Karana, Kāraṇa, Karaṇa: 46 definitions


Karana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Karan.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1a) Karaṇa (करण) refers to “minor dance figure”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. It is a specific kind of configurating consisting of sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position). Two karaṇas will make one mātṛkā. A combination of two, three, or four mātṛkās will make up one aṅgahāra (major dance figure). Eventually, an arranged sequence of aṅgahāras constitutes a dance.

1b) Karaṇa (करण, “activity”) refers to the ‘the initial enactment’ of the plot. Karaṇa represents one of the twelve mukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Mukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the opening part (mukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

(Description of Karaṇa): “taking up the matter in question is called Activity (karaṇa)”.

1c) Karaṇa (करण, “production”) refers to one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. The four dhūtas relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).

In the playing of the viṇā the five kinds of the karaṇa-dhātu are:

  1. ribhita,
  2. uccaya,
  3. nīraṭita,
  4. hrāda,
  5. anubandha.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “the karaṇa-dhātus will consist respectively of three, five, seven and nine light strokes, and the being combined and all ending in a heavy stroke”.

2) Kāraṇa (कारण) is another name (synonym) for vibhāva, referring to “determinants”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31 and chapter 7.

3) Karaṇa (करण) refers to a set of six rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “The six karaṇas are Rūpa, Kṛta-pratikṛta, Pratibheda, Rūpaśeṣa, Pratiśuṣka and Ogha or Catuṣka”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Karaṇa (करण) refers to half a tithi (lunar day), therefore, there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis. The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Karaṇa (करण).—1. A handbook for astronomical computation or astronomical manual. 2. A time unit equal to half a tithi or the time during which the Moon gains 6° over the Sun 3. The name of one of the five principal elements of the Hindu calendar. Note: Karaṇa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Karaṇa (करण) refers to “causation”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.13 (“Śiva-Pārvatī dialogue”).—Accordingly, after Pārvatī spoke to Śiva: “On hearing these words of Pārvatī, the great lord engaged in the causation of great enjoyment [i.e., maha-ūti-karaṇa] and protection became delighted. He laughed and said”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Karaṇa (करण).—Another name of Yuyutsu. See under Yuyutsu and Varṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kāraṇa (कारण).—The lord who is nirguṇa and Brahmā becomes karṇātmā after its conjunction with prakṛti and a saguṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 151. etc.

1b) A term for jīva or prāṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 101.

1c) A name for avyakta.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 2. 19.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Karaṇa (करण).—Instrument; the term also signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Karaṇa (करण).—Lit instrument; the term signifies the most efficient means for accomplishing an act; cf. क्रियासिद्धी यत् प्रकृष्टोपकारकं विवक्षितं तत्साधकतमं कारकं करणसंज्ञं भवति (kriyāsiddhī yat prakṛṣṭopakārakaṃ vivakṣitaṃ tatsādhakatamaṃ kārakaṃ karaṇasaṃjñaṃ bhavati), Kāś. on साधकतमं करणम् (sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam) P.I.4.42, e. g. दात्रेण (dātreṇa) in दात्रेण लुनाति (dātreṇa lunāti);

2) Karaṇa.—Effort inside the mouth (आभ्यन्तर-प्रयत्न (ābhyantara-prayatna)) to produce sound; e. g. touching of the particular place (स्थान (sthāna)) inside the mouth for uttering consonants; cf. स्पृष्टं स्पर्शानां करणम् (spṛṣṭaṃ sparśānāṃ karaṇam) M. Bh. on P, I.1.10 Vārt. 3;

3) Karaṇa.—Disposition of the organ which produces the sound; cf. श्वासनादो-भयानां विशेषः करणमित्युच्यते । एतच्च पाणिनि-संमताभ्यन्तरप्रयत्न इति भाति । (śvāsanādo-bhayānāṃ viśeṣaḥ karaṇamityucyate | etacca pāṇini-saṃmatābhyantaraprayatna iti bhāti |) Com. on R. Pr. XIII.3;cf. also स्थानकरणानुप्रदानानि (sthānakaraṇānupradānāni) M. Bh. on I.2.32: cf. also अनुप्रदानात्संसर्गात् स्थानात् करणविन्ययात् । जायते वर्णवैशेष्यं परीमाणाच्च पञ्चमात् (anupradānātsaṃsargāt sthānāt karaṇavinyayāt | jāyate varṇavaiśeṣyaṃ parīmāṇācca pañcamāt) T. Pr. XXIII. 2. where karaṇa is described to be of five kinds अनुप्रदान (anupradāna) (i.e. नाद (nāda) or resonance), संसर्ग (saṃsarga) (contact), स्थान, करणविन्यय (sthāna, karaṇavinyaya) and परिमाण (parimāṇa); cf.अकारस्य तावत् -अनुप्रदानं नादः, संसर्गः कण्ठे, स्थानं हनू, करणविन्ययः ओष्ठौ, परिमाणं मात्राकालः । अनुप्रदानादिभिः पञ्चभिः करणैर्वर्णानां वैशेष्यं जायते (akārasya tāvat -anupradānaṃ nādaḥ, saṃsargaḥ kaṇṭhe, sthānaṃ hanū, karaṇavinyayaḥ oṣṭhau, parimāṇaṃ mātrākālaḥ | anupradānādibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ karaṇairvarṇānāṃ vaiśeṣyaṃ jāyate) Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII.2. The Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya mentions two karaṇas संवृत (saṃvṛta) and विवृत (vivṛta); cf. द्वे करणे संवृतविवृताख्ये वायोर्भवतः (dve karaṇe saṃvṛtavivṛtākhye vāyorbhavataḥ) V. Pr. I. 11;

