Payas, Pāya, Paya, Pāyas, Payash: 21 definitions
Payas means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Payas (पयस्) refers to “milk”, as mentioned in verse 5.20-22 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] of sweet digestion and taste, unctuous, vitalizing, augmentative of the elements, eliminative of wind and choler, viriligenic, phlegmatogenic, heavy, (and) cooling as a rule (is) milk [viz., payas] [...]”.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Payas (पयस्) refers to “milk” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The dravyaguṇāguṇa section contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. The Payas foodstuff is mutually incompatible (viruddhāhāra) with the following: salt, raw vegetables such mūlaka (radish), Fish meat especially cilicima, grains like kulattha (horse-gram), varaka (wild kodo millet), kaṅgu (a kind of panic seed), valla (winnowing corn) and makuṣṭhaka (kidney beans).
Payas or “milk” is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., rasona (garlic)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., payas (milk)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Paya (पय):—Milk; Generally denotes Cowmilk; a synonym of kṣīra
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Payas (पयस्) refers to “milk” and represents one of the “five ambrosial ingredients” (Pañcāmṛta), used on special occasions for bathing śrī-guru or the deity), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Accordingly, while explaining mantras to sanctify the Pañcāmṛta Ingredients (pañcāmṛta-śodhana-mantras), for milk (payas):—“oṃ payaḥ pṛthivyāṃ paya oṣadhīṣu payo dīvyantarīkṣe payodhāḥ payasvatī pradiśaḥ santu mahyam”.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
paya : (m.; nt.) (mano-group), milk; water. || pāya (adj.) (in cpds.) abounding with.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pāya, (fr. pa+ā+yā) setting out, starting S. II, 218 (nava° newly setting out); Instr. pāyena (adv.) for the most part, commonly, usually J. V, 490; DA. I, 275 (so read for pāṭhena). (Page 454)
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Paya, (nt.) (Ved. payas, nt, of pī) milk, juice J. I, 204; VI, 572. (Page 417)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Paya (पय).—n S Milk. 2 Water.
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pāya (पाय).—m (pāda S) The foot. 2 The leg; the whole limb from the hip. 3 fig. The leg (of a couch, table &c.); the foot (of a mountain): the lower part of a writing-letter. 4 A fourth; but in this sense the Sanskrit words pāda & caraṇa are more common. 5 A round of a ladder. āpalē pāya mājhyā gharīṃ lāgāvē You must honor me with a visit. āpalyā pāyāṃvara dhōṇḍā pāḍūna ghēṇēṃ or ōḍhūna ghēṇēṃ To be the author of one's own trouble. ghōḍyācyā or hattīcyā pāyīṃ yēṇēṃ āṇi muṅgīcyā pāyīṃ jāṇēṃ To come swiftly but depart slowly;--used of sickness, trouble, adversity; and, with conversion of the clauses, of riches. cahuṃ pāyānnīṃ or dōhō pāyānnīṃ utaraṇēṃ To be born with the four legs or with two legs white--a colt or calf. jaḷatā pāya jāḷaṇēṃ To persist doggedly in an undertaking though ruin be apparent. tyā pāyīñca Instantly; at that moment. pāya ucalaṇēṃ To quicken one's step; to stretch out; to lift up one's legs. pāya utārā or ṛyāṃ āṇaṇēṃ or yēṇēṃ (To take down or to come down a peg, a notch, a step.) To humble or to be humbled. pāya kāḍhaṇēṃ To draw up and favor a lame leg. 2 To withdraw one's self from a business. pāya khōḍaṇēṃ To kick and toss about (as in dying); to sprawl: also to draw up the legs close (as in bed or lying). pāya ghēṇēṃ To feel an impulse to go; to take towards. Ex. tyā kā- mālā mājhā pāya ghēta nāhīṃ. pāya dharaṇēṃ. To go to for protection or support; to supplicate humbly. 