Karana, aka: Kāraṇa, Karaṇa; 21 Definition(s)


Karana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1a) Karaṇa (करण) refers to “minor dance figure”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. It is a specific kind of configurating consisting of sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position). Two karaṇas will make one mātṛkā. A combination of two, three, or four mātṛkās will make up one aṅgahāra (major dance figure). Eventually, an arranged sequence of aṅgahāras constitutes a dance.

1b) Karaṇa (करण, “activity”) refers to the ‘the initial enactment’ of the plot. Karaṇa represents one of the twelve mukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Mukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the opening part (mukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

(Description of Karaṇa): “taking up the matter in question is called Activity (karaṇa)”.

1c) Karaṇa (करण, “production”) refers to one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. The four dhūtas relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).

In the playing of the viṇā the five kinds of the karaṇa-dhātu are:

  1. ribhita,
  2. uccaya,
  3. nīraṭita,
  4. hrāda,
  5. anubandha.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “the karaṇa-dhātus will consist respectively of three, five, seven and nine light strokes, and the being combined and all ending in a heavy stroke”.

2) Kāraṇa (कारण) is another name (synonym) for vibhāva, referring to “determinants”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31 and chapter 7.

3) Karaṇa (करण) refers to a set of six rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “The six karaṇas are Rūpa, Kṛta-pratikṛta, Pratibheda, Rūpaśeṣa, Pratiśuṣka and Ogha or Catuṣka”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Karaṇa (करण) refers to half a tithi (lunar day), therefore, there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis. The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Karaṇa (करण).—1. A handbook for astronomical computation or astronomical manual. 2. A time unit equal to half a tithi or the time during which the Moon gains 6° over the Sun 3. The name of one of the five principal elements of the Hindu calendar. Note: Karaṇa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Karana in Purana glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

Karaṇa (करण).—Another name of Yuyutsu. See under Yuyutsu and Varṇa.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Kāraṇa (कारण).—The lord who is nirguṇa and Brahmā becomes karṇātmā after its conjunction with prakṛti and a saguṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 151. etc.

1b) A term for jīva or prāṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 101.

1c) A name for avyakta.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 2. 19.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Karaṇa (करण).—Instrument; the term also signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

1) Karaṇa (करण).—Lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; cf. क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति (kriyāsiddhī yat prakṛṣṭopakārakaṃ vivakṣitaṃ tatsādhakatamaṃ kārakaṃ karaṇasaṃjñaṃ bhavati), Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् (sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam) P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण (dātreṇa) in दात्रेण लुनाति (dātreṇa lunāti);

2) Karaṇa.—Effort inside the mouth (आभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न (ābhyantara-prayatna)) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place (स्थान (sthāna)) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; cf. स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् (spṛṣṭaṃ sparśānāṃ karaṇam) M. Bh. on P, I.1.10 Vārt. 3;

3) Karaṇa.—Disposition of the organ which produces the sound; cf. श्वासनादो-भयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनि-संमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । (śvāsanādo-bhayānāṃ viśeṣaḥ karaṇamityucyate | etacca pāṇini-saṃmatābhyantaraprayatna iti bhāti |) Com. on R. Pr. XIII.3;cf. also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि (sthānakaraṇānupradānāni) M. Bh. on I.2.32: cf. also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् (anupradānātsaṃsargāt sthānāt karaṇavinyayāt | jāyate varṇavaiśeṣyaṃ parīmāṇācca pañcamāt) T. Pr. XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (anupradāna) (i.e. नाद (nāda) or resonance), संसर्ग (saṃsarga) (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय (sthāna, karaṇavinyaya) and परिमाण (parimāṇa); cf.अकारस्य तावत् -अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते (akārasya tāvat -anupradānaṃ nādaḥ, saṃsargaḥ kaṇṭhe, sthānaṃ hanū, karaṇavinyayaḥ oṣṭhau, parimāṇaṃ mātrākālaḥ | anupradānādibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ karaṇairvarṇānāṃ vaiśeṣyaṃ jāyate) Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत (saṃvṛta) and विवृत (vivṛta); cf. द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः (dve karaṇe saṃvṛtavivṛtākhye vāyorbhavataḥ) V. Pr. I. 11;

4) Karaṇa.—Use of a word e.g. इतिकरणं, वत्करणम् (itikaraṇaṃ, vatkaraṇam); cf. किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः (kimupasthitaṃ nāma | anārṣaṃ itikaraṇaḥ) M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

1) Kāraṇa (कारण) or Kāraṇāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (eg., kāraṇa).

