṣatriyas of Śālmali dvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 30.

2a) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—(River) of Plakṣa dvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 4.

2b) An apsaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 5.

2c) A Devī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 48; 44. 41.
Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)

Aruṇa (अरुण), the elder brother of Garuḍa. Vinatā, his mother opened the egg prematurely. As a result, a baby was born lame. He is lame but full of tejas, possessed of heroic luster. So he was able to stand the heat of the Sun. Consequently, Brahmā chose him to be the charioteer of the Sun god. Aruṇa warned his mother not to open the other egg before term. He predicted to her that a powerful son would come out of that egg and whose prowess would be equal to that of Indra.

Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Aruṇa (अरुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.24, I.31, I.59.39, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Aruṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Aruṇā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.44, I.65, I.59.48, I.65).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Aruṇa (अरुण) refers to one of the sons of Vinatā: one of thirteen of Dakṣa’s sixty daughters given to Kaśyapa in marriage, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters [viz., Kaśyapa]. Kaśyapa’s thirteen wives are [viz., Vinatā]. Vinatā became the mother of Garuḍa and Aruṇa.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Aruṇa (अरुण) is depicted as a sculpture on the fourth pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—In the medallion, Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term. In this image he is shown with weak legs. The Sun is represented standing with his attendants Uṣā and Pratyuṣā.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Aruṇa (अरुण) refers to one of the four secondary islands, according to the Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—There are four secondary Islands, namely: Aruṇa, Vāruṇa, Narasiṃha and Lokāloka (ibid. 20/15). The universe is born from all these Islands. Out of these, the supreme one is Candradvīpa. It is in the middle and is the cause of manifestation. It is in the middle of the Ocean of the Garden, which is the supreme bliss of the emanation of the Islands

2) Aruṇa (अरुण) refers to one of the disciples of Śaṅkara, who is associated with Jālandhara, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The colophons of the version of the Śrīmatottara called Gorakṣasaṃhitā declare that the Kubjikā tradition (the Kādibheda) of the Kulakaulamata was brought down to earth by him. Thus like the Siddhas of the previous Ages, Śrīkaṇṭha also had disciples [i.e., Aruṇa]. These were the Lords of the Ages who are said to be four aspects of the First Siddha who descend into the world in the last Age, each into a ‘particular division’.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

1) Aruṇā (अरुणा) refers to one of eight eight Goddesses of speech, as mentioned in the Kāmasiddhi-stuti (also Vāmakeśvarī-stuti) and the Vāmakeśvaratantra (also known as Nityāṣoḍaśikārṇava).—[...] The next four verses, 17–20 [of the Kāmasiddhistuti], respectively praise the set of eight eight Goddesses of speech. The names of these eight [e.g., Aruṇā] can be retrieved from the mantroddhāra section of the Vāmakeśvaratantra (cf. 1.77–80).

2) Aruṇā (अरुणा) refers to “she who is red in complexion” and is used to describe the Goddesses of the accomplishments (mahāsiddhi), according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I take refuge with the goddesses of becoming minute and other great accomplishments for the sake of success. They hold wish-fulfilling jewels in both hands. They are moon-crested, three-eyed, and red in complexion (aruṇā). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Aruṇa (अरुण) or Aruṇaketu refers to certain types of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The comets that resemble the flaming fire or a garland are 120 in number. They are the sons of Agni and are named Viśvarūpa Ketus. When they appear there will be fear from fire. The comets that are dark-red in colour, without disc, presenting the appearance of Cāmara and with scattered rays are named Aruṇa Ketus. They are the sons of Vāyu (the wind) and are 77 in number; when they appear mankind will feel miserable”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Aruṇá or Aruṇ sometimes also called Anoora, is a personification of the reddish glow of the rising Sun, which is believed to have spiritual powers. The presence of Aruṇá, the coming of day, is invoked in Hindu prayers to Surya.

Aruṇá is sometimes considered a part of Surya, as he is the vision and driving force behind its path through the sky. In some stories, Aruṇá drives the chariot of Surya, while in others, he is a manifestation of Surya, serving as a sign of the coming of the Sun.

Aruṇa is also believed to be the father of Jatayu and Sampati (King of the Vultures), who are both mentioned in the Ramayana.

