Padma, aka: Padmā, Pādma; 36 Definition(s)
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- India history
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Padma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Padma (पद्म) refers to members of the moulding of a pedestal (pīṭha), used in the construction of liṅgas. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Padma (पद्म, ‘lotus’) is a weapon (āyudha or bādhra) according to the Vāstusūtra Upaniṣad.(Source): Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
By reproducing from its own matrix rather than the soil the lotus is a symbol of spontaneous generation (Svāyambhu). It grows in mud but rises in immaculate purity to the surface and opens to the sun—the evolution begins in the mire of Samsāra but rises to full enlightenment and purity. The lotus is the quintessential symbol of purity and enlightenment. The closed lotus is a symbol of potential and the open the symbol of actualization.
Lakṣmī is usually depicted seated upon a lotus—representing the enlightened and pure mind. Her two lower hands are held in the gesture of fearlessness (Abhayā) granting freedom for fear and suffering to all beings, and the gesture of generosity (Varadā).(Source): Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi
The lotus (Padma) in Viṣṇu’s lower right hand represents the manifested universe, the flower that unfolds in all its glory from the formless and infinite waters of causality. It also represents purity on mind, body and speech.(Source): Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity
1) Padma (पद्म, “lotus”).—The pure and unsullied lotus arising from the depth of the waters and far from the banks of the lake is associated with the idea of purity which arises from the law-of-conduct (dharma) and wisdom (jñāna). The Lotus is also symbolic of the enlightened mind. It rises in the mud of material existence gradually growing through the waters until it reaches the surface and then opens up to the sun in all its glory. Water splashed upon a lotus leaf never remains but immediately slips off. In the same way the dirt of worldliness never stains the enlightened being.
2) Padma (Lotus) - By reproducing from its own matrix rather than the soil the lotus is a symbol of spontaneous generation (Svāyambhu). It grows in mud but rises in immaculate purity to the surface and opens to the sun - the evolution begins in the mire of Samsāra but rises to full enlightenment and purity. The closed lotus symbolizes potential and the open lotus — actualization.(Source): Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Padma (पद्म) or Padmamudrā is the name of a mudrā described in the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.30.—Accordingly, “the two thumbs are to be closely joined with the other fingers remaining apart. This is pādmī (padma) mudrā offering nourishment and prosperity”. Mūdra (eg., Padma-mudrā) is so called as it gives joy to the tattvas in the form of karman for those who offer spotless worship, drive out the defects which move about within and without and sealing up of what is done.(Source): archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Padma (पद्म) and Śaṅkha are the two treasures (nidhis) which dharma bears. These are intended to help those people who pursue the right course conduct in order that the pursuits (kāma and artha) would have been fruitfully taken up by them. Kāma means desires in life. Artha means wealth or economic condition. Money is required to pursue these. The two measures Śaṅkha and Padma are thus helpful for them in pursuing these goals. The Viṣvaksena-aṃhitā (XX 87-88) mentions conch, discus and yellow cloth while describing dharma.(Source): archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
The Lotus (Padma):—The lotus represents the manifested universe, the flower that unfolds in all its glory from the formless and infinite waters of causality. The pure and unsullied lotus arising from the depth of the waters and far from the shore is associated with the idea of purity and with sattva which arises from the law-of-conduct (dharma) and knowledge (jñāna). The Lotus is also symbolic of the enlightened mind. It rises in the mud of material existence gradually growing through the waters until it reaches the surface and then opens up to the sun in all its glory. Water splashed upon a lotus leaf never remains but immediately slips off. In the same way the dirt of worldliness ne ver stain the enlightened being.(Source): SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
Padma (पद्म) or Padmasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a sāttvika type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika (eg., Padma-saṃhitā). b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa.(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
1) Padmā (पद्मा, “Lotus”):—One of the female offspring from Mahālakṣmī (rajas-form of Mahādevī). Mahālakṣmī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahākālī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Lakṣmī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named rajas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.
