Aruna, Aruṇa, Aruṇā: 21 definitions
Aruna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Aruṇa (अरुण).—Birth. Son of Kaśyapa by Vinatā. Kaśyapa, son of Brahmā, married Vinatā and Kadrū, and being so much pleased by their services he gave them boons. Kadrū got the boon to have 1000 nāga (serpent) sons, and Vinatā to have two sons more powerful and vital than the sons of Kadrū. After this Kaśyapa went into the forest again for Tapas. After a period, Kadrū gave birth to 1000 eggs and Vinatā to two. Both the mothers kept their eggs in pots so that they were in the right temperature. After 500 years the pot broke up and Kadrū had her 1000 sons. Vinatā felt pained at this and opened one of her pots. A child only half-developed emerged from the egg and he was Aruṇa. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 16, Verses 5-7). After another 500 years the other egg of Vinatā hatched itself and a glowing son emerged. He was Garuḍa. (See full article at Story of Aruṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A king of the solar dynasty, and father of Triśaṅku. (Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha).
3) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A sage in ancient India. A community of Ṛṣis was denoted by this name. Those Ṛṣis were called Aruṇas. The Ajas, Pṛśnis, Sikatas, Ketus and Aruṇas-they attained Svarga by self study. (Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 26, Verse 7).
4) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A serpent. Karkkoṭaka, Vāsuki, Takṣaka, Pṛthuśravas, Aruṇa, Kuñjara, Mitra, Śaṃkha, Kumuda, Puṇḍarīka, and the chief of serpents, Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Mahābhārata, Mausala Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).
5) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A Ṛṣi. Taittarīya Āraṇyaka refers to him as born from the flesh of Brahmā at the time of creation.
6) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A Dānava (Asura) born in the dynasty of Vipracitti. He did tapas for long years repeating the Gāyatrī mantra, and got from Brahmā the boon not to die in war. Becoming very arrogant on account of this boon he left Pātāla (nether region) for the earth and deputed a messenger to challenge Indra for war. At that time a heavenly voice called out that as long as Aruṇa did not give up the Gāyatrī he could not be worsted in war. Then the Devas sent Bṛhaspati to Aruṇa to make him give up Gāyatrī. Aruṇa questioned Bṛhaspati as to why he of the enemy camp had come to him (Aruṇa). Bṛhaspati replied: "You and I are not different; both of us are worshippers of Gāyatrī Devī. Being told so Aruṇa gave up worship of Gāyatrī Devī, and she felt offended at this and sent thousands of beetles against him. Thus, without fighting Aruṇa and his army were extinguished. (Devī Bhāgavata).
7) Aruṇa (अरुण).—A son of Narakāsura. When Narakāsura was killed Aruṇa along with his six brothers fought against Śrī Kṛṣṇa and was killed.
8) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—An Apsarā woman born of Pradhā, wife of Kaśyapa. Pradhā and Kaśyapa had the following children. Alambuṣā, Miśrakeśī, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Rakṣitā, Rambhā and Manoramā. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verses 50, 51).
9) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—A tributary of the river Sarasvatī. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 15).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1b) A sage of the eleventh epoch of Manu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 25.
1c) The son of Haryaśva, and father of Tribandhana.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 7. 4.
1d) A son of Mura (s.v.).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12.
1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 33.
1f) A hill near (on the other side of, Vāyu-purāṇa) Kailāsa, the residence of Girīśa and full of medicinal herbs. At its foot is the Śailodā lake from which rises the R. Śilodā on whose bank is the forest Surabhī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 18-23; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 17-22.
1g) A son of Viṅatā and brother of Garuḍa.1 The charioteer of the Sun. He is said to yoke the seven horses bearing the names of metres (chandas).2 Came to see Parīkṣit practising prāyopaveśa.3 Married Gṛdhrī (Śyenī, Vāyu-purāṇa) who gave birth to Sampāti and Jaṭāyu;4 A personification of Dawn: Image of.5
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 29; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 34; 150. 151-2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 18.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 21. 15-16; Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 32; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 37.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 19. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 66.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 446; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 326.
- 5) Matsya-purāṇa 261. 7.
1h) A son of Raivata.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 21.
1i) A sādhya.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 43.
1j) The sons of Dullola.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 443.
1k) Of the Kṣatriyas of Śālmali dvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 30.
2a) Aruṇā (अरुणा).—(River) of Plakṣa dvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 4.
2b) An apsaras.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 5.
2c) A Devī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 48; 44. 41.