2) Kāraṇa (कारण) is the name of a deity who was imparted with the knowledge of the Kāraṇāgama by Sadāśiva through parasambandha, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The kāraṇa-āgama, being part of the ten Śivabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.

Kāraṇa in turn transmitted the Kāraṇāgama (through mahānsambandha) to Śarva, who then transmitted it to Prajāpati who then, through divya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Kāraṇāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Karana in Nyaya glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

Kāraṇa (कारण, “cause”).—The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas divide cause (kāraṇa) into three types. Annaṃbhaṭṭa also says that cause is divided into three kinds. These are

  1. samavāyi-kāraṇa (inherent cause),
  2. asamavāyi-kāraṇa (non-inherent cause),
  3. nimitta-kāraṇa (instrumental or efficient cause).

According to Viśvanātha, causality is of three types, viz., samavāyikāraṇatva (inherent causality), asamavāyikāraṇatva (non-inherent causality) and nimittakāraṇatva (efficient causality). The point is that the same thing may sometimes be an inherent cause and at other times efficient cause. Similarly, the same thing may be a non-inherent cause at one point of time, while efficient cause at another. There is no contradiction here. Hence, Viśvanātha, maintains that causality (kāraṇatā) is actually of three types. And as causality is of three types, so the cause is also called as three kinds.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

The Karaṇa (करण) is not even a mere linking of many poses. It is a coordinated movement of the hands and feet, the action of which is thoroughly based on cogency. The movement should be aesthetically appealing to give it the status of dance. From the etymological point of view, the word karaṇa has its root in kṛñ meaning a doer, maker, causer, doing, making, causing, producing, helping, promoting, the act of doing and the doer. The work karaṇa also has all the above meanings. The word karaṇa also suggests the idea of being an instrument, an element, an aṅga or part of something, and in dance it is a unit of action.

Karaṇa is that which causes and also effects. In dance it causes and effects the aṅgahāra (a dance sequence). It is a helper or companion and hence instrumental in effecting action. In dance, it is a contributory factor. It suggests motion and hence it is no wonder that it is the very name of a treatise on the motion of planets by Varāhamihira. In short, a karaṇa in dance is to be understood as a basic unit of dance, of a dynamic and not merely static nature.

Source: Academia.edu: Some Pearls from the Fourth Chapter of Abhinavabhāratī Table of Contents

Karaṇa (करण) is half of a tithi. Hence there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis. The karaṇas are only of astrological use and have been given different names which are eleven in number. It can be further classified as the following:

The seven carakaraṇas are:

  1. Bava,
  2. Bālava,
  3. Kaulava,
  4. Taitila,
  5. Gara,
  6. Vaṇija,
  7. Viṣṭi,

The four sthirakaraṇas are:

  1. Śakuni,
  2. Catuṣpāda,
  3. Nāga,
  4. Kimstughna,
Source: Hindupedia: Pañcāṅga

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Karaṇa (करण, “office”) is a Prakrit technical term referring to “names derived from office” and representing kind of a rule when deriving personal names for men, mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning karaṇa) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Karana refers to one of the important sub-divisions of the Maravans (one of the first of the Dravidian tribes that penetrated to the south of the peninsula). The Maravan people claim descent from Guha or Kuha, Rāma’s boatman, who rowed him across to Ceylon.