Vinata was one of the wives of rishi Kashyapa, and she bore him two sons, Aruṇá and Garuda, bringing them out as eggs. From the broken egg a flash of light, Aruṇá, sprang forth. He was as radiant and reddish as the morning sun. But, due to the premature breaking of the egg, Aruṇá was not as bright as the noon sun as he was promised to be.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Aruna - A khattiya, father of Sikhi Buddha and husband of Pabhavati (Bu.xxi.15; J.i.41; AA.i.436). Arunas chief queen became the Theri Abhaya in the present age (ThigA.41). Another of his wives became, in her last life, the Theri Soma (ThigA.66), who is perhaps to be identified with Uppaladayika of the Apadana (Ap.ii.601f). In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.155) he is called Arunava.

2. Aruna - The Assaka king of Potali in the Assaka country. (In the main story the kings name is given as Assaka, but the scholiast says his real name was Aruna). The Kalinga king of that time, longing for a fight, but finding no one willing to accept his challenge, at last devised a plan. He sent his four beautiful daughters, in a covered carriage and with an armed escort to the various cities in the neighbourhood, proclaiming that any king, who took them as wives, would have to fight their father. No one was found willing to take the risk till they came to Potali in the Assaka country. Even the Assaka king at first merely sent them a present by way of courtesy, but his minister, Nandisena, fertile in expedients, urged the king to marry them, saying that he himself would undertake to face the consequences. The Kalinga king at once set out with his army. On his way to Potali, he came across the Bodhisatta, who was leading the ascetic life and, without revealing his identity, consulted him regarding his chances of success in the fight. The Bodhisatta promised that he would see Sakka about it the next day and, having done so, informed the king that the Kalinga forces would win. Nandisena heard of this prophecy but, nothing daunted, he gathered together the Assaka forces and all their allies; then, by a well planned manoeuvre, he managed to have the tutelary deity of Kalinga (who was fighting for the Kalinga king) killed by Assaka. Thereupon the Kalinga king was routed and fled. The Bodhisatta, finding that his prophecy had turned out false, sought Sakka in his distress; Sakka consoled him thus: Hast thou never heard that even the gods favour the bold hero of intrepid resolve, who never yields?

Later, at the suggestion of Nandisena, the Assaka king demanded of Kalingas ruler dowry for his four daughters, and the Kalinga king acceded to his request. The story is told in the Kalinga Jataka (J.iii.3ff.).

3. Aruna - The pleasaunce near Anupama where the Buddha Vessabhu first preached to his chief disciples, Sona and Uttara. Bu.xxii.22, BuA.205.

4. Aruna - The name of the lotus that grows in the Naga world. It was one of Uppalavannas wishes to have a body of the colour of the Aruna lotus. Ap.ii.554(v.39).

5. Aruna - A class of devas present at the preaching of the Maha Samaya Sutta. They were of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts, mighty powers, comely and with splendid following. D.ii.260.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Aruṇa (अरुण) is the name of a Kinnara mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Aruṇa).

2) Aruṇa (अरुण) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

1a) Aruṇa (अरुण) is the name of a Nāga appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Vatsa, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Nāga Aruṇa in Vatsa], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.

1b) Aruṇa (अरुण) is also the name of a Yakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Śrīyama.

2) Aruṇa (अरुण) (in Chinese: A-leou-na) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Śravaṇā or Śravaṇānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Aruṇa (अरुण) is the shorter name of Aruṇadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Aruṇasamudra (or simply Aruṇa), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Aruṇa is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Aruṇa (अरुण) refers to one of the nine divisions of the Lokāntika-gods, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] while in this way the Supreme Lord’s mind was woven with the threads of continuity of disgust with saṃsāra, then the Lokāntika-gods who have nine sub-divisions—Sārasvatas, Ādityas, Vahnis, Aruṇas, Gardatoyas, Tuṣitas, Avyābādhas, Maruts, and Riṣṭas, living at the end of Brahmaloka, having additional ornaments made by folded hands like lotus-buds on their heads, came to the feet of the Lord of the World”.

