Padma, Padmā, Pādma: 80 definitions


Padma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Padm.

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Padma (पद्म) refers to members of the moulding of a pedestal (pīṭha), used in the construction of liṅgas. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Padma (पद्म, ‘lotus’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi

By reproducing from its own matrix rather than the soil the lotus is a symbol of spontaneous generation (Svāyambhu). It grows in mud but rises in immaculate purity to the surface and opens to the sun—the evolution begins in the mire of Samsāra but rises to full enlightenment and purity. The lotus is the quintessential symbol of purity and enlightenment. The closed lotus is a symbol of potential and the open the symbol of actualization.

Lakṣmī is usually depicted seated upon a lotus—representing the enlightened and pure mind. Her two lower hands are held in the gesture of fearlessness (Abhayā) granting freedom for fear and suffering to all beings, and the gesture of generosity (Varadā).

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity

The lotus (Padma) in Viṣṇu’s lower right hand represents the manifested universe, the flower that unfolds in all its glory from the formless and infinite waters of causality. It also represents purity on mind, body and speech.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

1) Padma (पद्म, “lotus”).—The pure and unsullied lotus arising from the depth of the waters and far from the banks of the lake is associated with the idea of purity which arises from the law-of-conduct (dharma) and wisdom (jñāna). The Lotus is also symbolic of the enlightened mind. It rises in the mud of material existence gradually growing through the waters until it reaches the surface and then opens up to the sun in all its glory. Water splashed upon a lotus leaf never remains but immediately slips off. In the same way the dirt of worldliness never stains the enlightened being.

2) Padma (Lotus) - By reproducing from its own matrix rather than the soil the lotus is a symbol of spontaneous generation (Svāyambhu). It grows in mud but rises in immaculate purity to the surface and opens to the sun - the evolution begins in the mire of Samsāra but rises to full enlightenment and purity. The closed lotus symbolizes potential and the open lotus — actualization.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Padma (पद्म, “lotus”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. Flowers, such as the padma, (lotus), and the nīlotpala, (the blue lily) are to be generally seen in the hands of the images of goddesses especially in the hands of goddesses Lakṣmī and Bhūmīdevī.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the various attributes (āyudha) of divine icons, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The four attributes viz., śaṅkha, cakra, gadā and padma are very essential in the Pāñcarātra mode of worship. As per Vihagendrasaṃhitā (2.25b-26a), the four attributes i.e., padma, cakra, gadā and śaṅkha signify the creation (sṛṣṭi). sustenance (sthiti), dissolution (laya) and eternal liberation (mokṣa) respectively.

Sātvatasaṃhitā (13.10b-11a) informs that the personified form of lotus has avadhāta complexion like jasmine, and he has the gentle and smiling face; and he sings sweet sound pleasant to ear.

Pādmasaṃhitā (Kriyāpāda 20.78b) states that, in abhaya-mudrā, a lotus with stem should be present between aṅguṣṭha and tarjanī. Nāradīyasaṃhitā (13.180b-181a) tales the same but the lotus should be facing upward. Obviously, this Saṃhitā pecifies both abhaya and lotus together to accommodate both the concepts, i.e., abhayamudrā for fearlessness and padma which is mandatory in Pāñcarātra concept. According to Pāñcarātra concept, śaṅkha and cakra are held in upper hands, gadā is held in the lower left hand and another important attribute padma is to be held in the lower right hand. [...] Moreover, Pādmasaṃhitā (Kriyāpāda 20.79a) uniquely prescribes that a lotus should be drawn on the palm of varada-mudrā.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Padma (पद्म) refers to “lotus” and  follows specific guidelines of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa also, different kinds of eyes and their particular shapes are elaborately discussed in the context of Painting. The forth variety of eye should be in the shape of padma-patra i.e., petal of lotus flower and the size should be nine yavas.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Padma (पद्म) or Padmamudrā is the name of a mudrā described in the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.30.—Accordingly, “the two thumbs are to be closely joined with the other fingers remaining apart. This is pādmī (padma) mudrā offering nourishment and prosperity”. Mūdra (eg., Padma-mudrā) is so called as it gives joy to the tattvas in the form of karman for those who offer spotless worship, drive out the defects which move about within and without and sealing up of what is done.

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Padma (पद्म) and Śaṅkha are the two treasures (nidhis) which dharma bears. These are intended to help those people who pursue the right course conduct in order that the pursuits (kāma and artha) would have been fruitfully taken up by them. Kāma means desires in life. Artha means wealth or economic condition. Money is required to pursue these. The two measures Śaṅkha and Padma are thus helpful for them in pursuing these goals. The Viṣvaksena-aṃhitā (XX 87-88) mentions conch, discus and yellow cloth while describing dharma.