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Karana in Pali glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

karaṇa : (nt.) 1. doing; making; 2. production. || kāraṇa (nt.), reason; cause. kāraṇā (abl.) by means of; through; by. (f.), torture; bodily punishment.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Karaṇa, (fr. kṛ, cp. Vedic karaṇa) 1. adj. (f. ī) (-°) doing, making, causing, producing; as cakkhu° ñāṇa° (leading to clear knowledge) S. IV, 331; V, 97; It. 83; and acakkhu° etc. S. V, 97; nāthā °ā dhammā A. V, 23 (cp. V. 89) and thera° A. II, 22; dubbaṇṇa° S. V, 217; see also D. I, 245; M. I. 15; S. V, 96, 115; A. IV, 94; V, 268; Miln. 289. ‹-› 2. (nt.) (-°) the making, producing of; the doing, performance of (=kamma), as bali° offering of food =bali kamma) PvA. 81; gabbha° Sn. 927; pānujja° Sn. 256. 3. (abs.) (a) the doing up, preparing J. V, 400, VI, 270 (of a building: the construction) (b) the doing, performance of, as pāṇâtipātassa k° and ak° (“commission and omission”); DhA. I, 214; means of action J. III, 92. (c) ttg. the instrumental case (with or without °vacana) PvA. 33; VvA. 25, 53, 162, 174. —°atthe in the sense of, with the meaning of the instrumental case J. III, 98; V, 444; PvA. 35; VvA. 304; DhsA. 48; Kacc 157.—4. (-°) state, condition; in noun-abstract function= °ttaṃ (cp. kamma I. 2) as nānā° (=nānattaṃ) difference M. II, 128; S. IV, 294; Bdhd 94; kasi° ploughing PvA. 66; kattabba° (=kattabbattaṃ) “what is to be done, ” i.e. duty PvA. 30; pūjā° veneration PvA. 30. sakkāra° reverence, devotion SnA 284.

Note: in massu° and kamma° some grammarians have tried to derive k° from a root kṛ, to hurt, cut, torture (see Morris J. P. T. S. 1893, 15), which is however quite unnecessary (see kamma 3 A (b), kataII 1 (b)). Karaṇa here stands for kamma, as clearly indicated by semantic grounds as well as by J. VI, 270 where it explains kappita-kesa-massu, and J. V, 309 & DhA. I, 253 where massukamma takes the place of °karaṇa, and J. III, 314, where it is represented by massu-kutti (C. : massukiriya). Cp. also DA. I, 137. a° Negative in all meanings of the positive, i.e. the non-performing J. I, 131; V, 222; Nett 81; PvA. 59; DhsA. 127; non-undertaking (of business) J. I, 229; noncommission M. I, 93; abstaining from Dhs. 299. Cpd. —uttariya (nt.) angry rejoinder, vehement defence DhA. I, 44. (Page 196)