Aruṇa (अरुण), the elder brother of Garuḍa. Vinatā, his mother opened the egg prematurely. As a result, a baby was born lame. He is lame but full of tejas, possessed of heroic luster. So he was able to stand the heat of the Sun. Consequently, Brahmā chose him to be the charioteer of the Sun god. Aruṇa warned his mother not to open the other egg before term. He predicted to her that a powerful son would come out of that egg and whose prowess would be equal to that of Indra.
Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Aruṇa (अरुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.24, I.31, I.59.39, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Aruṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Aruṇā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.44, I.65, I.59.48, I.65).
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Aruṇa (अरुण) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is another name for Indravāruṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth, bitter apple or desert gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.70-72 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Aruṇā and Indravāruṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Aruṇā (अरुणा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Raktaguñjā, one of the two varieties of Guñjā: a medicinal plants identified with Abrus precatorius (Indian licorice or rosary pea) from the Fabaceae or “legume family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.113-116.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Aruṇa (अरुण) is depicted as a sculpture on the fourth pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—In the medallion, Sūrya (sun god) is in his chariot drawn by seven horses with Aruṇa his charioteer. From the purāṇic story, we know that Aruṇa was born cripple because his mother Vinatā, in the anxiety to see her forthcoming child, broke the egg before term. In this image he is shown with weak legs. The Sun is represented standing with his attendants Uṣā and Pratyuṣā.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Aruṇá or Aruṇ sometimes also called Anoora, is a personification of the reddish glow of the rising Sun, which is believed to have spiritual powers. The presence of Aruṇá, the coming of day, is invoked in Hindu prayers to Surya.
Aruṇá is sometimes considered a part of Surya, as he is the vision and driving force behind its path through the sky. In some stories, Aruṇá drives the chariot of Surya, while in others, he is a manifestation of Surya, serving as a sign of the coming of the Sun.
Aruṇa is also believed to be the father of Jatayu and Sampati (King of the Vultures), who are both mentioned in the Ramayana.
Vinata was one of the wives of rishi Kashyapa, and she bore him two sons, Aruṇá and Garuda, bringing them out as eggs. From the broken egg a flash of light, Aruṇá, sprang forth. He was as radiant and reddish as the morning sun. But, due to the premature breaking of the egg, Aruṇá was not as bright as the noon sun as he was promised to be.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Aruna - A khattiya, father of Sikhi Buddha and husband of Pabhavati (Bu.xxi.15; J.i.41; AA.i.436). Arunas chief queen became the Theri Abhaya in the present age (ThigA.41). Another of his wives became, in her last life, the Theri Soma (ThigA.66), who is perhaps to be identified with Uppaladayika of the Apadana (Ap.ii.601f). In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.155) he is called Arunava.
2. Aruna - The Assaka king of Potali in the Assaka country. (In the main story the kings name is given as Assaka, but the scholiast says his real name was Aruna). The Kalinga king of that time, longing for a fight, but finding no one willing to accept his challenge, at last devised a plan. He sent his four beautiful daughters, in a covered carriage and with an armed escort to the various cities in the neighbourhood, proclaiming that any king, who took them as wives, would have to fight their father. No one was found willing to take the risk till they came to Potali in the Assaka country. Even the Assaka king at first merely sent them a present by way of courtesy, but his minister, Nandisena, fertile in expedients, urged the king to marry them, saying that he himself would undertake to face the consequences. The Kalinga king at once set out with his army. On his way to Potali, he came across the Bodhisatta, who was leading the ascetic life and, without revealing his identity, consulted him regarding his chances of success in the fight. The Bodhisatta promised that he would see Sakka about it the next day and, having done so, informed the king that the Kalinga forces would win. Nandisena heard of this prophecy but, nothing daunted, he gathered together the Assaka forces and all their allies; then, by a well planned manoeuvre, he managed to have the tutelary deity of Kalinga (who was fighting for the Kalinga king) killed by Assaka. Thereupon the Kalinga king was routed and fled. The Bodhisatta, finding that his prophecy had turned out false, sought Sakka in his distress; Sakka consoled him thus: Hast thou never heard that even the gods favour the bold hero of intrepid resolve, who never yields?
Later, at the suggestion of Nandisena, the Assaka king demanded of Kalingas ruler dowry for his four daughters, and the Kalinga king acceded to his request. The story is told in the Kalinga Jataka (J.iii.3ff.).
3. Aruna - The pleasaunce near Anupama where the Buddha Vessabhu first preached to his chief disciples, Sona and Uttara. Bu.xxii.22, BuA.205.