2 g. of s. To have one's leg affected with rheumatism or cramp. pāya dhuūna or phuṅkūna ṭākaṇēṃ or ṭhēva- ṇēṃ To act with great circumspection and caution; to look before you leap. pāya na tharaṇēṃ g. of s. To be runabout, restless, inconstant. pāya pasaraṇēṃ To establish one's self freely and fully; to establish one's power far and wide. Pr. bhaṭṭāsa dilhī ōsarī bhaṭṭa pāya pasarī. pāya phāṃsaṭaṇēṃ (To scrub or wear away the feet.) To trudge or tramp. A phrase of anger. Ex. kāṃhīṃ lābha nasatāṃ ugīñca pāya phāṃsaṭīta cāra kōsa jātō kōṇa? pāya phōḍaṇēṃ To digress; to wander from the subject; to talk prolixly or diffusely. pāya bhuīśīṃ lāgaṇēṃ or pāya lāgaṇēṃ g. of s. To obtain a footing. pāya mōkaḷā karaṇēṃ To free one's self from embarrassments. 2 To take the exercise of walking; to stretch the legs. pāya mōḍaṇēṃ To get infirm or weak--the feet. 2 To dispirit or dishearten (from a project or undertaking): also to be dispirited. 3 To stop, mar, quash, quell, put down. pāya vaḷaṇēṃ g. of s. To be turned to another--the affections. pāya vāhaṇēṃ To feel an impulse to go; to take towards. pāya śivaṇēṃ g. of o. To swear by the feet of. (Because the swearing person holds himself as less than the meanest part of the other.) pāyācā gū pāyīṃ pusaṇēṃ Let not a dirty work rise and extend its dirtiness above, but dispose of it there and then. pāyāñcā jāḷa or pāyīñcī āga or pāyāñcēṃ pitta mastakāsa jāṇēṃ To be filled with fury; to be all in a blaze. pāyāñcā mōcā &c. See pāyāñcī vāhaṇa &c. pāyāñcī dhūḷa mājhyā gharīṃ jhāḍāvī A polite way of asking one to call. pāṃyācī vaḷa bhāgaviṇēṃ To go on a fruitless errand. pāyāñcī vāhaṇa pāyāntaca barī (ḍōkīvara caḍhavūṃ nayē) Low or mean (things or persons) are well enough in their own places. pāyāñjavaḷa yēṇēṃ g. of o. In humble or reverential phraseology. To call upon; to come to. pāyānnēṃ jēvaṇēṃ or khāṇēṃ (To eat with one's foot, instead of the hand.) To be idiotic or grossly foolish. pāyāṃ paḍaṇēṃ g. of o. To supplicate or implore humbly and earnestly: also, generally, to request or solicit. pāyāmpāśīṃ pāhaṇēṃ To look only at the near side or part; to be nearsighted. pāyālā or pāyānta aḍhī paḍaṇēṃ To have one leg crossing the other. An indication in man or horse of old age or of debility. pāyāṃlā khuṇṭyā yēṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's legs stiff from sitting. pāyāṃvara kutrīṃ māñjarēṃ ghālaṇēṃ g. of o. To beseech (a person to rise and do the matter desired) with many entreaties and much earnestness. pāyāvara pāya ṭākūna nijaṇēṃ To sleep or lie in lordly ease or unconcern. pāyāṃvara pāya dēṇēṃ To follow close upon the heels of. pāyāvara bhōvarā paḍaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ g. of s. To become or be very roving or restless. pāyāśīṃ pāya bāndhūna basaṇēṃ To dun unintermittingly. pāyāṃsa kutrēṃ bāndhaṇēṃ To be very abusive. pāyāṃsa bhiṅgarī or bhōṃvarā asaṇēṃ g. of s. To be of a roving disposition; be a gadabout or runabout. pāyāṃsa vāhaṇa bāndhaṇēṃ or bāndhalēlā asaṇēṃ To be ever on the tramp; to be a gadabout. pāyīṃ On foot, afoot. 