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama

The Lotus (Padma):—The lotus represents the manifested universe, the flower that unfolds in all its glory from the formless and infinite waters of causality. The pure and unsullied lotus arising from the depth of the waters and far from the shore is associated with the idea of purity and with sattva which arises from the law-of-conduct (dharma) and knowledge (jñāna). The Lotus is also symbolic of the enlightened mind. It rises in the mud of material existence gradually growing through the waters until it reaches the surface and then opens up to the sun in all its glory. Water splashed upon a lotus leaf never remains but immediately slips off. In the same way the dirt of worldliness ne ver stain the enlightened being.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)

Padma (पद्म) or Padmasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a sāttvika type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika (e.g., Padma-saṃhitā). b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the eight Divine Serpents visualized as the decorations (nāgābharaṇa) of Garuḍa, according to the second chapter of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā (Toxicology).—Accordingly, text text dictates that a Garuḍa-upāsaka, the aspirant, must meditate on Garuḍa of the following form—[...] He shines with his head adorned with a crown, bedecked with jewels, handsome in every limb, with tawny eyes and tremendous speed, shining like gold, long-armed, broad-shouldered and adorned with the eight divine serpents or Nāgas [e.g., Padma form his right earrings]. Padma and Mahāpadma form his right and left earrings.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

1) Padmā (पद्मा, “Lotus”):—One of the female offspring from Mahālakṣmī (rajas-form of Mahādevī). Mahālakṣmī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahākālī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Lakṣmī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named rajas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

2) Padma (पद्म, “lotus”).—One of the symbols that Lakṣmī is depicted as sitting upon. It represents spontaneous generation (svāyambhu), but also symbolizes purity and enlightenment. Lakṣmī is the Hindu Goddess of fortune.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Padma (पद्म) (or Padmamudrā) is the name of the gesture (mudrā) associated with Pūrṇagiri, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: Although not all the mantras uttered in the course of a ritual are accompanied by a corresponding gesture, many are, and so are commonly formed (baddha lit. ‘bound’) in quick succession. In this context, the gestures [i.e., padma] are, like the other constituents of the seats, channels through which the deity's energy flows and operates. The goddess, as pure spiritual energy, is herself Mudrā—Gesture.

2) Padma (पद्म) also refers to one of the Siddhas of the Tradition of the Eastern House (pūrvagṛha-āmnāya), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Padmā (पद्मा) is the name of a Goddess, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I honour Padmā, [beautiful and tender like] a lotus plant. Her eyes are lotus-like and she dwells in a bed of lotuses. Her four arms look splendid with two lotuses [in two hands] and the gestures of grace and safety [in two others]. May the virgin Goddess Durgā annihilate my hardships, I pray. Her hands are marked by the conch and discus. She has curly locks and rides [a lion,] the king of wild animals. [...]

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Padma (पद्म) is a Sanskrit word referring to Nelumbo nucifera, a species of aquatic plant from the Nelumbonaceae (lotus) family of flowering plants. Common English names include “Indian lotus”, “sacred lotus”, “bean of India” or simply “Lotus”. Certain plant parts of Plakṣa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. It is a large aquatic plant with large round leaves up to 90cm in diameter. The flowers are large and fragrant with a pink or reddish colour. Its grows all over India in ponds up to 1800m elevation.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th-century Ayurvedic work), this plant (Padma) is also as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter. In this work, the plant is referred to as Mṛṇālīn.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Padma (पद्म) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning padma] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Padma (पद्म) (lit. “one who has red or coloured marks on the face or trunk of an elephant”) is a synonym (another name) for the Elephant (Gaja), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Padma (पद्म) (or Abja) refers to “snakes with the body marked by lotus; moves tail” and represents a classification of Divine Snakes, as taught in the Nāganāman (“names of the Sarpas”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The first aspect of the Agadatantra is about the names of the sarpas and their features. The Kāśyapasaṃhitā verse IV.6-19 provide information on divine serpents [e.g., Padma], their characterstic features, origin and other details.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Padma (पद्म) (identified with Nelumbo nucifera) is the subject of certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “[...] The same (i.e the seed of Nymphaea caerulea) if wrapped in python’s skin, sown in a land full of mud stinking with rotten lotus seeds and then nourished with flesh water grows into a forest of Nelumbo nucifera [e.g., Padma]”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the eight primordial snakes, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). This is followed by a brief description of the origin of snakes. A mythological story is narrated in this context. It is said that in the beginning, there were only 8 snakes, Ananta, Gulika, Vāsuki, Śaṅkhapālaka, Takṣaka, Mahāpadma, Padma and Karkoṭaka and that all other snakes originated from these.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Pandanus Database of Plants: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

This is a classical plant amongst the Hindus and the Egyptians. The world at its creation is likened to a Lotus flower floating on water. Om! mani padme. Om! The pearl of creation is in Lotus. It is emblematic of the heavens, Brahma is supposed to reside on a Lotus flower in a sea of milk, and to sleep six months of the year, and watch the other six months; an allusion to the seasons in which Brahma represents the Sun.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Padma (पद्म) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Kailāśa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Kailāśa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Padma) that are to be globular shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Padma is mentioned in another list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, being part of the group named Lalita, containing 25 unique temple varieties.

Padma is mentioned in another list of 40 temples, in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 57, where it is mentioned as one of the five temples being a favorite of Brahmā.