2) Padma (पद्म, “lotus”).—One of the symbols that Lakṣmī is depicted as sitting upon. It represents spontaneous generation (svāyambhu), but also symbolizes purity and enlightenment. Lakṣmī is the Hindu Goddess of fortune.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)
1) Padma (पद्म) is a Sanskrit word referring to Nelumbo nucifera, a species of aquatic plant from the Nelumbonaceae (lotus) family of flowering plants. Common English names include “Indian lotus”, “sacred lotus”, “bean of India” or simply “Lotus”. Certain plant parts of Plakṣa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. It is a large aquatic plant with large round leaves up to 90cm in diameter. The flowers are large and fragrant with a pink or reddish colour. Its grows all over India in ponds up to 1800m elevation.
According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th-century Āyurvedic work), this plant (Padma) is also as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter. In this work, the plant is referred to as Mṛṇālīn.
2) Padmā (पद्मा) is another name for Bhāraṅgī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Clerodendrum serratum (beetle killer). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.149-150), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Yoga (school of philosophy)
This is a classical plant amongst the Hindus and the Egyptians. The world at its creation is likened to a Lotus flower floating on water. Om! mani padme. Om! The pearl of creation is in Lotus. It is emblematic of the heavens, Brahma is supposed to reside on a Lotus flower in a sea of milk, and to sleep six months of the year, and watch the other six months; an allusion to the seasons in which Brahma represents the Sun.(Source): Pandanus Database of Plants: Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Padma (पद्म) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Kailāśa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Kailāśa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (eg. Padma) that are to be globular shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Padma is mentioned in another list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, being part of the group named Lalita, containing 25 unique temple varieties.
Padma is mentioned in another list of 40 temples, in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 57, where it is mentioned as one of the five temples being a favorite of Brahmā.
Padma is also mentioned as a classification of ‘temple’ in the Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. In the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, the name for this temple category is Padmaka. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
Padma is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Kailāśa, featuring circular-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Padma (पद्म) refers to the lotus and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The lotus is also called by the names Kamala, Jalaja (verse 45), Nīlanalina and Nīlotpala (verse 62 and 339), Jātī (verse 429), Irā (verse 673-675ff.) and Kunda (verse 495).(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1) Padma (पद्म).—A serpent born to sage Kaśyapa of his wife Kadrū. (Śloka 10, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva).
2) Padma (पद्म).—A King. This King shines in the court of Yama. (Śloka 39, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva).
3) Padma (पद्म).—A soldier of Subrahmaṇya. (Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).
4) Padma (पद्म).—A nidhi (treasure). This nidhi belongs to Kubera. (Śloka 39, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva). Śaṅkhanidhi, Padmanidhi and a Puṣpakavimāna were presented to Kubera by Brahmā. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Padma (पद्म).—A Yakṣa; a son of Puṇyajanī and Maṇibhadra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 124; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 155.
1b) The name of the 7th kalpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 12.
1d) The forest of Padma between the Lauhitya and the Sindhu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 358.
1e) A Nāga (serpent) chief.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 20. 53.
1f) Brahmā; a thousand leafed lotus came out of the navel of the Lord on the eve of the creation of the universe; it resembled the earth in form; in it were found all the countries, mountains, peoples, etc.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 1; 168. 15; 169. 3 to 18.
1g) 1000 billions; ten times the śanku.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 23. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 101.
1h) One of the eight nidhis of Kubera.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 10.
2a) Padmā (पद्मा).—A name of Śrī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 47. 13; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 24.
2b) One of the ten pīṭhas for images; with sixteen corners, a little short at the bottom; gives one good luck (saubhāgya).*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 262. 7, 16, 18.
3a) Pādma (पाद्म).—A name of Brahmā.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 18. 19.
3b) A mahākalpa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 164. 4.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Katha (narrative stories)
Padma (पद्म).—One of the eight kulas (‘families’) of nāgas mentioned by Soḍḍhala in his Udayasundarīkathā. Padma, and other nāgas, reside in pātāla (the nether world) and can assume different forms at will. Their movement is unobstructed in the all the worlds and they appear beautiful, divine and strong.