4. Aruna - The name of the lotus that grows in the Naga world. It was one of Uppalavannas wishes to have a body of the colour of the Aruna lotus. Ap.ii.554(v.39).
5. Aruna - A class of devas present at the preaching of the Maha Samaya Sutta. They were of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts, mighty powers, comely and with splendid following. D.ii.260.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Aruṇa (अरुण) is the shorter name of Aruṇadvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Aruṇasamudra (or simply Aruṇa), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.
Aruṇa is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
aruṇa : (m.) 1. the dawn; 2. ruddy colour. (adj.), reddish.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Aruṇa, (Vedic aruṇa (adj.) of the colour of fire, i.e. ruddy, nt. the dawn; of Idg. *ereu as in Sk. aruṣa reddish, Av. auruša white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. *reu as in Sk. rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etym. under rohita), Gr. e)rudrόs, Lat. ruber. ) the sun Vin. II, 68; IV, 245; J. II, 154; V, 403; VI, 330; Dpvs. I, 56; DA. I, 30. ‹-› a. uggacchati the sun rises J. I, 108; VvA. 75, & see cpds.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
aruṇa (अरुण).—m (S) The charioteer of Surya; hence, the dawn.
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aruṇa (अरुण).—a (S) Red.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
aruṇa (अरुण).—m The charioteer of sūrya. The dawn. a Red.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Aruṇa (अरुण).—a. (-ṇā, -ṇi f.) [ऋ-उनन् (ṛ-unan); cf. Uṇ.3.6]
1) Reddish brown, tawny, red, ruddy (of the colour of the morning as opposed to the darkness of night); प्रत्याख्यातविशेषकं कुरबकं श्यामावदातारुणम् (pratyākhyātaviśeṣakaṃ kurabakaṃ śyāmāvadātāruṇam) M.3.5; नयनान्यरुणानि घूर्णयन् (nayanānyaruṇāni ghūrṇayan) Ku.4.12.
2) Perplexed, embarrassed.
-ṇaḥ 1 Red colour, the colour of the dawn or morning twilight.
2) The dawn personified as the charioteer of the Sun; आविष्कृतारुणपुरःसर एकतोऽर्कः (āviṣkṛtāruṇapuraḥsara ekato'rkaḥ) Ś.4. 2,7.4; विभावरी यद्यरुणाय कल्पते (vibhāvarī yadyaruṇāya kalpate) Ku.5.44; R.5.71. [Aruṇa is represented as the elder brother of Garuḍa, being the son of Vinatā by Kaśyapa. Vinatā prematurely hatched the egg and the child was born without thighs, and hence he is called Anūru 'thighless', or Vipāda 'footless'. He cursed his mother that since she had brought him forth before the due season she would be a slave to her rival Kadrū; but at her earnest entreaties, he modified the curse and said that her next son would deliver her from bondage. Aruṇa now holds the office of the charioteer of the Sun. His wife was Śyenī, who bore him two sons Saṃpāti and Jaṭāyu.]
3) The Sun; रागेण बालारुणकोमलेन (rāgeṇa bālāruṇakomalena) Ku.3.3, 5.8; संसृज्यते सरसिजैररुणांशुभिन्नैः (saṃsṛjyate sarasijairaruṇāṃśubhinnaiḥ); R.5.69; S.1.31. अरुण- कररुचायतेऽन्तरीक्षे (aruṇa- kararucāyate'ntarīkṣe) Bu. Ch.5.87.
4) A kind of leprosy with red spots and insensibility of the skin.
5) A little poisonous creature Bhāg.8.1.1.
6) Name of a plant पुंनाग (puṃnāga); also a synonym of अर्क (arka) q. v.
7) Molasses (guḍa).
8) Name of a peak of the Himālaya situated to the west of Kailāsa.
9) Name of one of the 12 Ādityas, the one presiding over Maghā.
1) Name of a sage; उद्दालकोऽरुणात् (uddālako'ruṇāt) Bṛ. Up.6.5.3.
-ṇā 1 Name of several plants; (a) अतिविषा (ativiṣā) (Mar. ativikha); (b) Madder (mañjiṣṭhā); (c) त्रिवृत् (trivṛt) commonly called Teori; (d) a black kind of the same (śyāmākā); (e) bitter apple (indravāruṇī); (f) the Gunja plant that yields the red and black berry (guṃja) used as a weight by jewellers &c. (g) मुण्डतिक्ता (muṇḍatiktā) cf. अरुणः कपिले कुष्ठे सन्ध्यारागेऽर्कसारथौ । अव्यक्तरागे निःशब्दे द्रव्ये त्रिषु निरूपितः । स्त्रियामतिविषाश्यामामञ्जिष्ठात्रिवृतासु च (aruṇaḥ kapile kuṣṭhe sandhyārāge'rkasārathau | avyaktarāge niḥśabde dravye triṣu nirūpitaḥ | striyāmativiṣāśyāmāmañjiṣṭhātrivṛtāsu ca) | Nm.