4) Karaṇa.—Use of a word e.g. इतिकरणं, वत्करणम् (itikaraṇaṃ, vatkaraṇam); cf. किमुपस्थितं नाम । अनार्षं इतिकरणः (kimupasthitaṃ nāma | anārṣaṃ itikaraṇaḥ) M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

1) Kāraṇa (कारण) or Kāraṇāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (e.g., kāraṇa).

2) Kāraṇa (कारण) is the name of a deity who was imparted with the knowledge of the Kāraṇāgama by Sadāśiva through parasambandha, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The kāraṇa-āgama, being part of the ten Śivabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.

Kāraṇa in turn transmitted the Kāraṇāgama (through mahānsambandha) to Śarva, who then transmitted it to Prajāpati who then, through divya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Kāraṇāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)

Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Kāraṇa (कारण) (Cf. Upādāna) refers to “cause” (e.g., śivatattva being the cause of all other tattvas), according to the Pauṣkara-āgama, quoted in Aghoraśivācārya’s (12th century) vṛtti (commentary) on Bhojadeva’s Tattvaprakāśa kārikā 25, which concerns the origination of [Śaiva] ontological principles (tattva) out of the Śiva-principle (śivatattva).—Aghora quotes the Pauṣkara verse while commenting on the meaning of śivatattva in the present kārikā. In his view, śivatattva cannot refer, at least in this context, to Śiva or His Śakti because both are beyond tattvas (tattvātīta). If it were the cause (kāraṇa=upādāna) of all other tattvas, as stated in the verse, then it would result that it is non-sentient (acetana) and subject to change (pariṇāmin) (admitting, of course, that the material cause really transforms into the world). For Aghora, who aligns on this point with Kashmirian Saiddhāntikas, the material cause of the world must be insentient in order to explain its transformation into an insentient world. [...]

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to the “cause”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Only [the following] could [still] be objected: if these [objects] did not exist after as well as before [their] being manifest, [then] the very fact that they are manifest would be causeless, and [under such conditions,] the relation of cause and effect (kārya-kāraṇa-bhāva) and the relation between the knowing subject and the object of knowledge would not be possible”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to the “(supreme) cause” (of all the world), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.22cd-28ab]—“[...] That is supreme strength, that is supreme amṛt. The highest of splendors is highest light of light. The divine Lord is the supreme cause (kāraṇakāraṇaṃ param) of all the world. The creator, supporter, and destroyer are not as strong as this. This receptacle of mantras is the word of all perfections and characteristics [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Kāraṇa (कारण, “cause”).—The Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas divide cause (kāraṇa) into three types. Annaṃbhaṭṭa also says that cause is divided into three kinds. These are

  1. samavāyi-kāraṇa (inherent cause),
  2. asamavāyi-kāraṇa (non-inherent cause),
  3. nimitta-kāraṇa (instrumental or efficient cause).

According to Viśvanātha, causality is of three types, viz., samavāyikāraṇatva (inherent causality), asamavāyikāraṇatva (non-inherent causality) and nimittakāraṇatva (efficient causality). The point is that the same thing may sometimes be an inherent cause and at other times efficient cause. Similarly, the same thing may be a non-inherent cause at one point of time, while efficient cause at another. There is no contradiction here. Hence, Viśvanātha, maintains that causality (kāraṇatā) is actually of three types. And as causality is of three types, so the cause is also called as three kinds.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Karana [கரணா] in the Tamil language is the name of a plant identified with Strobocalyx arborea (Buch.-Ham.) Sch.Bip. from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family having the following synonyms: Vernonia arborea, Vernonia monosis, Vernonia javanica. For the possible medicinal usage of karana, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Karana [കരണ] in the Malayalam language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Karaṇa (करण):—Processing in the making / refinement of the natural products which means imparting other properties. These properties are infused by contact of water & fire, cleaning, churning, time, utensils etc.

2) The means or instrument by which an action is effected , the idea expressed by the instrumental cause, instrumentality

3) [karaṇam] 1. subordinate cause 2. sensory and motor organ 3. medicines

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Karaṇa (करण) (lit. “one who is clever or one who is skillfull”) is a synonym (another name) for the Hawk/Falcon (Śyena), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Karaṇa (करण) refers to “instrument” (representing an aspect of the universal cause of creation and destruction), according to the Svacchandabhairavatantra.—[...] We find that the Transmental [i.e., unmanā] appears, as usual, at the upper extremity of a progressive ascent of consciousness through the phases of the syllable OṂ. This takes place in consonance with the pervasion of the vital breath through the centres of the body, each of which is governed by the five deities who preside over a ‘karaṇa’ that is, ‘instrument’ representing an aspect of the universal cause of creation and destruction. The process is termed ‘the Abandonment of the Instruments’ (karaṇa-tyāga) because, as the breath-cum-consciousness rises from one to the other, the lower is abandoned for the higher.