The Udayasundarīkathā is a Sanskrit work in the campū style, narrating the story of the Nāga princess Udayasundarī and Malayavāhana, king of Pratiṣṭhāna. Soḍḍhala is a descendant of Kalāditya (Śilāditya’s brother) whom he praises as an incarnation of a gaṇa (an attendant of Śiva).(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Kathā
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Padma (पद्म, “lotus”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the white (sita) and the red (rakta) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
Padmā (पद्मा) refers to the twentieth of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (eg., Padmā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.(Source): Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Padma (पद्म) or Padmāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Svāyambhuvāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Padma Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Svāyambhuva-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
The lotus flower, and the word itself are considered to have a special meaning in Tantras. In India the lotus flower has a symbolic meaning, representing two main aspectrs, exoteric and esoteric. The first is creation itself. The Madhya, or center of the lotus, represents the Knower, the Self. When the yogin merges his senses and thought in the center of the ineer space of the lotus of the heart, he is pacified since he has broken his links to the external world. In the bhāvopahāra of Cakrapāṇinātha, a śaiva hymn is written by a Trika author of the 12th cent. A.D., the lotus is identified with the supreme Consciousness itself, with Śiva.(Source): Academia.edu: Flowers of Consciousness in Tantric Texts
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Padma (पद्म, “lotuses”) are of three kinds according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “there are three kinds of lotuses (padma), human lotuses, divine lotuses and Bodhisattva lotuses. The human lotus is a big lotus with ten petals (pattra), the divine lotus has a hundred and the Bodhisattva lotus has a thousand”.
2) Padma (पद्म) is the name of the universe of the nadir (adhas) according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “In the region of the nadir (adhas), beyond universes as numerous as the sands of the Ganges and at the extreme limit of these universes, there is the universe called Houa (Padma); its Buddha is called Houa tö (Padmaśrī) and its Bodhisattva Houa chang (Padmottara)”.
Note: This universe is called Chan “Good” in the Chinese text, but Padmā “Lotus” (Chin. Houa) in the original Sanskrit of the Pañcaviṃśati. This last reading is the proper one (note that the names of all the universes are feminine; this is why Padmā ends with ‘ā’).
3) Padma (पद्म) refers to one of the “eight hells of cold water” forming part of the sixteen utsadas (secondary hells) sitauted outside of the eight great hells, according to the “world of transmigration” section in the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “the shape of the Padma hell is like a red lotus”.
Note: According to the Kośa, III, p. 154, Utpala and Padma indicate the shape taken by the damned: they are like a blue or red lotus. According to the Chinese sources studied by Beal, Catena, p. 63, the inmates of Utpala and Padma are covered with spots resembling blue and red lotuses respectively.(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Padma (पद्म).—Serpent deity (nāga) of the southern cremation ground.—The Śmaśānavidhi 11 states that Padma is white and has on his hood speckles of sea-water. He supplicates his teacher in the usual manner with the añjali.(Source): Google Books: Vajrayogini
Padma (पद्म) is the name of a serpent (nāga) associated with Subhīṣaṇa: the southern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These nāga-kings (eg., Padma) are variously known as nāgarāja, nāgeśa, nāgendra and bhujageśa and are depicted as wearing white ornaments according to Lūyīpāda’s Śmaśānavidhi. They have human tosos above their coiled snaketails and raised hoods above their heads. They each have their own color assigned and they bear a mark upon their raised hoods. They all make obeisance to the dikpati (protector) who is before them and are seated beneath the tree (vṛkṣa).
The Guhyasamayasādhanamālā by Umāptideva is a 12th century ritualistic manual including forty-six Buddhist tantric sādhanas. The term sādhana refers to “rites” for the contemplation of a divinity.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Padma (पद्म) refers to the “red-lotus hell” and represents one of the “eight cold hells” (śīta-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 122). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., padma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
One of the Eight Auspicious Symbols
The lotus flower (Sanskrit: Padma), representing primordial purity (Tibetan: ka dag) of body, speech, and mind, floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire; represents the full blossoming of wholesome deeds in blissful liberation.(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Padmā (पद्मा) is the mother of Munisuvratanātha, the twentieth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow. She is also known as Padmāvatī.