2) Aruṇa (अरुण) or Aruṇadvīpa is the name of a continent, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “Then the ocean Nandīśvara surrounds Nandīśvara; after that Aruṇadvīpa and Aruṇoda. Then come Aruṇavaradvīpa and the ocean by that name; next Aruṇābhāsa and Aruṇābhāsa Ocean. Then Kuṇḍaladvīpa and the ocean Kuṇḍaloda come next; then Rucakadvīpa and Rucaka Ocean. The oceans and continents with these auspicious names are each twice as large as the preceding one. Of these the last is the ocean Svayambhūramaṇa”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Aruna [अरुणा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle from the Ranunculaceae (Buttercup) family. For the possible medicinal usage of aruna, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Aruna in India is the name of a plant defined with Abrus precatorius in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight, nom. illeg. (among others).

2) Aruna is also identified with Aconitum heterophyllum It has the synonym Aconitum heterophyllum Wall..

3) Aruna is also identified with Alpinia galanga It has the synonym Zingiber sylvestre Gaertn., nom. illeg. (etc.).

4) Aruna is also identified with Bixa orellana It has the synonym Bixa katangensis Delpierre (etc.).

5) Aruna is also identified with Crocus sativus It has the synonym Geanthus autumnalis Raf. (etc.).

6) Aruna is also identified with Hibiscus rosa-sinensis It has the synonym Hibiscus rosasinensis L. (etc.).

7) Aruna is also identified with Polyalthia longifolia It has the synonym Uvaria altissima Pennant, nom. illeg. (etc.).

8) Aruna is also identified with Sphaeranthus indicus It has the synonym Sphaeranthus mollis Roxb. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Willdenowia (1986)
· Verhandelingen van het bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en wetenschappen (1790)
· Fl. Nicarag. (1909)
· Journal of the Indian Botanical Society (1990)
· Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (1891)
· Gard. Chron. (1879)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Aruna, for example extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

aruṇa : (m.) 1. the dawn; 2. ruddy colour. (adj.), reddish.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Aruṇa, (Vedic aruṇa (adj.) of the colour of fire, i.e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sk. aruṣa reddish, Av. auruša white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sk. rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etym. under rohita), Gr. e)rudrόs, Lat. ruber. ) the sun Vin. II, 68; IV, 245; J. II, 154; V, 403; VI, 330; Dpvs. I, 56; DA. I, 30. ‹-› a. uggacchati the sun rises J. I, 108; VvA. 75, & see cpds.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

aruṇa (अरुण).—m (S) The charioteer of Surya; hence, the dawn.

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aruṇa (अरुण).—a (S) Red.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

aruṇa (अरुण).—m The charioteer of sūrya. The dawn. a Red.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण).—a. (-ṇā, -ṇi f.) [ऋ-उनन् (ṛ-unan); cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 3.6]

1) Reddish brown, tawny, red, ruddy (of the colour of the morning as opposed to the darkness of night); प्रत्याख्यातविशेषकं कुरबकं श्यामावदातारुणम् (pratyākhyātaviśeṣakaṃ kurabakaṃ śyāmāvadātāruṇam) M.3.5; नयनान्यरुणानि घूर्णयन् (nayanānyaruṇāni ghūrṇayan) Kumārasambhava 4.12.

2) Perplexed, embarrassed.

3) Dumb.

-ṇaḥ 1 Red colour, the colour of the dawn or morning twilight.

2) The dawn personified as the charioteer of the Sun; आविष्कृतारुणपुरःसर एकतोऽर्कः (āviṣkṛtāruṇapuraḥsara ekato'rkaḥ) Ś.4. 2,7.4; विभावरी यद्यरुणाय कल्पते (vibhāvarī yadyaruṇāya kalpate) Kumārasambhava 5.44; R.5.71. [Aruṇa is represented as the elder brother of Garuḍa, being the son of Vinatā by Kaśyapa. Vinatā prematurely hatched the egg and the child was born without thighs, and hence he is called Anūru 'thighless', or Vipāda 'footless'. He cursed his mother that since she had brought him forth before the due season she would be a slave to her rival Kadrū; but at her earnest entreaties, he modified the curse and said that her next son would deliver her from bondage. Aruṇa now holds the office of the charioteer of the Sun. His wife was Śyenī, who bore him two sons Saṃpāti and Jaṭāyu.]