Padma is also mentioned as a classification of ‘temple’ in the Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. In the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, the name for this temple category is Padmaka. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Padma is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Kailāśa, featuring circular-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Padma (पद्म) refers to “doucine (molding) §§ 3.9, 11, 19, 31.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Padma (पद्म).—A serpent born to sage Kaśyapa of his wife Kadrū. (Śloka 10, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva).

2) Padma (पद्म).—A King. This King shines in the court of Yama. (Śloka 39, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva).

3) Padma (पद्म).—A soldier of Subrahmaṇya. (Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

4) Padma (पद्म).—A nidhi (treasure). This nidhi belongs to Kubera. (Śloka 39, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva). Śaṅkhanidhi, Padmanidhi and a Puṣpakavimāna were presented to Kubera by Brahmā. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Padma (पद्म) refers to the lotus and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The lotus is also called by the names Kamala, Jalaja (verse 45), Nīlanalina and Nīlotpala (verse 62 and 339), Jātī (verse 429), Irā (verse 673-675ff.) and Kunda (verse 495).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Padmā (पद्मा) is the daughter of king Anaraṇya, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.34 (“The Story of Anaraṇya”).—Accordingly, as Vasiṣṭha said to Himavat (Himācala): “The king Anaraṇya hailed from the race of the fourteenth Manu Indrasāvarṇi. O Himavat, hundred sons were born to him and a beautiful daughter Padmā who was equal to Lakṣmī. O excellent mountain, he was more fond of his daughter than of his hundred sons. He had five queens who were endowed with great qualities and fortunes and were loved by him over and above his life. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Padma (पद्म).—A Yakṣa; a son of Puṇyajanī and Maṇibhadra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 124; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 155.

1b) The name of the 7th kalpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 12.

1c) A son of Bhadra; gave birth to eight kinds of elephants;1 vehicle of Ailavila.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 213, 217.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 329. 331.

1d) The forest of Padma between the Lauhitya and the Sindhu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 358.

1e) A Nāga (serpent) chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 20. 53.

1f) Brahmā; a thousand leafed lotus came out of the navel of the Lord on the eve of the creation of the universe; it resembled the earth in form; in it were found all the countries, mountains, peoples, etc.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 1; 168. 15; 169. 3 to 18.

1g) 1000 billions; ten times the śanku.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 23. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 101.

1h) One of the eight nidhis of Kubera.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 10.

2a) Padmā (पद्मा).—A name of Śrī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 47. 13; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 24.

2b) One of the ten pīṭhas for images; with sixteen corners, a little short at the bottom; gives one good luck (saubhāgya).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 262. 7, 16, 18.

3a) Pādma (पाद्म).—A name of Brahmā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 18. 19.

3b) A mahākalpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 164. 4.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Padma (पद्म) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.35.10, II.9.8, V.101.13/V.103, IX.44.52) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Padma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Padma is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Padma].

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Padma (पद्म) or Padmaka refers to 1) a “lotus”, 2) “red dots on the face or trunk of an elephant”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 2.9.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Kathā

Padma (पद्म).—One of the eight kulas (‘families’) of nāgas mentioned by Soḍḍhala in his Udayasundarīkathā. Padma, and other nāgas, reside in pātāla (the nether world) and can assume different forms at will. Their movement is unobstructed in the all the worlds and they appear beautiful, divine and strong.

The Udayasundarīkathā is a Sanskrit work in the campū style, narrating the story of the Nāga princess Udayasundarī and Malayavāhana, king of Pratiṣṭhāna. Soḍḍhala is a descendant of Kalāditya (Śilāditya’s brother) whom he praises as an incarnation of a gaṇa (an attendant of Śiva).

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Padma (पद्म, “lotus”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the white (sita) and the red (rakta) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā

Padmā (पद्मा) refers to the twentieth of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (e.g., Padmā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Padma (पद्म) refers to “lotus”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Padma (पद्म) refers to:—Lotus. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Padma (पद्म) or Padmāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Svāyambhuvāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Padma Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Svāyambhuva-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the various Devatā weapons and represents a type of “temple implement (instrument)” as described in the Karaṇalakṣaṇavidhi-paṭala section of the Uttara-Kāmikāgama.—The instruments should be according to the particular śāstra followed at the temple. Some of the instruments mentioned are weapons of all Devatās including [viz., padma].

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the various leaves and flowers used in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Padma][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

1) Padma (पद्म) refers to a “lotus”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.17-19]—“The pure-souled Ācārya should draw an eight petaled lotus (padmapadmam aṣṭadalaṃ kṛtvā), in smooth, pure earth [that is] smeared with sandal and aloe wood [and] scented [with] fragrant camphor and strong saffron. After he has drawn [the lotus] with a great undertaking, [the Ācarya,] decorated and adorned with a crown, smeared with sandalwood, [writes] the mātṛkā. Having placed oṃ in the middle [on the pericarp of the lotus], he should draw [the phonemes of the mātṛkā on the petals] starting in the East”.