2 On account of; on the foot (or head) of; on the ground of, or for the sake of. pāyīṃ bāndhaṇēṃ (To tie to the foot of, as of an elephant.) To be ready to overcome. pāyīṃ buḍaviṇēṃ g. of o. To lay at one's feet; to sacrifice, devote, give up for or unto. Ex. tumacyā pāyīṃ myāṃ sarvasva buḍavilēṃ. bharalyā pāyāñcā Of whom the feet are yet dusty or dirty from the road. Ex. tū bharalyā pāyāñcā gharānta yēūṃ nakō. bhara- lyā pāyānnīṃ or pāyīṃ bharalēṃ With feet yet foul (unwashed or unwiped) from the road. Ex. mulācyā jēvaṇācyā vēḷēsa kōṇhī pāyīṃ bharalēṃ ālēṃ mhaṇūna āja hēṃ mūla jēvīta nāhīṃ; jyā gharīṃ bāḷantīṇa āhē tyānta ēkāēkīṃ pāyīṃ bharalēṃ jāūṃ nayē. Note. Demoniac visitation is apprehended through this misdemeanour of entering with foul feet. māgalā pāya puḍhēṃ na ghālūṃ dēṇēṃ To debar from stirring or budging a step (until compliance is yielded); to require it there and then. māgalā pāya puḍhēṃ na ṭhēvaṇēṃ To refuse to stir a step (without obtaining one's demand). māgīla pāya puḍhēṃ nāhīṃ puḍhīla pāya māgēṃ nāhīṃ Expresses firmness and stauchness; but, generally, doggedness or obstinacy. māgalyā pāyīṃ At the second foot; on the advance of the hinder foot; i. e. quickly or soon--returning from an errand. v yē.
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pāyā (पाया).—m (pāya) A foundation or basis, lit. fig. (of a building, business, work). v ghāla, paḍa. 2 The bottom or foot of a hill. 3 In surveying &c. Base.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Paya (पय).—n Milk. Water.
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pāya (पाय).—m The foot. The leg. The leg (of a couch, table &c.) The foot (of a mountain). A round of a ladder. āpalē pāya mājhyā gharīṃ lāgāvē You must honour me with a visit. āpalyā pāyāṃvara dhōṇḍā pāḍūna ghēṇēṃ or ōḍhūna ghēṇēṃ To be the author of one's own trouble. ghōḍyācyā or hattīcyā pāyī yēṇēṃ āṇi muṅgīcyā pāyī jāṇēṃ To come swiftly but depart slowly. jaḷatā pāya jāḷaṇēṃ To persist doggedly in an under- taking though ruin be apparent. tyā pāyīñca Instantly; at that moment. pāya ucalaṇēṃ To quicken one's step. pāya utārā or ṛyā āṇaṇēṃ or yēṇēṃ To humble or to be humbled. pāya utārā hōṇēṃ To get down from horseback (in battle). pāya kāḍhaṇēṃ To withdraw one's self from a busi- ness. pāya ghēṇēṃ To feel an impulse to go; Ex. tyā kāmālā mājhā pāya ghēta nāhīṃ. pāya dharaṇēṃ To supplicate humbly. To have one's leg affected with rhen- matism or cramp. pāya dhuūna or phuṅkūna ṭākaṇēṃ or ṭhēvaṇēṃ To act with great circum- spection and caution; to look before you leap. pāya na ṭharaṇēṃ To be runabout, restless, inconstant. pāya pasaraṇēṃ To esta- blish one's self freely and fully. Ex. bhaṭṭāsa dilī ōsarī bhaṭṭa hāta pāya pasarī. pāya phō ḍaṇēṃ To digress. pāya bhuīlā lāgaṇēṃ or pāya lāgaṇēṃ To obtain a footing. pāya mōkaḷā karaṇēṃ To free one's self from embarrass- ments. To take the exercise of walk- ing. pāya mōḍaṇēṃ To get infirm or weak- the feet. To disspirit or dishearten (from a project or undertaking). To be disspirited. pāya vaḷaṇēṃ To be seized with cramps in the