— or —

Kāraṇa, (nt.) (in meaning 1 represented in later Sk. by kāraṇā f. , in meaning 2=Sk. kāraṇa nt. , equivalent to prakṛti, natural form, constituent, reason, cause). 1.—(a) a deed, action, performance, esp. an act imposed or inflicted upon somebody by a higher authority (by the king as representative of justice or by kamma: M. III, 181; see kamma 11 3. A b.) as an ordeal, a feat or punishment: a labour or task in the sense of the 12 labours of Heracles or the labours of Hades. kāraṇaṃ kārāpeti “he makes somebody perform the task. ” Pass, kāraṇaṃ or kāraṇā karīyati. Thus as a set of five tasks or purgatory obligations under the name of pañcavidha-bandhana “the group of five” (not, as Warren trsl. p. 257 “inflict on him the torture called the fivefold pinion”), a means of punishment in Niraya (q. v. under pañca). Not primarily torture (Rh. Davids, Miln. trsl. I. 254, and others with wrong derivation from kṛṇtati). At DhA. III, 70 these punishments are comprehended under the term dasa-dukkhakāraṇāni (the ten punishments in misery); the meaning “punishment” also at J. IV, 87 (tantarajjukaṃ k°ṃ katvā), whereas at J. VI, 416 k. is directly paraphrased by “maraṇa, ” as much as “killing. ” Often spelt karaṇa, q. v.; the spelling kāraṇā (as f.) at Miln. 185 seems to be a later spelling for kāraṇaṃ. See karaṇa for further reference.—Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ ajja kāressati “what task will he impose on me to-day?” A. V, 324; as pañcavidhabandhana K° A. I, 141, PvA. 251, Nd2 304III, — As adj. °kāraṇa in dāruṇa° “being obliged to go through the dreadful trial” PvA. 221.—(b) duty obligation, in kāraṇ’âkāraṇā (pl.) duties great and small DhA. I, 385. Cp. also kāraṇaṃ karoti to try M. I, 444.—(c) a trick (i.e. a duty imposed by a higher authority through training) J. II, 325 (ānañja°); Miln. 201 (ākāsa-gamana°). 2.—(a) acting, action as (material) cause: k°-bhūta being the cause of ... PvA. 15;—(b) (intellectual) cause, reason Miln. 150; DhA. I, 389; esp. as —°: arodana° the reason for not crying PvA. 63; asocana° same, ibid. 62; āgamana° the reason for coming (here) ibid. 81, 106. =pariyatti, DhA. 36. =attha, SA on I. 215, SnA. I. 238—Instr. kāraṇena by necessity, needs PvA. 195; tena k° therefore ibid. 40 — Abl. kāranā by means of, through, by (=hetu or nissāya) PvA. 27; imasmā k° therefore PvA. 40; kāraṇaṭṭhā (expl. as attha-kāraṇā Nd2) for the purpose of some object or advantage Sn. 75; opp. nikkāraṇā from unselfishness ibid. -sakāraṇa (adj.) with good reason (of vacana) PvA. 109. (Page 210)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

karaṇa (करण).—m (Popular form of karṇa S amongst artisans. ) The hypotenuse of a triangle, or the diagonal of a quadrangular figure.

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karaṇa (करण).—n (S) An instrument or a means of action; an organ of sense, or a member of the body. Ex. kiṃ karaṇāmmājīṃ capala mana || tayāhūna savēga kapi uḍḍāṇa || 2 In grammar. The instrumental case. 3 An astronomical period. There are eleven in irregular recurrence, each answering to half a lunar day. These are bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, garaja, vaṇija, viṣṭi, śakuni, catuṣpada, nāga, kiṃstughna. 4 A treatise containing tables for calculating eclipses &c. from any particular epoch:--thus contrad. from siddhānta & tantra. 5 In comp. Doing or making. Ex. pavitrīkaraṇa, nirmalīkaraṇa, pāpakaraṇa, śuddhī- karaṇa, vyaktīkaraṇa, pṛthakkaraṇa, sañcayīkaraṇa, spaṣṭīkaraṇa, śucīkaraṇa, vidēśīkaraṇa, mandīkaraṇa, śvacchīkaraṇa, malī- karaṇa ēkīkaraṇa. Such compounds are valuable, and they are formed at will. They are omitted, however, save a few bearing some special claim for insertion.

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karaṇā (करणा).—m ( H from A) The large brass trumpet which sounds the bass.

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karāṇā (कराणा).—m A particular esculent vegetable.

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kāraṇa (कारण).—n (S) A cause or an efficient. Three kinds are reckoned, samavāyī kāraṇa, asamavāyī kāraṇa, nimitta kāraṇa Intimate and inseparable (thus, inherent or direct); not intimate or inherent (thus, proximate or indirect); instrumental or incidental. 2 A reason or ground; an object proposed; a motive or principle in general. 3 Need of; call or occasion for. Ex. āja pāūsa nāhīṃ mhaṇūna chatrīcēṃ kā0 nāhīṃ. 4 Any festive occasion, as a marriage, a thread investiture &c. 5 S An instrument or a means; a material or elementary matter; an element or a rudiment. Note. kāraṇa as CAUSE answers to Efficient--the maker or doer; to Final cause--the object or aim; to Necessitating or determining cause--the motive; to Principle or spring of action--the reason or ground. kāraṇīṃ lāvaṇēṃ To apply to its purpose (dēha, dravya, sāmarthya, āyuṣya, janma &c.)

