Vira, Vīrā, Vīra: 41 definitions
Vira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Veer.
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Vīra (वीर) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Vīra) various roles suitable to them.
2) Vīra (वीर) refers to the “heroic” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the vīra is yellowish (gaura), and the presiding deity of of the heroic (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Indra.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Heroic (vīra) Sentiment, relates to the superior type of persons and has energy as its basis. This is created by Determinants, such as presence of mind, perseverance, diplomacy, discipline, military strength, aggressiveness, reputation of might, influence and the like.”.
3) Vīrā (वीरा, “heroic”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘heroic sentiment’ (vīrarasa). There are a total thirty-six glances defined. The Glance which is bright, fully open, agitated, serious, and in which eyeballs are at the centre of the eye (lit. leyel) is called vīrā (heroic), and it is used in the Heroic Sentiment.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
A type of glance (or facial expression): Vīra (heroic): radiant, direct, open, rather majestic, selfcontrolled, the pupils at rest. Usage: the heroic.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Vīra (वीर) or the “sentiment (rasa) of heroism” belongs to the noblest men. It is generated from utsāha or energy, which is its sthāyibhāva or the permanent mood. It is said to be of the colour yellow and Indra, the king of the gods is its presiding divinity. Here, the ālambanavibhāvas are the persons to be vanquished and the uddīpanavіbhāvas are their heroic utterances, advances and appropriate situations. Again, taking up of the arms and the like by the rivals are the anubhāvas and the vyabhicāribhāvas are the firmness, resolution, pride, reminiscences, reasoning and horripilation. It may be mentioned here that utsāha is that mood, by which one is encouraged to perform a particular act.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Vīrā (वीरा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Kanda, the fifth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Vīrā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Vīra (वीर) or Vīrāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (e.g., vīra).
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body
Vīra (वीर, “hero”) is a reference to the broader tantric tradition within which the Siddha theoreticians often situated themselves. The tantric “hero” is a practitioner who, through his initiation, practice, and gnoseological transformation, has transcended the bounded, duality-ridden world of lower creatures (paśus) of this world. The very same heterodox practices with which the tantric practitioner reaffirms his transcendence and absolute freedom—caste-free sexual intercourse, the consumption of forbidden power substances—are those which otherwise condemn the unwashed masses to hell. Intercourse with Siddha maidens, yogiṇīs, even goddesses, is a desideratum for the Siddha practitioner and a recurring theme in every tantric alchemical work.
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Vīra (वीर).—An asura born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Danu. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 33).
2) Vīra (वीर).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 103).
3) Vīra (वीर).—A fire. This Agni was the son born to the fire named Bharadvāja by his wife Vīrā. This fire has other names such as Rathaprabhu, Rathadhvāna, Kumbharetas etc. It is said that along with Somadevatā, this Agni also would get the second portion of Ājya (ghee offerings). It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Stanza 9, that this mighty fire has a wife named Sarayū and a son named Siddhi.
4) Vīra (वीर).—Son of a fire called Pāñcajanya. This agni is considered one of the Vināyakas. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 220, Stanza 13).
5) Vīra (वीर).—A king in ancient India. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 4, Stanza 7, that this king had attended the Svayaṃvara marriage of the daughter of King Citrāṅgada of Kalinga.
6) Vīra (वीर).—A king of the Pūru dynasty. Bṛhadratha, Kuśa, Yadu, Pratyagra, Bala and Matsyakāla were brothers of this king. Girikā was their mother. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).
7) Vīrā (वीरा).—The wife of the Agni (fire) named Bharadvāja, the son of Śaṃyu. The Agni Vīra was the son of this Vīrā. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Stanza 9).
8) Vīrā (वीरा).—A river of India, very famous in the Purāṇas. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 22).