feet. pāya vāhaṇēṃ To feel an impulse to go. pāya śivaṇēṃ To swear by the feet of. pāyāñcā jāḷa or pāyīñcī āga or pāyāñcē pitta mastakānta jāṇēṃ To be filled with fury; to be all in a blaze. pāyācī dhūḷa mājhyā gharīṃ jhāḍāvī A polite way of asking one to call. pāyāñcī vaḷa bhāga viṇēṃ To go on a fruitless errand. pāyāñcī vahāṇa pāyāntaca barī (ḍōkīvara caḍhavūṃ nayēṃ) Low or mean (things or person) are well enough in their own places. pāyāñjavaḷa yēṇēṃ To call upon. pāyāṃ paḍaṇēṃ To suppli- cate humbly and earnestly. To request. pāyāmpāśīṃ pāhaṇēṃ To be near. pāyāṃvara pāya ṭākūna nijaṇēṃ To sleep or lie in lord- ly ease or unconcern. pāyāṃvara pāya dēṇēṃ To follow close upon the heels of. pāyāṃvara bhōṃvarā paḍaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ To become or be very roving or restless. pāyāśīṃ pāya bāndhūna basaṇēṃ To dun unintermittingly. pāyāṃsa bhiṅgarī or bhōṃvarā asaṇēṃ To be of a roving disposition; pāyāṃsa vāhaṇa bāndhaṇēṃ or bāndhalēlā asaṇēṃ To be ever on the tramp. pāyīṃ On foot, afoot. On account of, on the ground of. bharalyā pāyāñcā, bharalyā pāyānnīṃ or pāyīṃ bharalēṃ With feet yet foul (unwashed or unwiped) from the road. māgalā pāya puḍhēṃ na ghālūṃ dēṇēṃ To debar from stirring or budging a step (un- til compliance is yielded); to require it there and then. māgalā pāya puḍhēṃ na ṭhēvaṇēṃ To refuse to stir a step (with- out obtaining one's demand). māgīḷa pāya puḍhēṃ nāhīṃ puḍhīla pāya māgēṃ nāhīṃ Firmness. Doggedness or obstinacy. māgalyā pāyī At the second foot; on the advance of the hinder foot; i. e. quickly or soon-returning from an errand. v. yēṃ.
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pāyā (पाया).—m A foundation or basis. The bottom or foot of a hill. Base.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Water; Bhāg.8.2.4; पयसा कमलं कमलेन पयः पयसा कमलेन विभाति सरः (payasā kamalaṃ kamalena payaḥ payasā kamalena vibhāti saraḥ).
2) Milk; पयःपानं भुजङ्गानां केवलं विषवर्धनम् (payaḥpānaṃ bhujaṅgānāṃ kevalaṃ viṣavardhanam) H.3.4; R.2.36,63;14,78 (where both senses are intended).
3) Semen virile.
5) Ved. Night.
6) Vital spirit, power, strength (Ved). (payas is changed to payo before soft consonants).
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Pāyas (पायस्).—a. (-sī f.) [पयसो विकारः अण् (payaso vikāraḥ aṇ)] Made of water or milk.
-saḥ, -sam 1 Rice boiled in milk with sugar; Ms.3.271; 5.7; Y.1.173; अतप्ततण्डुलो धौतः परिमृष्टो घृतेन च । खण्डयुक्तेन दुग्धेन पाचितः पायसो भवेत् (ataptataṇḍulo dhautaḥ parimṛṣṭo ghṛtena ca | khaṇḍayuktena dugdhena pācitaḥ pāyaso bhavet) || Pākarājeśvara.
3) An oblation of milk. rice, and sugar.
-sam 1 Milk.
2) Ambrosia, nectar.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Derivable forms: pāyam (पायम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Pāya (पाय).—(-pāya), adj. (Māhārāṣṭrī id. defined as subst. m., act of drinking) in pānīya-p°, with implication of purpose (so in pāyaka 1, q.v.), drinking (in order to drink) water: (yo) tatroda- kahrade otarati pānīyapāyo mṛgo va…Mahāvastu iii.29.12; similarly 13; 30.1; 31.8.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaḥ) 1. Water. 2. Milk. 3. Semen virile. 4. Boiled-rice. 5. Night. E. pay to go, asun Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-yaṃ) Water. E. pā to drink, ac aff. and yuk augment.