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kāraṇā (कारणा).—f (Vulgar corr. from karuṇā) Pity, com- passion, mercy. 2 Pitiful complaining or solicitation. v bhāka.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karaṇa (करण).—n An instrument or a means of action. The instrumental case. An organ of sense or a member of the body.

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karaṇā (करणा).—m A large brass trumpet, a bugle, horn.

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kāraṇa (कारण).—n A reason. A cause or an effi- cient. An instrument or a means. kāraṇatva Causality or causation. Need of. Any festive occasion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karaṇa (करण).—a. [kṛ-lyuṭ]

1) Making, doing, effecting, producing.

2) (Ved.) Clever, skilled; रथं न दस्रा करणा समिन्वथः (rathaṃ na dasrā karaṇā saminvathaḥ) Rv.1.119.7.

-ṇaḥ 1 (Ved.) An assistant. यमस्य करणः (yamasya karaṇaḥ) Av.6.46.2.

2) A man of a mixed tribe.

3) A writer, जज्ञे धीमांस्ततस्तस्यां युयुत्सुः करणो नृप (jajñe dhīmāṃstatastasyāṃ yuyutsuḥ karaṇo nṛpa) Mb.1.115. 43; Ms.1.22.

4) A child. cf. ...... करणः शिशौ । शूद्राविशोः सुतेऽपि स्यात् (karaṇaḥ śiśau | śūdrāviśoḥ sute'pi syāt) Nm.

-ṇam 1) Doing, performing, accomplishing, effecting; परहित°, संध्या°, प्रिय° (parahita°, saṃdhyā°, priya°) &c.

2) Act, action.

3) Religious action; Y.1.251.

4) Business, trade.

5) An organ of sense; वपुषा करणोज्झि- तेन सा निपतन्ती पतिमप्यपातयत् (vapuṣā karaṇojjhi- tena sā nipatantī patimapyapātayat) R.8.38,42; पटुकरणैः प्राणिभिः (paṭukaraṇaiḥ prāṇibhiḥ) Me.5; R.14.5.

6) The body; उपमानमभूद्विलासिनां करणं यत्तव कान्तिमत्तया (upamānamabhūdvilāsināṃ karaṇaṃ yattava kāntimattayā) Ku.4.5.

7) An instrument or means of an action, न तस्य कार्यं करणं न विद्यते (na tasya kāryaṃ karaṇaṃ na vidyate) Śvet.6.8; करणं च पृथग्विधम् (karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham) Bg.18.14.18. उपमितिकरणमुपमानम् (upamitikaraṇamupamānam) T. S.; तस्य भोगाधिकरणे करणानि निबोध मे (tasya bhogādhikaraṇe karaṇāni nibodha me) Mb.3.181.19.

8) (In Logic) The instrumental cause which is thus defined :व्यापारवद- साधारणं कारणं करणम् (vyāpāravada- sādhāraṇaṃ kāraṇaṃ karaṇam).

9) A cause or motive (in general).

10) The sense expressed by the instrumental case (in gram.); साधकतमं करणम् (sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam) P.1.4.42; or क्रियायाः परिनिष्पत्तिर्यद्- व्यापारादनन्तरम् । विवक्ष्यते यदा यत्र करणं तत्तदा स्मृतम् (kriyāyāḥ pariniṣpattiryad- vyāpārādanantaram | vivakṣyate yadā yatra karaṇaṃ tattadā smṛtam) ||

11) (In law) A document, a bond, documentary proof; Ms.8.15,52,154.

12) A kind of rhythmical pause, beat of the hand to keep time; अनुगर्जितसंधिग्धाः करणै- र्मुरजस्वनाः (anugarjitasaṃdhigdhāḥ karaṇai- rmurajasvanāḥ) Ku.6.4.

13) (In Astrol.) A Division of the day; (these Karaṇas are eleven).

-bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, gara, vaṇija, viṣṭi, śakuni, catuṣpāda, nāga and [rkistughna].

14) The Supreme Being.

15) Pronunciation.

16) The posture of an ascetic.