9) Vīrā (वीरा).—The wife of King Karandhama. She was the mother of Avikṣit. Once, when serpents began to do harm to all the living and non-living things in the world, Vīrā approached her grandson Marutta and advised him to conduct a serpent-sacrifice. Marutta began the sacrifice. The serpents were terrified and sought protection from the wife of Avikṣit. She being kind-hearted, made her husband intervene and stop the sacrifice. (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa, Chapter 126).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Vīra (वीर) refers to an epithet of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] obeisance to Vīra, Vīrabhadra, the protector of heroes, the trident-holder, the great lord of mankind. Obeisance to Him of the heroic soul of perfect learning, Śrīkaṇṭha, Pinākin, the endless, the subtle, the one whose anger is the cause of death”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vīra (वीर).—A son of Pṛthu; pursued Indra at the instance of Atri when Indra walked away with Pṛthu's sacrificial horse.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 19. 17; 20. 21.
1b) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Satyā.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 13-14.
1c) A son of Satrajit.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 55.
1d) A name. of Vighneśvara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 68.
1e) The gods of Tāmasa epoch.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 28.
1f) A class of Piśācas.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 378.
Vīrā (वीरा) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.21). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vīrā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Vīra is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.12) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Vīra (वीर) is the deity to be worshipped in the month Phālguna for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Phālguna, the tooth-brush is that of apāmārga-wood. The food taken is kaṅkola. The deity to be worshipped is Vīra. The flowers used in worship are kunda. The naivedya offerings are sweet meats. The result accrued is gomedha.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Vīra (वीर) is the warder of king Camarabāla, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 54. Accordingly, “... and his [king Camarabāla’s] warder, named Vīra, captured the third king, named Samarajita, and brought him to him”.
The story of Vīra was narrated to Naravāhanadatta by Gomukha in order to demonstrate that “a brave man, though unsupported, conquers in the front of battle even many enemies coming against him in fight, distracted with hate, and not considering the resources of themselves and their foe, and by his surpassing bravery puts a stop to the fever of their conceit and pride”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vīra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Vīra (वीर) is sometimes used in the sense of Putra (“son”) in Vedic literature.—Cf. Vīrahan which is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 17.197.—Kullūka explains Vīra as Putra, and both he and Medhātithi quote the following Śruti—“vīrahā vā eṣa devānāṃ bhavati yo'gnimudvāsayate” (Taittirīyasaṃhitā 1.5.2). [...] The word Vīra thus means “a child” and Vīrahan is a child-murderer. [...] The Śruti is quoted also in Śāṃkarabhāṣya 3.4.18. It may be noted that Vīra is frequently used in the sense of Putra in Vedic literature. See, for instance, Sāyaṇa on Ṛgveda 10.68.12; ibid. 10.115.8 and other passages.
The word is [vīra] used in this sense also in the following and other passages cited in Kauśikasūtra 11.88.25; 11.89.12. Keśava in his Paddhati on the same work (4.35) speaks of a Vīrakarma which seems to be the same as Garbhādhāna. Similarly, in Pāraskaragṛhyasūtra 1.4, recited during the marriage rites, the word Vīrasū is explained as “satputrajananī” in the commentary of Gadādhara. Cf. Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa 3.8.13. It may be noted that the expression vīrahoma occurs in a citation from Ādityapurāṇa in Kṛtyakalpataru (Vratakāṇḍa), p. 167 in connection with the Putrasaptamī-vrata performed for obtaining a son. The compiler explains Vīrahoma as Agnihoma. Here, too, vīra might very well mean putra.Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (Kāvya)
Vīra (वीर) is another name for Mahāvīra, as mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Accordingly, “Mahāvīra spends the third year in Campa; Mahāvīra spends the fourth year in Piṭṭhīcampā; Between the ninth and the tenth year, the Nāga Sudāḍha torments Mahāvīra; Mahāvīra passes the tenth loved one to Śrāvastī; Mahāvīra spends the eleventh year in Mithilā; Between the eleventh and the twelfth year, Candanā breaks the fast of Mahāvīra in Kauśāmbī; Mahāvīra spends the twelfth year in Campā; Mahāvīra holds a plenary assembly in Kauśāmbī: the Sun and the Moon descend to pay homage to him; [...]”.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1a) Vīrā (वीरा) is another name for Kākolī, a medicinal plant identified with Roscoea purpurea from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.25-27 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Vīrā and Kākolī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
1b) Vīrā is also mentioned as a synonym for Kṣīrakākolī, an unidentified plant, although similar to Kākolī (Roscoea purpurea), according to verse 3.28-29.