2) Padma (पद्म) refers to a “lotus” (in a dream), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.8-13, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[...] [It is auspicious when one dreams of] a pill, wood for cleaning the teeth, yellow pigment on a sword or sandal, sacred thread, ointment, nectar, mercury, medicinal herbs, śakti, a water jar, lotus (padma), rosary, red arsenic or blazing objects of siddhas, which have red chalk as their ends. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Padma (पद्म) or Padmaketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Padma Ketu is a comet white like the stem of the lotus. If it appears only for a night, there will be joy and happiness in the land for 7 years. Āvarta Ketu is a comet of red colour; it appears in the west at mid-night with its tail pointing to the south and it is glossy. There will be happiness in the land for as many months as the number of kṣaṇas (four minutes) for which it continues to be visible”.

2) Padma (पद्म) or Padmagiri refers to a mountain (range) belonging to “Pūrvā or Pūrvadeśa (eastern division)” classified under the constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Ārdrā, Punarvasu and Puṣya represent the eastern division consisting of [i.e., Padma] [...]”.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Padma (पद्म) refers to a “hundred trillion” (100,000,000,000,000) in various lists of numeral denominations, according to gaṇita (“science of calculation”) and Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—We can definitely say that from the very earliest known times, ten has formed the basis of numeration in India. While the Greeks had no terminology for denominations above the myriad (104), and the Romans above the milk (103), the ancient Hindus dealt freely with no less than eighteen denominations [e.g., padma]. Cf. Yajurveda-saṃhitā (Vājasanyī) XVII.2;  Taittirīya-saṃhitā IV.40.11, VII.2.20.1; Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā II.8.14; Kāṭhaka-saṃhitā XVII.10, XXXIX.6; Anuyogadvāra-sūtra 142; Āryabhaṭīya II.2; Triśatikā R.2-3; Gaṇitasārasaṃgraha I.63-68.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Mantrashastra (the science of Mantras)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (mantra)

Padma (पद्म, “lotus”) or Padmamudrā refers to one of the Pañcamudrās (“five mudrās or signs”), according to the Śeṣa-samhitā (p.26, mudrāvidhi).—Mantras refers to “that which is chanted by people to obtain their spiritual aspirations”. Mantras must be accompanied by the prescribed mudrās or signs. Mudrā is the position of the hand and finger indicative of various moods and sentiments, and accelerate the effectiveness of the accompanying mantras. The Śeṣasamhitā states that the five Mudrās [e.g., lotus (padma-mudrā)] yield the four puruṣārthas when displayed in the middle and end of a japa.

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Mantrashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, mantraśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mantras—chants, incantations, spells, magical hymns, etc. Mantra Sastra literature includes many ancient books dealing with the methods reciting mantras, identifying and purifying its defects and the science behind uttering or chanting syllables.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Flowers of Consciousness in Tantric Texts

The lotus flower, and the word itself are considered to have a special meaning in Tantras. In India the lotus flower has a symbolic meaning, representing two main aspectrs, exoteric and esoteric. The first is creation itself. The Madhya, or center of the lotus, represents the Knower, the Self. When the yogin merges his senses and thought in the center of the ineer space of the lotus of the heart, he is pacified since he has broken his links to the external world. In the bhāvopahāra of Cakrapāṇinātha, a śaiva hymn is written by a Trika author of the 12th cent. A.D., the lotus is identified with the supreme Consciousness itself, with Śiva.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Padma (पद्म, “lotuses”) are of three kinds according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “there are three kinds of lotuses (padma), human lotuses, divine lotuses and Bodhisattva lotuses. The human lotus is a big lotus with ten petals (pattra), the divine lotus has a hundred and the Bodhisattva lotus has a thousand”.

2) Padma (पद्म) is the name of the universe of the nadir (adhas) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “In the region of the nadir (adhas), beyond universes as numerous as the sands of the Ganges and at the extreme limit of these universes, there is the universe called Houa (Padma); its Buddha is called Houa tö (Padmaśrī) and its Bodhisattva Houa chang (Padmottara)”.

Note: This universe is called Chan “Good” in the Chinese text, but Padmā “Lotus” (Chin. Houa) in the original Sanskrit of the Pañcaviṃśati. This last reading is the proper one (note that the names of all the universes are feminine; this is why Padmā ends with ‘ā’).

3) Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the “eight hells of cold water” forming part of the sixteen utsadas (secondary hells) sitauted outside of the eight great hells, according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “the shape of the Padma hell is like a red lotus”.

Note: According to the Kośa, III, p. 154, Utpala and Padma indicate the shape taken by the damned: they are like a blue or red lotus. According to the Chinese sources studied by Beal, Catena, p. 63, the inmates of Utpala and Padma are covered with spots resembling blue and red lotuses respectively.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Padma (पद्म) (in Chinese: Po-t'eou-mo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Anurādhā or Anurādhānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Anurādhā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Padma] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Padma (पद्म) refers to a “lotus (from a river)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī: “[...] That Kāyabandhana universe was, son of good family, thriving, prosperous, safe, well-provided, filled with a great multitude of men, adorned with seven precious jewels, peaceful and delightful, pleasant to touch like a soft cloth, displayed by the lotus of gold from the Jāmbū river (jāmbū-nada-padma), decorated with all kinds of luminous jewels, patterned like a chess-board, and even like the palm of the hand. Just like the enjoyment and entertainment of the Paranirmitavaśavartin gods, all the people in that universe, staying in celestial palace and pavilions, enjoyed food and drink as they wished”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Padma (पद्म) refers to “lotuses” (covering the lotus-lake near Aḍakavatī), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] That lotus lake was covered by various blue lotuses, lotuses (padma), white water-lilies and white lotuses. It contained various fish, Makaras, Timiṅgilas, alligators, bees and various other water-born beings. [...]”