17) A posture in sexual enjoyment. बोभुज्यते स्म करणेन नरेन्द्रपुत्री (bobhujyate sma karaṇena narendraputrī) Bil. ch.42. वात्स्यायनोक्तकरणैर्निखिलैर्मनोज्ञै । संभुज्यते कविवरेण नरेन्द्रपुत्री (vātsyāyanoktakaraṇairnikhilairmanojñai | saṃbhujyate kavivareṇa narendraputrī) || Ibid.45.

18) A field.

19) Plastering with the hand.

2) The usage of the writer caste.

21) The Principle of intelligence; दृष्टाः करणाश्रयिणः (dṛṣṭāḥ karaṇāśrayiṇaḥ) Sāṅ. K.43.

22) (In Astron.) Name of a treatise of Varāhamihira on the motion of planets.

-ṇī 1) A woman of a mixed caste. माहिष्येण करण्यां तु रथकारः प्रजायते (māhiṣyeṇa karaṇyāṃ tu rathakāraḥ prajāyate) Y.1.95.

2) Absurd or irrational number.

-sutā f. An adopted daughter.

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—[kṛ-ṇic lyuṭ]

1) A cause, reason; कारणकोपाः कुटुम्बिन्यः (kāraṇakopāḥ kuṭumbinyaḥ) M.1.18; R.1.74; Bg.13.21; oft. with loc. of the effect; Bh.2.84.

2) Ground, motive, object; प्रव्राज्य चीरवसनं किं नु पश्यसि कारणम् (pravrājya cīravasanaṃ kiṃ nu paśyasi kāraṇam) Rām.2.73. 12. किं पुनः कारणम् (kiṃ punaḥ kāraṇam) Mbh.; Y.2.23; Ms.8.347; कारण- मानुषीं तनुम् (kāraṇa- mānuṣīṃ tanum) R.16.22.

3) An instrument, means; गर्भस्रावे मासतुल्या निशाः शुद्धेस्तु कारणम् (garbhasrāve māsatulyā niśāḥ śuddhestu kāraṇam) Y.3.2,65.

4) (In Nyāya phil.) A cause, that which is invariably antecedent to some product and is not otherwise constituted; or, according to Mill, 'the antecedent or concurrence of antecedents on which the effect is invariably and unconditionally consequent'; according to Naiyāyikas it is of three kinds; (1) समवायि (samavāyi) (intimate or inherent); as threads in the case of cloth; (2) असमवायि (asamavāyi) (non-intimate or non-inherent), as the conjunction of the threads in the case of cloth; (3) निमित्त (nimitta) (instrumental) as the weaver's loom.

5) The generative cause, creator, father; Ku.5.81.

6) An element, elementary matter; Y.3.148; Bg.18. 13.

7) The origin or plot of a play, poem &c.

8) An organ of sense; हित्वा तनुं कारणमानुषीं ताम् (hitvā tanuṃ kāraṇamānuṣīṃ tām).

9) The body.

10) A sign, document, proof or authority; प्रमाणं चैव लोकस्य ब्रह्मात्रैव हि कारणम् (pramāṇaṃ caiva lokasya brahmātraiva hi kāraṇam) Ms.11.84.

11) That on which any opinion or judgment is based.

12) Action; आत्मना कारणैश्चैव समस्येह महीक्षितः (ātmanā kāraṇaiścaiva samasyeha mahīkṣitaḥ) Mb.12.59.13.

13) A legal instrument or document.

14) Agency, instrumentality.

15) A deity (as the proximate or remote cause of creation)

16) Killing, injuring.

17) A desire (vāsanā) created formerly (as pūrvavāsanā); पूर्वं नित्यं सर्वगतं मनोहेतुम- लक्षणम् । अज्ञानकर्मनिर्दिष्टमेतत्कारणलक्षणम् (pūrvaṃ nityaṃ sarvagataṃ manohetuma- lakṣaṇam | ajñānakarmanirdiṣṭametatkāraṇalakṣaṇam) || Mb.12.211.6.

-ṇā 1) Pain, agony.

2) Casting into hell.

3) Urging, instigation. (-kāraṇāt for the reason that; dveṣa° on account of hatred; matkāraṇāt for my sake; Pt.1.22.)