1c) Vīrā is also mentioned as a synonym for Mahāśatāvarī, a medicinal plant identified with either Asparagus gonocladus Baker. or Asparagus sarmentosus Linn., both from the Asparagaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.120-123. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa).
1d) Vīrā is also mentioned as a synonym for Gṛhakanyā, a medicinal plant commonly identified with Aloe vera var. chinensis Baker from the Asphodelaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.47-49. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Vīrā and Gṛhakanyā, there are a total of twenty-one Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
1e) Vīrā is also mentioned as a synonym for Brāhmī, a medicinal plant identified with two possibly species verse, according to verse 5.63-66. Together with the names Suvarcalā and Brāhmī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant. Note: Chopra identifies Brāhmī with 1) Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban. while Bāpālāl and Th. B.S. et al identify it with 2) Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell.
1f) Vīrā is also mentioned as a synonym for Bhūmyāmalakī, a medicinal plant identified with Phyllanthus urinaria Linn. (synonym Phyllanthus niruri Hook f.) or “chamber bitter” from the Phyllanthaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.91-93. Together with the names Vīrā and Bhūmyāmalakī, there are a total of nineteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2a) Vīra (वीर) is a Telugu name for Kośātakī, a medicinal plant identified with Luffa acutangula (angled luffa or ribbed sponge gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.48-49.
2b) Vīra (वीर) is also mentioned as a synonym for Taṇḍulīya, a medicinal plant identified with Amaranthus spinosus Linn. or “spiny amaranth” from the Amaranthaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.73-75. Together with the names Vīra and Taṇḍulīya, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2c) Vīra (वीर) is another name for Marica, a medicinal plant identified with Piper nigrum Linn. or “black pepper” from the Piperaceae or “pepper” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.30-32.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Vīra and Marica, there are a total of seventeen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā
Vīrā (वीरा) refers to a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—Note: “As regards its botanical source, Cakra, at one place, has mentioned it to be what is known as jalandhara śāka. We are, however, inclined to believe that it may be some water plant armed with spines like Lasia spinosa Thwaites. Some spinous variety of Asparagus may be another possibility of having been named as vīrā…”.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 375, Singh and Chunekar, 1999).——(Cf. Indian Medicinal Plants, Arya Vaidya Sala 2:137, 1993-96.).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Vīra (वीर) refers to a “hero” symbolizing a ‘true practicioner’, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(A true practitioner) is a hero (vīra) who exerts himself and is courageous. He is content, devoted to the teacher, not greedy, compassionate, industrious, self-controlled, of good appearance, sāttvika, deep, all his limbs are intact (and) active, he knows (true) devotion and the scriptures and crosses over into (higher) realities. He is devoted to the transmission which is free of thought (nirvikalpakrama), he eats what he has begged and is desireless. [...]”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Vīra (वीर) in the Rigveda and later denotes ‘man’ as the strong and heroic. Collectively in the singular the word denotes ‘male offspring’, an object of great desire (cf. Putra) to the Vedic Indian. The Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa gives a list of eight Vīras of the king, constituting his supporters and entourage.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Vira Thera. He was born in Savatthi in the family of a minister of Pasenadi and became a great warrior. He married, and, on the birth of his son, left the world, attaining arahantship in due course. His former wife tried to win him back to household life, but he showed her in a verse (Thag. vs. 8) that her efforts were futile.
In the time of Vipassi Buddha he swept the Buddhas hermitage and offered him niggunthi flowers. Later, he was born as King Mahapatapa. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he was a very rich merchant and gave milk rice to the monks and alms to the poor (ThagA.i.50).
He is probably identical with Niggundipupphiya Thera of the Apadana. Ap.i.205.
2. Vira. A setthi whose daughter gave milk rice to Tissa Buddha immediately before his Enlightenment. BuA.189.
3. Vira. The village in which Vira setthi lived. BuA.189.
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
1) Vīrā (वीरा) refers to one of the female Śrāvakas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Vīrā).