The husband of Padmā is Sumitra. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.
2) Padmā (पद्मा).—Name of a lake situated on top of the Haimavat mountain range. There are seven such mountain ranges (or, varṣadharaparvatas) located in Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Padma has at its centre a large padmahrada (lotus-island), which is home to the Goddess Śrī. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.
3) Padma (पद्म) is the name of the eighth Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara, while the Digambara tradition mentions him as the ninth Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The mother of Padma is known by the name Aparājitā according to the Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, and their stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.
The nine Baladevas (such as Padma) are also known as Balabhadra and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Baladeva is described as follows: their body is of a white complexion, they wear a blue-black robe, and the mark of the palm-tree (tāla) is seen on their banners.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Padma (पद्म) refers to the “lotus”: a type of flower (puṣpa) commonly used in for personal and commercial purposes in ancient India. People were fond of flowers. The groves and gardens were maintained for recreational purpose. The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits, vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjaṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm andquiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.
The flowers (eg., Padma) fulfilled the aesthetic needs of the people. At the same time they had an economic importance in as much as some people depended on its trade. It is mentioned that people of Koṅkaṇa maintained themselves by selling fruits and flowers. (see Bṛhatkalpasūtra) Flower garlands and bouquet of various designs were prepared and sold. Saffron (kuṃkuma or kesara) was an important flower product. It yielded a good income to the producers. The flower attracted the bees who yielded honey (mahu, sanskrit: madhu) of different varieties, e. g. macchiya, kuṭṭiya, bhāmara, etc.(Source): archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Padma (पद्म) is a lake lying on top of mount Himavat (Himavān), situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. There is a giant lotus (puṣkara) in the centre of the lakes (eg., Padma). In these lotuses live the nymphs (eg., Śrī, ‘fortune’ for the Padma lake), whose lifetime is one pit-measured period (playa) and who live with Sāmānikas (co-chiefs) and Pāriṣadas (counsellors). A sāmānika is a deity who is equal to Indra in life-span, power and enjoyment but lack grandeur. The pāriṣadas (counsellors) are friendly deities who are members of Indra’s council.
Jambūdvīpa (where lies the Padma lake) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Padmā (पद्मा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 16. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The Gaṅgā is also known as Padmā or Paddā. The community of the brāhmaṇas mentioned in the inscription might have lived by the side of the river.(Source): archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
padma : (nt.) a lotus; name of purgatory and that of an enormous number.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Padma, see paduma. (Page 411)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
padma (पद्म).—n (S) A lotus, Nelumbium speciosum or nymphæa nelumbo. 2 Ten billions, ten thousand lakhs. 3 The figure of ten fancied in the form of the hood of snakes. 4 An auspicious mark of the horse. See śubhalakṣaṇa.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
padma (पद्म).—n A lotus. Ten billions, ten thousand lakhs.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Padma (पद्म).—a. [pad-man] Lotus-hued.
-dmam 1 A lotus (m. also in this sense); Nelumbium Speciosum (variety red); पद्मपत्रस्थितं तोयं धत्ते मुक्ताफलश्रियम् (padmapatrasthitaṃ toyaṃ dhatte muktāphalaśriyam).
2) A lotus-like ornament.
3) The form or figure of a lotus.
4) The root of a lotus.
5) The coloured marks on the trunk and face of an elephant; कालः किरातः स्फुटपद्मकस्य वधं व्यधा- द्यस्य दिनद्विपस्य (kālaḥ kirātaḥ sphuṭapadmakasya vadhaṃ vyadhā- dyasya dinadvipasya) N.22.9;
6) An army arrayed in the form of a lotus; पद्मेन चैव व्यूहेन निविशेत सदा स्वयम् (padmena caiva vyūhena niviśeta sadā svayam) Ms.7. 188.
7) A particular high number (one thousand billions).
9) N. given by the Tāntrikas to the six divisions of the upper part of the body called Chakras.
1) A mark or mole on the human body.
11) A spot.
12) Name of a particular part of a column.
-dmaḥ A kind of temple.