3) The Sun; रागेण बालारुणकोमलेन (rāgeṇa bālāruṇakomalena) Kumārasambhava 3.3, 5.8; संसृज्यते सरसिजैररुणांशुभिन्नैः (saṃsṛjyate sarasijairaruṇāṃśubhinnaiḥ); R.5.69; S.1.31. अरुण- कररुचायतेऽन्तरीक्षे (aruṇa- kararucāyate'ntarīkṣe) Bu. Ch.5.87.

4) A kind of leprosy with red spots and insensibility of the skin.

5) A little poisonous creature Bhāgavata 8.1.1.

6) Name of a plant पुंनाग (puṃnāga); also a synonym of अर्क (arka) q. v.

7) Molasses (guḍa).

8) Name of a peak of the Himālaya situated to the west of Kailāsa.

9) Name of one of the 12 Ādityas, the one presiding over Maghā.

1) Name of a sage; उद्दालकोऽरुणात् (uddālako'ruṇāt) Bṛ. Up.6.5.3.

-ṇā 1 Name of several plants; (a) अतिविषा (ativiṣā) (Mar. ativikha); (b) Madder (mañjiṣṭhā); (c) त्रिवृत् (trivṛt) commonly called Teori; (d) a black kind of the same (śyāmākā); (e) bitter apple (indravāruṇī); (f) the Gunja plant that yields the red and black berry (guṃja) used as a weight by jewellers &c. (g) मुण्डतिक्ता (muṇḍatiktā) cf. अरुणः कपिले कुष्ठे सन्ध्यारागेऽर्कसारथौ । अव्यक्तरागे निःशब्दे द्रव्ये त्रिषु निरूपितः । स्त्रियामतिविषाश्यामामञ्जिष्ठात्रिवृतासु च (aruṇaḥ kapile kuṣṭhe sandhyārāge'rkasārathau | avyaktarāge niḥśabde dravye triṣu nirūpitaḥ | striyāmativiṣāśyāmāmañjiṣṭhātrivṛtāsu ca) | Nm.

2) Name of a river.

-ṇī 1 A red cow (Nir.).

2) The early dawn.

-ṇam 1 Red colour; दिविस्पृश्यात्यरुणानि कृण्वन् (divispṛśyātyaruṇāni kṛṇvan) Ṛgveda 1.168.1.

2) Gold; अम्भो अरुणं रजतम् (ambho aruṇaṃ rajatam) Av.13.4.51.

3) Saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण).—name of a nāga king (note the nāga priest Aruṇa Āṭa in PBr, see [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2 g): Mahā-Māyūrī 246.19.

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Aruṇā (अरुणा).—name of a devakumārikā in the western quarter: Lalitavistara 390.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण).—mfn.

(-gṇaḥ-gṇā-gṇaṃ) Healthy, well. E. a neg. rugṇa sick.

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Aruṇa (अरुण).—m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A name of the sun. 2. Also of his charioteer, or the dawn personified as the son of Kasyapa by Vinata. 3. The colour of the dawn, dark red, or the mixture of red and black. 4. Tawny, (the colour.) 5. The redness of sun-set. 6. A kind of leprosy, with red spots and insensibility of the skin. 7. A dumb man. 4. (ṇā) 1. A plant, (Betula.) See ativiṣā. 2. Mader, (Rubia manjit'h.) 3. Another plant, commonly Teori. See trivṛt. 4. A black kind of the same. 5. Colocynth or bitter apple. 6. The plant that yields the red and black berry from which the jeweller’s weight, the Retti, is derived. See guñjā. mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Tawny, dark red, &c. E. to go, and unan Udadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण).— (akin to arus, cf. aruṣa). I. adj., f. ṇā and ṇī, Tawny, dark red, Chr. 293, 2 = [Rigveda.] i. 88, 2; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 5, 7. Ii. m. 1. The dawn, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 33. 2. The sun, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 31 (pariṇata-, The setting sun). 3. A proper name, [Devīmāhātmya, (ed. Poley.)] 11, 49.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण).—[feminine] ā (ved. also ī) ruddy, light-brown, yellowish. [masculine] redness, [person or personal] as Aruṇa, the Dawn, conceived as the charioteer of the Sun; the Sun itself; [Name] of an old teacher etc. [feminine] ī a red cow; the dawn. [neuter] redness, gold, ruby.