2) Vīrā (वीरा) is also the name of a Yakṣiṇī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Vīra (वीर, “heroes”) represent the husbands of the twenty-four “sacred girls” (ḍākinīs) residing over twenty-four sacred seats (deśa, kṣetra or sthāna), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.—A list of names of such Ḍākinīs and of their internal seats told before is given, accompanied with a list of these Ḍākinīs’ husbands who are called heroes (vīra). These heroes abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body (fingernails, teeth, hair on the head and body and so on).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Vīra (वीर) or Mahāvīra refers to the last of the twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras praised in the first book (ādīśvara-caritra) [chapter 1] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “[...] we worship the Arhats, who at all times and all places purify the people of the three worlds by their name, representation, substance, and actual existence. [...] May there be good fortune from Holy Vīra’s eyes whose pupils are wide with compassion even for sinful people, moist with a trace of tears”.
2) Vīra (वीर) or Vīrāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1.—Accordingly, “the elephant of kings (i.e., Vimalavāhana) dismounted from the elephant’s shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountain-cave. [...] He saw monks there, too, some in the [viz., vīra-posture, ...] some engaged in kāyotsarga, and some in ukṣa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation [...] The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Ācārya Arindama and paid homage to him”.
3) Vīra (वीर) is the name of a weaver and father of Vanamālā, according to chapter 6.7 [śrī-munisuvratanātha-caritra].
4) Vīra (वीर) is the name of an ancient king from Jyotiṣpura, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa].—Accordingly, “[...] Then Kumbhakarṇa married the daughter of King Mahodara, lord of Kumbhapura, borne by Queen Surūpanayanā, just grown, named Taḍinmālā, resembling a flash of lightning in color, with curving breasts like full jars. Bibhīṣaṇa married the daughter of Vīra, lord of Jyotiṣpura in the south row of Vaitāḍhya, borne by Queen Nandavatī, named Paṅkajaśrī, whose eyes were thieves of the beauty of lotuses”.Source: JAINpedia: Jainism
Vīra (वीर, “heroism”) refers to the “nine sentiments” (navarasa) in poetics and dramaturgy and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra : a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vīra.—(IE 8-2), sometimes prefixed to the names of kings and even treated as almost an integral part of the name; cf. pratāpa, vīra-pratāpa, etc. (EI 3), Jain; same as Mahāvīra. Cf. vīra-kaḻ (SITI), also written vīra-kkaḻ, vīra-gaḻ; a hero- stone; an inscribed or uninscribed stone pillar raised in honour of a person who died in fighting for a good cause. Note: vīra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
vīra : (adj.) brave; heroic. (m.) a hero.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Vīra, (Vedic vīra; cp. Av. vīra, Lat. vir, virtus “virtue”; Gotu. wair, Ohg, Ags wer; to vayas strength etc.; cp. viriya) manly, mighty, heroic; a hero S. I, 137; Sn. 44, 165 (not dhīra), 642, 1096, 1102; Th. 1, 736 (nara° hero); Nd2 609; DhA. IV, 225.—mahā° a hero S. I, 110, 193; III, 83 (of the Arahant).—vīra is often an Ep. of the Buddha.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vīra (वीर).—m (S) A hero, a warrior, a champion. 2 One of the rasa or sentiments,--the heroic rasa or passion, heroism, valor. 3 A person of whom some ancestor died in battle, and who on the first of phālgunavadya proceeds, habited as a warrior and with warlike pomp and state, to make obeisance to an idol, is at such time so called. 4 As attached to proper names, to designations generally, or to descriptive epithets, vīra conveys the sense of Chief, leading, eminent; as raghuvīra, yaduvīra, kuruvīra, daityavīra, kapivīra, bhaktavīra, vadānyavīra &c. and as per ex. taisā tukā vaiṣṇavavīra || avīṭa āvaḍī tyācī thōra ||; also mōjuni dēta vaiṣṇavīra || svahastēṃ cauguṇēṃ ghētī vara ||. Applied also to any person prominent or conspicuous for daring or intrepidity, vigor or energy, enterprise, munificence, philanthropy &c.
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vīra (वीर).—f (Contracted from vīrya) Strength, vigor, virility, virtue, potency, excellence. 2 A term at chess. The reach or range of a piece.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vīra (वीर).—m A hero. The heroic passion. f Strength.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vira (विर).—1 P.