2) Name of a quarter-elephant. ये पद्मकल्पैरपि च द्विपेन्द्रैः (ye padmakalpairapi ca dvipendraiḥ) Bu. Ch.2.3.
3) A species of serpent.
4) An epithet of Rāma.
5) One of the nine treasures of Kubera; see नवनिधि (navanidhi).
6) A kind of coitus or mode of sexual enjoyment.
7) A particular posture of the body in religious meditation.
8) One of the eight treasures connected with the magical art called पद्मिनी (padminī).
-dmā 1 Name of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, and wife of Viṣṇu; (taṃ) पद्मा पद्मातपत्रेण भेजे साम्राज्य- दीक्षितम् (padmā padmātapatreṇa bheje sāmrājya- dīkṣitam) R.4.5.
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Pādma (पाद्म).—Name of Brahmā; इति तस्य वचः पाद्मो भगवान् परिपालयन् (iti tasya vacaḥ pādmo bhagavān paripālayan) Bhāg.3.12.9.
Derivable forms: pādmaḥ (पाद्मः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 396 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Padmāsana (पद्मासन) refers to one of the five āsanas (postures) explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in ...
1) Mahāpadma (महापद्म) is the name of a sacred spot mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Mahāpadma ...
Padmanābha (पद्मनाभ) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvar...
Padmarāga (पद्मराग).—See under Navaratna.
Padmasaṃbhava (पद्मसंभव).—epithets of Brahman, the lotus-born god. Derivable forms: padmasaṃbha...
Padmahasta (पद्महस्त).—a. holding a lotus. (-raḥ, -staḥ) 1 an epithet of Viṣṇu. 2) a lotus like...
Padmanidhi (पद्मनिधि).—a treasure of the value of a Padma. Derivable forms: padmanidhiḥ (पद्मनि...
Padmaṣaṇḍa (पद्मषण्ड).—a multitude of lotuses. Derivable forms: padmaṣaṇḍam (पद्मषण्डम्).Padmaṣ...
Padmabandha (पद्मबन्ध).—a kind of artificial composition in which the words are arranged in the...
Padmakośa (पद्मकोश, “lotus-bud”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand ...
Padmottara (पद्मोत्तर) is the name of the Bodhisattva of the Padma universe according to the Ma...
Padmasaṃhitā (पद्मसंहिता) or simply Padma is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified...
Padmākara (पद्माकर).—A Character in the story in Śiva Purāṇa describing the greatness of a Śiva...
Padmayoni (पद्मयोनि).—epithets of Brahman, the lotus-born god. Derivable forms: padmayoniḥ (पद्...
Padmanāla (पद्मनाल).—a lotus-stalk. Derivable forms: padmanālam (पद्मनालम्).Padmanāla is a Sans...
Search found 72 books and stories containing Padma, Padmā or Pādma. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
2. The Padma Purāṇa < [Preface]
Classification of the Purāṇas < [Preface]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 7.11 < [Section I - Important Position of the King (rājan)]
Verse 6.22 < [Section III - Details of the Hermit’s Life]
Verse 2.6 < [Section III - Sources of Knowledge of Dharma]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 1: Incarnation as King Padma < [Chapter VI - Candraprabhacaritra]
Part 3: Birth of Mahāpadma’s elder brother (Viṣṇukumāra) < [Chapter VIII - Śrī Mahāpadmacakricaritra]
Part 9: Birth of Padma (Rāma) and Lakṣmaṇa < [Chapter IV - The, birth, marriage, and retreat to the forest of Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Act 10.7: The universes and Buddhas of the ten directions < [Chapter XV - The Arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Directions]
The eight cold hells < [The world of transmigration]
The sixteen utsadas annexed to the eight great hells < [The world of transmigration]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 25 - Pippalāda incarnation of Śiva (2) < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Chapter 35 - The story of Padmā and Pippalāda < [Section 2.3 - Rudra-saṃhitā (3): Pārvatī-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 34 - The Story of Anaraṇya < [Section 2.3 - Rudra-saṃhitā (3): Pārvatī-khaṇḍa]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)