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Padma (पद्म) is the name of a Nāga mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Padma).

Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini

Padma (पद्म).—Serpent deity (nāga) of the southern cremation ground.—The Śmaśānavidhi 11 states that Padma is white and has on his hood speckles of sea-water. He supplicates his teacher in the usual manner with the añjali.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Padma (पद्म) is the name of a serpent (nāga) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These nāga-kings (e.g., Padma) are variously known as nāgarāja, nāgeśa, nāgendra and bhujageśa and are depicted as wearing white ornaments according to Lūyīpāda’s Śmaśānavidhi. They have human tosos above their coiled snaketails and raised hoods above their heads. They each have their own color assigned and they bear a mark upon their raised hoods. They all make obeisance to the dikpati (protector) who is before them and are seated beneath the tree (vṛkṣa).

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the eight serpent king (nāgendra) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Padma is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Vibhīṣaṇa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Cūta; with the direction-guardians (dikpāla) named Yama and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Āvarta.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Padma (पद्म) refers to the “red-lotus hell” and represents one of the “eight cold hells” (śīta-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 122). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., padma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

One of the Eight Auspicious Symbols

The lotus flower (Sanskrit: Padma), representing primordial purity (Tibetan: ka dag) of body, speech, and mind, floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire; represents the full blossoming of wholesome deeds in blissful liberation.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Padmā (पद्मा) is the mother of Munisuvratanātha, the twentieth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow. She is also known as Padmāvatī.

The husband of Padmā is Sumitra. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

2) Padmā (पद्मा).—Name of a lake situated on top of the Haimavat mountain range. There are seven such mountain ranges (or, varṣadharaparvatas) located in Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Padma has at its centre a large padmahrada (lotus-island), which is home to the Goddess Śrī. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

3) Padma (पद्म) is the name of the eighth Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara, while the Digambara tradition mentions him as the ninth Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The mother of Padma is known by the name Aparājitā according to the Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, and their stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

The nine Baladevas (such as Padma) are also known as Balabhadra and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Baladeva is described as follows: their body is of a white complexion, they wear a blue-black robe, and the mark of the palm-tree (tāla) is seen on their banners.

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Padma (पद्म) refers to the “lotus”: a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

The flowers (e.g., Padma) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Padma (पद्म), the son of Jvālā and Padmottara, is one of the Cakrins (Cakravartins), according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly: “[...] In Bharata there will be twenty-three other Arhats and eleven other Cakrins. [...] The Cakrins will belong to the gotra of Kaśyapa, gold-color, and eight of them will go to mokṣa. [...] Padma, the son of Jvālā and Padmottara, in Vārāṇasī, will live for thirty thousand years, twenty bows tall. In Kāmpīlya, Hariṣeṇa will be son of Merā and Mahāhari, living for ten thousand years, fifteen bows tall. These two will live while Muni and Nami are wandering (as Tīrthaṅkaras)”.

2) Padma (पद्म), the son of Aparājitā, is one of the nine white Baladevas, according to chapter 1.6 . Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine white Baladevas, their (half-)brothers, sons of co-wives. [...] The eighth Baladeva will be Padma, son of Aparājitā, with a life of fifteen thousand years”.

3) Padmā (पद्मा) is the mother of Dvipṛṣṭha: one of the nine black Vāsudevas, according to chapter 1.6. Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine black Vāsudevas, enjoyers of three parts of the earth, with half so much power as the Cakrins. [...] In Dvāravatī, Dvipṛṣṭha, seventy bows tall, living for seventy-two lacs of years while Vāsupūjya is wandering on earth, son of Padmā and Brahmanandana, will necessarily go to the sixth hell”.

4) Padma (पद्म) or Padmāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1.

5) Padma (पद्म) is the name of a lake situated on the Himavat mountain, which resided in the Bhārata zone of Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.

6) Padma (पद्म) is the name of a southern province situated in West-Videha in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.

7) Padmā (पद्मा) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.

8) Padma (पद्म) is the name of an ancient king from Vijayapura, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra].—Accordingly, “[...] The Master (i.e., Sumati) broke his fast with rice-pudding on the next day in Vijayapura at the house of King Padma. The gods made the five divine things, a stream of treasure, etc.; and King Padma made a jeweled platform for worship. Observing numerous resolutions, enduring trials, the Master wandered over the earth for twenty years”.

9) Padma (पद्म) is the name of an ancient king from Ratnasañcayā and a previous incarnation of Candraprabha, according to chapter 3.6 [candraprabha-caritra].

10) Padmā (पद्मा) is the daughter of Vidyādhara king Puṣpottara from Ratnapura, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa].—Accordingly:—“[...] One day, the daughter of Puṣpottara, Padmā, like (the goddess) Padmā in beauty, was seen by Śrīkaṇṭha as he returned from Meru. Mutual affection, a cloudy day for the excessive brilliance of the ocean of the emotion of love, sprang up at once between Śrīkaṇṭha [i.e., son of Śrīmatī and Atīndra from Meghapura] and Padmā. [...]”.