1) To end, terminate, come to an end; अविदितगतयामा रात्रिरेव व्यरंसीत् (aviditagatayāmā rātrireva vyaraṃsīt) U.1.27;6.33.
2) To cease, desist, stop, leave off (speaking &c); एतावदुक्त्वा विरते मृगेन्द्रे (etāvaduktvā virate mṛgendre) R.2.51; Śi.2.13; oft. with abl.; हा हन्त किमिति चित्तं विरमति नाद्यापि विषयेभ्यः (hā hanta kimiti cittaṃ viramati nādyāpi viṣayebhyaḥ) Bv.4.25; न स्थिरकर्मा विरराम कर्मणः (na sthirakarmā virarāma karmaṇaḥ) R.8.22; वत्सैतस्माद्विरम विरमातःपरं न क्षमोऽस्मि (vatsaitasmādvirama viramātaḥparaṃ na kṣamo'smi) U.1. 33; Bh.2.8.
Derivable forms: viram (विरम्).
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Vīra (वीर).—[ajeḥ rak vībhāvaśca Uṇ.2.13] a.
1) Heroic, brave.
2) Mighty, powerful.
3) Excellent, eminent.
-raḥ 1 A hero, warrior, champion; कोऽप्येष संप्रति नवः पुरुषावतारो वीरो न यस्य भगवान् भृगुनन्दनोऽपि (ko'pyeṣa saṃprati navaḥ puruṣāvatāro vīro na yasya bhagavān bhṛgunandano'pi) U.5.33.
2) The sentiment of heroism (in rhetoric); अस्तोक- वीरगुरुसाहसमद्भुतं च (astoka- vīragurusāhasamadbhutaṃ ca) Mv.1.6; it is distinguished under four heads; दानवीर, धर्मवीर, दयावीर (dānavīra, dharmavīra, dayāvīra) and युद्धवीर (yuddhavīra); for explanation see these words s. v.).
3) An actor.
5) The sacrificial fire.
6) A son; अस्य कुले वीरो जायते (asya kule vīro jāyate) Ch. Up.3.13.6; वीरं मे दत्त पितरः (vīraṃ me datta pitaraḥ) Śrādhamantras.
7) A husband.
8) The Arjuna tree.
9) A Jaina.
1) The Karavīra tree.
11) Name of Viṣṇu.
-ram 1 A reed.
4) The root of Uśīra q. v.
5) Iron; Gīrvāṇa.
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1) The wife of a hero.
2) A wife.
3) A mother, matron.
4) A kind of perfume (called Murā).
5) Spirituous liquor.
6) An aloe.
7) The plantain tree.
8) A woman with a husband and a son living; L. D. B.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vīra (वीर).—(1) m. (?), (= Pali vera, Sanskrit vaira, nt.; § 3.50), enmity: kṣāntīmatā (mss. kṣāntiṃmatā) vopasamanti vīrāḥ Mahāvastu iii.371.5 (same verse in Pali Jātaka (Pali) v.143.2 verā); (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 44. See the following items, especially [Page506-b+ 71] vīra-kraya, -mūlya, -vikraya, which exhibit a curious use of vīra, unknown to me elsewhere.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Excellent, eminent, (used chiefly in composition.) 2. Heroic. 3. Powerful, mighty. 4. Strong, robust. m.
(-raḥ) 1. A hero, a warrior, a champion. 2. Heroism, the heroic Rasa or feeling, as an object of poetical description especially; It is fourfold; viz:—dānavīra, dharmavīra, dayāvīra and yudghavīra . 3. The last Jina or Jaina pontiff of the present æra. 4. An actor, a mime. 5. A flower, (Nerium odorum.) 6. Fire. 7. Sacrificial fire. 8. An epithet of Vishnu. 9. A son. 10. A husband. f.
(-rā) 1. A matron, a wife and mother. 2. A sort of perfume, commonly Mura. 3. A medicinal root, commonly Kshira-kakoli. 4. A plant, (Flacourtia cataphracta.) 5. A drug (Elabaluka.) 6. Plantain tree. 7. A sort of Asclepias, (A rosea.) 8. Opposite-leaved fig tree. 9. A sort of Convolvulus, (C. paniculatus, the white and dark kind.) 10. A small tree, (Gmelina arborea.) 11. Spirituous liquor or a particular kind of it. 12. The aloe. 13. A plant, commonly Atis. n.