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Āruṇa (आरुण).—[masculine] ī [feminine] descendant of Aruṇa; [feminine] āruṇī also a red mare.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Aruṇa (अरुण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—grammarian. Quoted by Rāyamukuṭa, and in Kośakalpataru Peters. 2, 124. See Aruṇadatta.

2) Aruṇa (अरुण):—(?) and Kāṭhaka vaid. Hz. 691. 779.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Aruṇa (अरुण):—mf(ā [Ṛg-veda v, 63, 6, etc.] or ī [Ṛg-veda x, 61, 4, &], ([nominative case] [plural] aruṇayas), [95, 6])n. (√, [Uṇādi-sūtra]), reddish-brown, tawny, red, ruddy (the colour of the morning opposed to the darkness of night), [Ṛg-veda] etc.

2) perplexed, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) dumb, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) coarse (as food), [Jātakamālā]

5) full of, mixed with ([instrumental case] or [compound]), ibidem

6) m. red colour, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) the dawn (personified as the charioteer of the sun), [Manu-smṛti x, 33, etc.]

8) the sun, [Śākaṭāyana]

9) a kind of leprosy (with red cf. [Atharva-veda v, 22, 3 and vi, 20, 3] spots and insensibility of the skin), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) a little poisonous animal, [Suśruta]

11) the plant Rottleria Tinctoria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) molasses, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Name of a teacher, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

14) of the composer of the hymn, [Ṛg-veda x, 91] (with the patron. Vaitahavya), [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

15) of the Nāga priest Āṭa, [Pbr.]

16) of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

17) of the Daitya Mura, [ib.]

18) of an Asura, [Mahābhārata xvi, 119]([varia lectio] varuṇa), of the father of the fabulous bird Jaṭāyu, [Mahābhārata iii, 16045]

19) m. (aruṇa) Name of a pupil of Upaveśi (cf. aruṇam. above), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv]

20) m. [plural] Name of a class of Ketus (seventy seven in number), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

21) m. (named as the composers of certain Mantras), [Kāṭhaka]

22) Aruṇā (अरुणा):—[from aruṇa] f. the plants Betula, madder (Rubia Manjith), Teori, a black kind of the same, Colocynth or bitter apple, the plant that yields the red and black berry used for the jewellers weight (called Retti), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata iii, 7022 and ix, 2429 [sequens]]

24) Aruṇa (अरुण):—n. red colour, [Ṛg-veda x, 168, 1], gold, [Atharva-veda xiii, 4, 51]

25) m. a ruby, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

26) Āruṇa (आरुण):—mf(ī)n. coming from or belonging to Aruṇa

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aruṇa (अरुण):—(ṇaḥ) 1. m. The sun; the dawn. ṇā f. (Betula). a. Tawny.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Aruṇa (अरुण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Aruṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Aruna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Arūṇa (अरूण):—(a) reddish-brown, ruddy; (nm) the dawn (personified as the charioteer of the Sun); ~[cūḍa/śikhā] a cock.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Aruṇa (अरुण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Aruṇa.

2) Aruṇa (अरुण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Aruṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Aruṇa (ಅರುಣ):—

1) [noun] the colour of the dawn or morning twilight.

2) [noun] the reddish brown, tawny or red colour.

3) [noun] (myth.) name of the charioteer of the Sun God.

4) [noun] the sun.

5) [noun] a ray of light.

6) [noun] a variety in leprosy characterised by red spots and insensibility.

7) [noun] the tree Calophyllum inophyllum of Guttifereae family.

8) [noun] name of a mountain, situated to the west of Kailāsa mountain in the Himalayan belt.

9) [noun] a light, fine, stringlike length of material made up of two or more fibers or strands of spun cotton, flax, silk, etc. twisted together and used in sewing; a thread.

10) [noun] a river rising in Goṇḍavana and joining the river Gaṃgā near Pāṭna in north India (also called Śoṇa).

11) [noun] powdery earth or other matter in bits fine enough to be easily suspended in air; dust.

12) [noun] gold.

13) [noun] a kind of little poisonous creature.

14) [noun] the red metal, copper.

15) [noun] one of the Upaniṣats, the sacred scriptures of Hindūs.

16) [noun] (Jain.) a class among the demigods.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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