11) Padma (पद्म) or Rāma is son of Aparājitā and Daśaratha, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa].

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Padma (पद्म) is a lake lying on top of mount Himavat (Himavān), situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. There is a giant lotus (puṣkara) in the centre of the lakes (e.g., Padma). In these lotuses live the nymphs (e.g., Śrī, ‘fortune’ for the Padma lake), whose lifetime is one pit-measured period (playa) and who live with Sāmānikas (co-chiefs) and Pāriṣadas (counsellors). A sāmānika is a deity who is equal to Indra in life-span, power and enjoyment but lack grandeur. The pāriṣadas (counsellors) are friendly deities who are members of Indra’s council.

Jambūdvīpa (where lies the Padma lake) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

Source: HereNow4u: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)

Padmā (पद्मा) was the mother of Bhadrayaśa.—[...] The ‘Śrī Pāsanāha Cariyaṃ’ gives the following description of Lord Pārśvanātha’s Gaṇadharas (principal disciples).—“[...] Bhadrayaśa was the eighth Gaṇadhara of The Lord. His father was Samarasiṃha and mother Padmā. In a garden named Mattakumṃja he saw a man wrapped in pointed nails. When Bhadrayaśa removed the nails from his body he got to know that his brother had done this on account of a past life's enmity. Seeing the selfishness of this world his mind became detached from the world. With many of his friends he accepted initiation from Lord Pārśvanātha and became a Gaṇadhara”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Padmā (पद्मा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 16. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The Gaṅgā is also known as Padmā or Paddā. The community of the brāhmaṇas mentioned in the inscription might have lived by the side of the river.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Padma [पद्म] in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. from the Nelumbonaceae (Lotus) family having the following synonyms: Nelumbium speciosum. For the possible medicinal usage of padma, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Padma [পদ্মা] in the Bengali language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Padma in India is the name of a plant defined with Galearis rotundifolia in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Orchis grandiflora B. Heyne ex Wall., nom. inval. (among others).

2) Padma is also identified with Habenaria grandifloriformis It has the synonym Habenaria grandiflora Lindl. ex Dalzell & Gibson, nom. illeg..

3) Padma is also identified with Rivea hypocrateriformis.

4) Padma is also identified with Rivea ornata It has the synonym Convolvulus dinteri Pilg. (etc.).

5) Padma is also identified with Rotheca serrata It has the synonym Clerodendrum javanicum Spreng. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Canad. FieldNaturalist (1941)
· Ann. Bot. (Oxford) (2009)
· Prodr. (1847)
· The Wealth of India. A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. (1972)
· Mantissa Plantarum (1767)
· Flora (1842)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Padma, for example side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

padma : (nt.) a lotus; name of purgatory and that of an enormous number.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Padma, see paduma. (Page 411)

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context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

padma (पद्म).—n (S) A lotus, Nelumbium speciosum or nymphæa nelumbo. 2 Ten billions, ten thousand lakhs. 3 The figure of ten fancied in the form of the hood of snakes. 4 An auspicious mark of the horse. See śubhalakṣaṇa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

padma (पद्म).—n A lotus. Ten billions, ten thousand lakhs.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Padma (पद्म).—a. [pad-man] Lotus-hued.

-dmam 1 A lotus (m. also in this sense); Nelumbium Speciosum (variety red); पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् (padmapatrasthitaṃ toyaṃ dhatte muktāphalaśriyam).

2) A lotus-like ornament.

3) The form or figure of a lotus.

4) The root of a lotus.

5) The coloured marks on the trunk and face of an elephant; कालः किरातः स्फुटपद्मकस्य वधं व्यधा- द्यस्य दिनद्विपस्य (kālaḥ kirātaḥ sphuṭapadmakasya vadhaṃ vyadhā- dyasya dinadvipasya) N.22.9;

6) An army arrayed in the form of a lotus; पद्मेन चैव व्यूहेन निविशेत सदा स्वयम् (padmena caiva vyūhena niviśeta sadā svayam) Manusmṛti 7. 188.

7) A particular high number (one thousand billions).

8) Lead.

9) N. given by the Tāntrikas to the six divisions of the upper part of the body called Chakras.

1) A mark or mole on the human body.

11) A spot.

12) Name of a particular part of a column.

-dmaḥ A kind of temple.

2) Name of a quarter-elephant. ये पद्मकल्पैरपि च द्विपेन्द्रैः (ye padmakalpairapi ca dvipendraiḥ) Bu. Ch.2.3.

3) A species of serpent.

4) An epithet of Rāma.

5) One of the nine treasures of Kubera; see नवनिधि (navanidhi).

6) A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment.

7) A particular posture of the body in religious meditation.

8) One of the eight treasures connected with the magical art called पद्मिनी (padminī).

-dmā 1 Name of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, and wife of Viṣṇu; (taṃ) पद्मा पद्मातपत्रेण भेजे साम्राज्य- दीक्षितम् (padmā padmātapatreṇa bheje sāmrājya- dīkṣitam) R.4.5.