(-raṃ) 1. A reed, (Arundo tibialis.) 2. The root of the ginger plant. 3. Pepper. 4. Rice-gruel. 5. The root of the Costus speciosus. 6. The root of the Andropogon muricatum. E. aj to go, and vī substituted for the root, rak Unadi aff.; or vīr to be powerful, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vīra (वीर).—i. e. vṛ + a (probably for original vāra), I. adj. 1. Heroic. 2. Strong. 3. Powerful. 4. Eminent. Ii. m. 1. A hero,
Vīra (वीर).—[masculine] man, [especially] hero, chief (also [Epithet] of [several] gods, [especially] of Indra); husband, male child, son, coll. male offspring; also the male of an animal. Pl. men, people, retainers, followers.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Vīra (वीर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva]
Vīra has the following synonyms: Vīra bhaṭṭa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vīra (वीर):—[from vīr] m. a man, ([especially]) a brave or eminent man, hero, chief (sometimes applied to gods, as to Indra, Viṣṇu etc.; [plural] men, people, mankind, followers, retainers), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a hero (as opp. to a god), [Religious Thought and Life in India 272 n.]
3) [v.s. ...] a husband, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa]
4) [v.s. ...] a male child, son (collect. male progeny), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]
5) [v.s. ...] (collect. male progeny), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]
6) [v.s. ...] the male of an animal, [Atharva-veda; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
7) [v.s. ...] (with, Tāntrikas) an adept (who is between the divya and the paśu, [Religious Thought and Life in India 191]), [Rudrayāmala]
8) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) heroism (as one of the 8 Rasas [q.v.]; the Vīra-carita [q.v.] exhibits an example), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.
9) [v.s. ...] an actor, [Horace H. Wilson]
10) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Agni (son of Tapas), [Mahābhārata]
11) [v.s. ...] fire, ([especially]) sacred or sacrificial fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants (Terminalia Arunja; Nerium Odorum; Guilandina Bonduc, manioc-root), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] Name of an Asura, [Mahābhārata]
14) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [ib.]
15) [v.s. ...] of a son of Bharad-vāja, [ib.]
16) [v.s. ...] of a son of Puruṣa Vairāja and father of Priya-vrata and Uttāna-pāda, [Harivaṃśa]
17) [v.s. ...] of a son of Gṛñjima, [ib.]
18) [v.s. ...] of two sons of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
19) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṣupa and father of Viviṃśa, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
20) [v.s. ...] of the father of Līlāvatī, [ib.]
21) [v.s. ...] of a teacher of Vinaya, [Buddhist literature]
22) [v.s. ...] of the last Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
23) [v.s. ...] (also with bhaṭṭa, ācārya etc.) of various authors etc., [Catalogue(s)]
24) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) of a class of gods under Manu Tāmasa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
25) Virā (विरा):—[from vīra > vīr] f. a wife, matron (whose husband and sons are still alive), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
26) [v.s. ...] an intoxicating beverage, [ib.]
27) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants and drugs (Flacourtia Cataphracta; Convolvulus Paniculatus; Gmelina Arborea; the drug Ela-vāluka etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
28) Vīrā (वीरा):—[from vīra > vīr] f. (in music) a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]
29) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Bharad-vāja, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
30) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Karaṃ-dhama, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
31) [v.s. ...] of a river, [Mahābhārata] ([Bombay edition] vāṇī)
32) Vīra (वीर):—[from vīr] n. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) a reed (Arundo Tibialis)
33) [v.s. ...] the root of ginger (?)
34) [v.s. ...] pepper
35) [v.s. ...] rice-gruel
36) [v.s. ...] the root of Costus Speciosus, of Andropogon Muricatus etc.
37) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. heroic, powerful, strong, excellent, eminent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
38) [v.s. ...] cf. [Latin] vir; [Lithuanian] výras; [Gothic] wair; [Anglo-Saxon] wër, wëre-wulf; [English] werewolf; [German] Werwolf, Wergeld.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vīra (वीर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ)] 1. m. A hero; heroism; an actor; Jaina pontiff; fire. f. A matron; name of a number of plants. n. A reed, spicy substance. a. Excellent, powerful, strong, heroic.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Vīra (वीर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vīra.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Vīra (वीर) [Also spelled veer]:—(a) heroic; brave, valiant, valorous, gallant; (nm) a hero; brother; ~[karma] a heroic deed, deed of bravery; gallant act; ~[karmā] brave, valorous, valiant; one who performs courageous deeds; ~[kāvya] heroic poetry, poetry eulogizing heroic deeds; ~[keśarī] the bravest of the braves, a hero of heroes; ~[gati] heroic end, the attainment of heaven which is supposed to be the happy lot of a warrior killed in action; •[ko prāpta honā, 0milanā] to go to glory, to achieve a heroic end, to be killed in action, to attain access to heaven through martyrdom; ~[gāthā] saga of heroic deeds/heroism; ~[jananī/prasavā/prasū/mātā] mother of a hero/warrior, a mother who begets a brave/warrior child; -[pūjā] hero-worship; ~[bhogyāvasuṃdharā] fortune favours the brave; -[yuga] heroic age; —[rasa] the sentiment of heroism (in Indian Poetics); ~[rasa pradhāna] heroic; ~[lalita] brave yet tender-hearted; ~[śayyā] the battlefield; ~[śreṣṭha] the best amongst heroes, the greatest of heroes; ~[hṛdaya] brave, stout-hearted.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Vira (विर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Bhañj.
2) Vira (विर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gup.
3) Virā (विरा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Vilī.
4) Vīra (वीर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Vīra.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+764): Vira acarya, Vira bhatta, Vira Ganapati, Vira Theri, Vira-abhisheka, Vira-bhoga, Vira-mala, Vira-pattana, Vira-pratapa, Vira-shasana, Vira-shesha, Vira-sheshai, Vira-simhasana, Vira-yatrika, Virabahu, Virabala, Virabalamja, Virabalamju, Virabali, Virabanaja.
Ends with (+143): Abhivira, Adhivira, Agghatitavira, Agravira, Ahamvira, Ahavira, Ahovira, Aishavira, Amkavira, Angavira, Anudhavira, Apratimavira, Arishtavira, Aryasthavira, Asanavira, Asarvavira, Asnavira, Ativira, Atmavira, Attavira.
Full-text (+1678): Virasa, Virashah, Viras, Avira, Nirvira, Virajayantika, Virataru, Ekavira, Danavira, Virasana, Virahan, Viramatri, Vireshvara, Viryacandra, Jagadadhara, Virashamsana, Virahatya, Virapana, Viravada, Viravat.
Search found 82 books and stories containing Vira, Vīrā, Vīra, Virā; (plurals include: Viras, Vīrās, Vīras, Virās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.3.54 < [Part 3 - Chivalry (vīrya-rasa)]
Verse 4.3.25 < [Part 3 - Chivalry (vīrya-rasa)]
Verse 4.3.61 < [Part 3 - Chivalry (vīrya-rasa)]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 6.26.7 < [Sukta 26]
Rig Veda 1.164.43 < [Sukta 164]
Rig Veda 7.56.5 < [Sukta 56]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 15: Lāntikāpitṛ < [Chapter VIII - Initiation of ṛṣabhadatta and devānandā]
Part 18: Gośāla’s death < [Chapter VIII - Initiation of ṛṣabhadatta and devānandā]
Part 5: Sāla and Mahāsāla < [Chapter IX - Stories of the ploughman]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 5 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 1 - History and Literature of Vīra-śaivism < [Chapter XXXV - Vīra-śaivism]
Part 6 - Vātulāgama < [Chapter XXXIV - Literature of Southern Śaivism]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Shakti and Shakta (by John Woodroffe)
Chapter XXVII - Pañcatattva (the Secret Ritual) < [Section 3 - Ritual]
Chapter VI - Śakti and Śākta < [Section 1 - Introductory]
Chapter XXVI - Śākta Sādhanā (the Ordinary Ritual) < [Section 3 - Ritual]