4) Action; निमित्ते कारणात्मके (nimitte kāraṇātmake) Mb.12.289.7.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karaṇā (करणा).—(compare karaṇī; both = Sanskrit karaṇa, nt.), means, cause: LV 434.2, repeated 3—4, sarva-sāmkleśikāntarāyika- dharmāntarāya-karaṇā-nirvāṇasye 'ti (both times one ms., a different one each time, with Calc. °karaṇa-).

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—cause (as in Sanskrit; a few special uses): (1) Laṅk 9.18 f. sarva-kāraṇa-tīrthya-vyapeta-buddheḥ (Laṅ- kādhipateḥ), probably having his intellect turned away from the heretics (who are characterized by the view that) all things are caused (Suzuki's version is impossible); (2) acc. adv., for the sake (of, gen.): SP 74.8 (prose) āgacchata (read probably °tha with most mss.) śīghraṃ teṣāṃ kāraṇaṃ nirdhāvata (°tha), come, run forth quickly for the sake of (getting) these (toys)!; (3) loc., quasi-adv., used in a way resembling Sanskrit sthāne, with good reason: Jm 223.20 (verse) jagad idam avakīrṇam kāraṇe tvadyaśobhiḥ.

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Kāraṇā (कारणा).—(= Pali id.; essentially Buddhist word, tho cited in Sanskrit Lexx. and once from Daśak., BR s.v.), torture, torment, esp. applied to torments of hell: with kārayati, causes to undergo, inflicts, °ṇāṃ kārayanti Divy 376.12; °ṇāḥ (so with mss.) sattvānām ārabdhāḥ kārayitum id. 16; kāraṇāviśeṣāḥ (in hell) pratiprasrabhyante, are allayed, quieted, Divy 68.3; 138.10; 265.23 (°srabdhāḥ); 568.15; Av i.4.10—11; 10.10—11, etc.; kāraṇābhiḥ kārito, tortured with torments (in hell and elsewhere) Śikṣ 186.11; of earthly torments, kāraṇāś ca kārenti LV 259.19 (verse), they make him (the Bodhisattva, practising austerities) undergo (physical) torments; ātmanaḥ kāraṇāṃ kārayasi Śikṣ 39.3; you inflict torture on yourself.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 611 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Nāmakaraṇa (नामकरण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) Naming a child first after birth. E. nāma, and karaṇa making.
Vyadhikaraṇa (व्यधिकरण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) The subsisting in different substrata.
Śrīkaraṇa (श्रीकरण).—m. (-ṇaḥ) A pen. E. śrī the word Shri, karaṇa implement of making.
Antaḥkaraṇa (अन्तःकरण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) The internal and spiritual part of man, the seat of thought a...
Nimittakāraṇa (निमित्तकारण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) The instrumental cause, the material or the agent, espec...
Pṛthakkaraṇa (पृथक्करण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) Separating, distinguishing, analysing. E. pṛthak, and karaṇa...
Kāraṇaśārira (कारणशारिर) refers to the “causal body”, representing one of the three types of th...
Ādikāraṇa (आदिकारण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) A primary cause. E. ādi and kāraṇa cause.
Kāraṇakāraṇa (कारणकारण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) 1. A primary cause 2. An elementary cause, an atom. E. kāraṇ...
Sapiṇḍīkaraṇa (सपिण्डीकरण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) 1. Offering food to the deceased relatives called Sapinda...
Ñāṇakaraṇa refers to: (adj.) giving (right) understanding, enlightening, in combination w. cakk...
Samavāyikāraṇa (समवायिकारण) refers to “inherent cause” and represents one of the three types of...
Asamavāyikāraṇa (असमवायिकारण).—n. (-ṇaṃ) (In logic,) Incidental cause, as the simple conjunctio...
Kiṃkāraṇa (किंकारण).—a. having what reason or cause, Kiṃkāraṇa is a Sanskrit compound consistin...
Kāraṇamālā (कारणमाला).—f. (-lā) A series or chain of events. E. kāraṇa, and mālā a wreath.

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