2) Cloves.

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Pādma (पाद्म).—Name of Brahmā; इति तस्य वचः पाद्मो भगवान् परिपालयन् (iti tasya vacaḥ pādmo bhagavān paripālayan) Bhāgavata 3.12.9.

Derivable forms: pādmaḥ (पाद्मः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Padma (पद्म).—(paduma) , m. or nt., (1) name of a kind of brahmanical sacrifice: Mahāvastu ii.237.20 (prose) padumaṃ puṇḍarīkaṃ (this occurs in Sanskrit in this sense) ca, in a list of sacrifices, see nirargaḍa; (2) m. (paduma), name of one of the 4 ‘great treasures’ (compare Pali puṇḍarīka; see s.v. elapatra): Mahāvastu iii.383.19 (known in Sanskrit as name of a nāga); (3) name of a former Buddha (Paduma): Mahāvastu iii.233.7 f.; (4) name of the world-age (paduma kalpa) in which 62 Buddhas named Śikhin succeeded each other: Mahāvastu iii.235.6; (5) nt., also m., name of a hell (= Pali Paduma; compare Mahāpadma): Divyāvadāna 67.23; 138.8; Avadāna-śataka i.4.9 etc.; it is cold according to Mahāvyutpatti 4935; Dharmasaṃgraha 122, but hot (at least sufferers are boiled there) in Śikṣāsamuccaya 75.8, where (and in 10) the spelling is Padumo, n. sg., tho in prose!; (6) nt., name of a cetika (caitya) in the south: Lalitavistara 389.10; in the parallel Mahāvastu iii.307.17 Abhipaśya; Pali has Paduma as name of a cetiya (Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) s.v. 8), but it is not clear whether it is the same.

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Padmā (पद्मा).—(1) name of a brahman woman who entertained the Bodhisattva: Lalitavistara 238.7; (2) name of a lokadhātu: Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 50.6; (3) (Padumā) name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 243.9 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Padma (पद्म).—mn.

(-dmaḥ-dmaṃ) 1. A lotus, (Nelumbium speciosum;) it is often confounded with the water lily, (Nymphæa.) 2. A form of arraying army resembling to that of a lotus. 3. One of Kuvera'S treasures or gems. 4. A large number, ten billions. 5. Coloured marks on the face and trunk of an elephant. 6. A drug, also termed Padmakast'ha. 7. Lead. 8. A name given to the six Chakras of the body, or to the mystical faculties present in them. 9. The root of a lotus. m.

(-dmaḥ) 1. A Naga or serpent of the lower regions. 2. One of the twelve Chakravartis or paramount princes of the Jainas. 3. One of the persons termed Sukla Balas by the Jains. 4. A name of Rama. 5. The personified treasurs of Kuvera, as worshipped by the Tantrikas. 6. A particular mode of sexual enjoyment. The posture is thus described on Vachaspatya:— hastābhyāñca samāliṅgya nārīpadmāsanopari . ramedgāḍhaṃ samākṛṣya bandho'yaṃ padmasaṃjñakaḥ .. f.

(-dmā) 1. A name of Lakshmi. 2. A plant, (Hibiscus mutabilis.) 3. A shrub, (Siphonanthus Indica.) 4. A female serpent or Naga, the goddess Manasa, and wife to the sage Jaratkaru. 5. The mother of the twentieth Jina or Jaina saint. 6. The flower of the Carthamus or safflower. E. pad to go, (on the water, &c.) Unadi aff. man.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Padma (पद्म).— (curtailed pad + mant), I. m. and n. 1. A lotus flower, Mahābhārata 1, 5412. 2. Ornament, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 10, 19. 3. Moles or marks on the body, 5, 32, 11. 4. A spot, 3, 48, 12. 5. Coloured marks on the face and trunk of an elephant. 6. A lotus-like form of array, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 188. 7. A particular sitting posture when absorbed in meditation, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 17. 8. One of Kuvera's treasures, Mahābhārata 2, 418. 9. A large number, 1000 billions, 2, 2143. 10. A certain fragrant plant. Ii. m. 1. A kind of snake, [Suśruta] 2, 265, 8. 2. The name of a Nāga. 3. A proper name. Iii. f. , 1. A name of Śrī, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 11. 2. The name of two plants, Clerodendrum siphonanthus, and Hibiscus mutabilis. 3. A proper name.

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Pādma (पाद्म).—i. e. padma + a, adj. Referring to, treating of, the lotus, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 10, 47.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Padma (पद्म).—[masculine] [neuter] lotus, [especially] the flower (which closes at evening), [figuratively] an army arrayed in the form of a lotus or a cert. posture of the body in religious meditation; one of the treasures of Kubera, a cert. high number (1000 billions).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Pādma (पाद्म) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—i. e. Padmapurāṇa.