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Pāya (पाय) or Pāyya.—mfn.
(-yaḥ-yā-yaṃ) Low, vile, reprehensible, contemptible. n.
(-yaṃ) 1. Measure. 2. Water. 3. Drinking. 4. Practice, profession. E. pā to drink, ṇyat aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Payas (पयस्).— (akin to 1. pā, cf. also pī), n. 1. Juice. 2. Water, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 29. 3. Milk, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 107.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Payas (पयस्).—[neuter] juice, fluid, [especially] water or milk; semen virile, strength, vital power; [plural] drops, floods, streams.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Paya (पय):—1. paya See kat-paya.
2) 2. paya in [compound] for yas.
3) Payaś (पयश्):—[from paya] in [compound] for yas.
4) Payas (पयस्):—[from paya] n. (√1. pī) any fluid or juice, ([especially]) milk, water, rain
5) [v.s. ...] semen virile, (met.) vital spirit, power, strength, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
6) [v.s. ...] a species of Andropogon, [Bhāvaprakāśa]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of a Sāman, [???]
8) [v.s. ...] of a Virāj, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]
9) [v.s. ...] night, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 7.]
10) Pāya (पाय):—n. (√1. pā) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Payas (पयस्):—(yaḥ) 5. n. Water; milk.
2) Pāya (पाय):—(yaṃ) 1. n. Water.
3) (yyaṃ) 1. n. Measure; water; drinking; practice. a. Contemptible.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Paya (पय):—s. katpaya .
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Pāya (पाय):—(von 1. pā) n. Wasser [ŚABDĀRTHAK.] bei [Wilson’s Wörterbuch]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Payas (पयस्):—n. —
1) Saft , Flüssigkeit , Feuchtigkeit. —
2) Lebenssaft , Kraft. —
3) Milch. —
4) Wasser , Regen. —
5) der männliche Same —
6) eine Art Andropogon [Bhāvaprakāśa 3,101.] —
7) Name eines Sāman. —
8) eine best. Virāj —
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Pāya (पाय):—n. Wasser.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+49): Payahkama, Payahkamsa, Payahkamya, Payahkara, Payahkarni, Payahkumbha, Payahkusha, Payahpa, Payahpati, Payahpatra, Payahpindaraka, Payahpura, Payahsnana, Payasa, Payasadagdha, Payasadayaka, Payasanna, Payasapindaraka, Payasapupa, Payashcaya.
Full-text (+337): Payorashi, Payoda, Payodhas, Payasvala, Payoghana, Payodhi, Payonidhi, Payashcaya, Payojanman, Payomuc, Gharmapayas, Payaska, Payasa, Payasvin, Payaspa, Payasvini, Apapayas, Payoraya, Payahkusha, Payahkama.
Search found 16 books and stories containing Payas, Pāya, Paya, Pāyā, Pāyas, Payaś, Payash; (plurals include: Payases, Pāyas, Payas, Pāyās, Pāyases, Payaśs, Payashs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 11.132 < [Section XV - Expiation for the killing of Cats and other Animals]
Verse 11.147 < [Section XVII - Expiation for the Sin of taking Forbidden Food]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 42 - Caṇḍīśa < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 40 - Bath, charity and śrāddha at Cakratīrtha during the month of Kārtika < [Section 4 - Dvārakā-māhātmya]
Chapter 54 - The Greatness of Nīlagaṅgā < [Section 1 - Avantīkṣetra-māhātmya]
Harivamsha Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter 26 - An Account of Pirthu and the Churning of the Ocean < [Book 3 - Bhavishya Parva]
Apastamba-yajna-paribhasa-sutras (by Hermann Oldenberg)
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa I, adhyāya 6, brāhmaṇa 4 < [First Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa XII, adhyāya 8, brāhmaṇa 2 < [Twelfth Kāṇḍa]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)