2) Name of a river.
-ṇī 1 A red cow (Nir.).
2) The early dawn.
-ṇam 1 Red colour; दिविस्पृश्यात्यरुणानि कृण्वन् (divispṛśyātyaruṇāni kṛṇvan) Rv.1.168.1.
2) Gold; अम्भो अरुणं रजतम् (ambho aruṇaṃ rajatam) Av.13.4.51.
3) Saffron.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Aruṇa (अरुण).—name of a nāga king (note the nāga priest Aruṇa Āṭa in PBr, see [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2 g): Mahā-Māyūrī 246.19.
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Aruṇā (अरुणा).—name of a devakumārikā in the western quarter: Lalitavistara 390.5.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-gṇaḥ-gṇā-gṇaṃ) Healthy, well. E. a neg. rugṇa sick.
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(-ṇaḥ) 1. A name of the sun. 2. Also of his charioteer, or the dawn personified as the son of Kasyapa by Vinata. 3. The colour of the dawn, dark red, or the mixture of red and black. 4. Tawny, (the colour.) 5. The redness of sun-set. 6. A kind of leprosy, with red spots and insensibility of the skin. 7. A dumb man. 4. (ṇā) 1. A plant, (Betula.) See ativiṣā. 2. Mader, (Rubia manjit'h.) 3. Another plant, commonly Teori. See trivṛt. 4. A black kind of the same. 5. Colocynth or bitter apple. 6. The plant that yields the red and black berry from which the jeweller’s weight, the Retti, is derived. See guñjā. mfn.
(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Tawny, dark red, &c. E. ṛ to go, and unan Udadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aruṇa (अरुण).— (akin to arus, cf. aruṣa). I. adj., f. ṇā and ṇī, Tawny, dark red,
1) Aruṇa (अरुण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—grammarian. Quoted by Rāyamukuṭa, and in Kośakalpataru Peters. 2, 124. See Aruṇadatta.
2) Aruṇa (अरुण):—(?) and Kāṭhaka vaid. Hz. 691. 779.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+51): Arunababhru, Arunabala, Arunacala, Arunacalamahatmya, Arunacaleshvar, Arunacaleshvara, Arunachala, Arunachalam, Arunachaleshvara, Arunachuda, Arunacuda, Arunadati, Arunadatta, Arunadhikaranashikshana, Arunadhikaranavicara, Arunaditya, Arunadurva, Arunadvipa, Arunagiri, Arunagraja.
Ends with (+70): Adaruna, Adharuna, Adikaruna, Agnivaruna, Aindravaruna, Akaruna, Antharuna, Antharuna Pangharuna, Antharuna-pangharuna, Apakaruna, Astakaruna, Atidaruna, Atikaruna, Atinishkaruna, Avaruna, Balaruna, Ciraguta Pangharuna, Ciragutapangharuna, Corunamaruna, Dantaruna.
Full-text (+131): Aruṇi, Arunatmaja, Arunavaraja, Arunasarathi, Arunakamala, Arunagraja, Vinata, Arunaketubrahmana, Sampati, Asmana, Jatayu, Arunababhru, Arunaka, Arunajyotis, Vinatasunu, Rumra, Anuru, Arunarcis, Arunopala, Arunalocana.
Search found 46 books and stories containing Aruna, Aruṇa, Aruṇā, Āruṇa; (plurals include: Arunas, Aruṇas, Aruṇās, Āruṇas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 21 - Śiva Praises Pārvatī < [Section 3b - Arunācala-khaṇḍa (Uttarārdha)]
Chapter 6 - Expiatory Rites < [Section 3b - Arunācala-khaṇḍa (Uttarārdha)]
Chapter 7 - Holy Rites for Special Attainments < [Section 3b - Arunācala-khaṇḍa (Uttarārdha)]
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section XXIV < [Astika Parva]
Section XXXI < [Astika Parva]
Section LXV < [Sambhava Parva]
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 3 - Rivers and other water sources of Vārāṇasī < [Chapter V - Rise of Vārāṇasī as a Nodal Centre]
Katha Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary (by S. Sitarama Sastri)