2) Pādma (पाद्म):—kriyāpāda. Oppert. Ii, 4053.
—[commentary] Ii, 4054. Caryapāda. Oppert. 294.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Padma (पद्म):—mn. (2. or 3. pad?) a lotus ([especially] the flower of the lotus-plant Nelumbium Speciosum which closes towards evening; often confounded with the water-lily or Nymphaea Alba), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (ifc. f(ā). )

2) the form or figure of a lotus, [Rāmāyaṇa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa] (a Name given by the Tāntrikas to the 6 divisions of the upper part of the body called Cakras q.v.)

3) a [particular] mark or mole on the human body, [Rāmāyaṇa]

4) red or coloured marks on the face or trunk of an elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) a [particular] part of a column or pillar, [Varāha-mihira]

6) a kind of temple, [ib.]

7) an army arrayed in the form of a lotus, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata]

8) a [particular] posture of the body in religious meditation, [Vedāntasāra] (cf. padmāsana)

9) a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) one of the 9 treasures of Kubera (also personified), [Rāmāyaṇa]

11) one of the 8 treasures connected with the magical art called Padminī, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

12) a [particular] high number (1000 millions or billions), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

13) a [particular] constellation, [Varāha-mihira]

14) Name of a [particular] cold hell, [Buddhist literature]

15) a [particular] fragrant substance, [Mahābhārata] ([varia lectio] maka)

16) the root of Nelumbium Speciosum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) a species of bdellium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) m. a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) an elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) a species of serpent, [Suśruta]

22) Name of Rāma (son of Daśa-ratha), [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

23) of two serpent-demons, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

24) of one of the attendants of Skanda, [Mahābhārata]

25) of a mythical Buddha, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 136 n. 1.]

26) (with Jainas) Name of the 9th Cakra-vartin in Bhārata and of one of the 9 white Balas

27) Name of a king, [Mahābhārata]

28) of a prince of Kaśmīra (founder of Padma-pura and of a temple; See padma-svāmin), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

29) of another man, [ib.]

30) of a Brāhman, [Lalita-vistara]

31) of a mythical elephant, [Rāmāyaṇa] (cf. mahā-padma)

32) of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa]

33) of a mountain, [Varāha-mihira]

34) Padmā (पद्मा):—[from padma] f. ‘the lotus-hued one’, Name of Śrī, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. padma-śrī)

35) [v.s. ...] a species of plant, [Suśruta] (Clerodendrum Siphorantus or Hibiscus Mutabilis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

36) [v.s. ...] cloves, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) [v.s. ...] the flower of Carthamus Tinctoria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

38) [v.s. ...] Name of the mother of Muni-suvrata (the 20th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

39) [v.s. ...] of a female serpent-demon (= the goddess Manasā, wife of the sage Jarat-kāru; cf. padma-priyā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

40) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of king Bṛhadratha and wife of Kalki, [Purāṇa]

41) Padma (पद्म):—mfn. lotus-hued, being of the colour of a lotus, [ṢaḍvBr.]

42) Pādma (पाद्म):—mf(ī)n. ([from] padma) relating to or treating of the lotus, [Purāṇa]

43) m. Name of a Kalpa or cosmic period, [ib.]

44) of Brahmā, [ib.]

45) n. = padma-purāṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Padma (पद्म):—[(dmaḥ-dmaṃ)] 1. m. n. A lotus; ten billions; form of array; a treasure; a spot on the body; a drug; lead. m. A Nāga or serpent; a Jaina. f. Lakshmī; a plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Padma (पद्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pauma, Paumā, Pajja, Pamhā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Padma in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Padma (पद्म) [Also spelled padm]:—(nm) a lotus-flower and its plant; -[patra] a lotus-leaf; -[kośa] a lotus-cell; ~[nābhi] an epithet of Lord Vishnu (from whose navel the primordial lotus is said to have shot forth. Mythologically, it was this lotus on which [brahmā] is supposed to have come into being); -[nāla] a lotus stalk; ~[netra] (having) lotus-like eyes.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Padma (ಪದ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] any of various waterlilies, esp. the white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) or the pink (Nymphaea alba) of Nymphaeaceae family.

2) [noun] its flower used as a religious symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism.

3) [noun] a whitish or red mark on the face or trunk of an elephant.

4) [noun] name of one of eight mythological serpents.

5) [noun] the moon.

6) [noun] the plant Hibiscus mutabilis of Malvaceae family.

7) [noun] the plant Carthamus tinctorius of Asteraceae family.

8) [noun] its flower.

9) [noun] a kind of fragrant herb.

10) [noun] water.

11) [noun] a lotus-flower shaped array of an army, arranged in a battlefield.

12) [noun] a pond; a lake.

13) [noun] the condition or quality of being bent or curved; crookedness.

14) [noun] a wise man; a sage.

15) [noun] a bold, courageous man.

16) [noun] a kind of tree ( = padmaka ?).

17) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

18) [noun] one of the eighteen principal purāṇas (religious treatises) in Saṃskřta glorififying the god Viṣṇu.

19) [noun] a mode or intertwining the fingers to form the shape of a lotus flower during worship.

20) [noun] a huge number, one hundred crore (100,00,00,000).

21) [noun] a particular posture of sitting (in the shape of a lotus flower) while worshipping a deity or during meditation.

22) [noun] (myth.) one of the nine treasures of Kubēra, the regent of wealth.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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