2) Karaṇa (करण) (Cf. Samāveśa) refers to “bodily postures” according to Abhinava’s Tantrāloka (verse 1.167-170), while quoting his Mālinīvijayottaratantra (verse 2.21-23).—Accordingly, “The three (ways in which impurity is eradicated) was taught by the Supreme Lord in the Mālinīvijayottaratantra in the course of explaining (the forms) of penetration (into the supreme state) (samāveśa). [...] That penetration which takes place by virtue of the utterance of mantra (uccāra), bodily postures (karaṇa), meditation (dhyāna), the letters (varṇa) and the formation of supports (sthānakalpanā) is appropriately said to pertain to the individual soul (āṇava). [...]”.

3) Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to one of the eight Bhairavas (bhairava-aṣṭaka) associated with Avyaktapīṭha (i.e., ‘the unmanifest seat’ representing the act of churning—manthāna), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Bhairavas (bhairavāṣṭaka): Nitya, Nāda, Aja, Kāraṇa, Avyaya, Sarvaga, Śāśvata, Sthāṇu.

4) Kāraṇa (कारण) OR Paramakāraṇa refers to the “(supreme) cause”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Akula is said to be the principle that, self-existent, does not require Kula in order to exist. It is Śiva, the supreme cause (paramakāraṇaśivaṃ paramakāraṇam). Kula is that from which the universe arises. It is that in which it is established and where it is dissolved away. That Kula is said to be Kaula”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to the “cause” (of triumph), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[This rite] should be employed by utterly glorious Sovereigns when they are in distress—[for this rite] removes the three kinds of sorrow which begin with the one relating to oneself; causes the destruction of all afflictions; is marked by auspiciousness; destroys all enemies; pacifies (i.e. removes unwanted consequences of ritual mistakes etc.); is the cause of triumph (mahāvijaya-kāraṇa); kills the Demons; brings about prosperities; subdues all; bestows the longest of lives; is meritorious; [and] was perfomed by ancient Kings”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics (Artha)

Karaṇa (करण) refers to “writers” of grant plates (used as legal documents in ancient India).—They were written by professional writers. The existence of such writers is mentioned in the southern Buddhist canons and in the Epics. They have been called lekhaka, lipikara and later on divira, karaṇa, kāyastha, etc. According to Kalhaṇa (Rājataraṅgiṇī), the Kings of Kashmir employed a special officer for drafting legal documents. He bore the title of paṭṭopādhyāya, i.e., the teacher (charged with the preparation) of title deeds. The existence of manuals such as the lekhapañcaśikā, the lekhaprakāśa, which give rules for drafting letters, land grants, treaties, and various kinds of bonds and bills of exchange, show beyond doubt that the writing of grant plates [by the karaṇa] was a specialised art and that the style of writing those documents must always have been centuries behind the times, just as it is even to-day with respect to legal and state documents.

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Academia.edu: Some Pearls from the Fourth Chapter of Abhinavabhāratī Table of Contents

The Karaṇa (करण) is not even a mere linking of many poses. It is a coordinated movement of the hands and feet, the action of which is thoroughly based on cogency. The movement should be aesthetically appealing to give it the status of dance. From the etymological point of view, the word karaṇa has its root in kṛñ meaning a doer, maker, causer, doing, making, causing, producing, helping, promoting, the act of doing and the doer. The work karaṇa also has all the above meanings. The word karaṇa also suggests the idea of being an instrument, an element, an aṅga or part of something, and in dance it is a unit of action.

Karaṇa is that which causes and also effects. In dance it causes and effects the aṅgahāra (a dance sequence). It is a helper or companion and hence instrumental in effecting action. In dance, it is a contributory factor. It suggests motion and hence it is no wonder that it is the very name of a treatise on the motion of planets by Varāhamihira. In short, a karaṇa in dance is to be understood as a basic unit of dance, of a dynamic and not merely static nature.

Source: Hindupedia: Pañcāṅga

Karaṇa (करण) is half of a tithi. Hence there are 60 karaṇas in a lunar month of 30 tithis. The karaṇas are only of astrological use and have been given different names which are eleven in number. It can be further classified as the following:

The seven carakaraṇas are:

  1. Bava,
  2. Bālava,
  3. Kaulava,
  4. Taitila,
  5. Gara,
  6. Vaṇija,
  7. Viṣṭi,

The four sthirakaraṇas are:

  1. Śakuni,
  2. Catuṣpāda,
  3. Nāga,
  4. Kimstughna,

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Karaṇa (करण) refers to “doing” (all the rites), according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [kalaśādhivāsanā, chapter 3]—“If an Ācārya does not have a strong conviction in the Vajradhātu, there is no obstacle to his doing all the rites (sarvakriyā-karaṇa) from purification of the site to consecration [of images etc.] with a strong conviction in his own chosen deity”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Karaṇa (करण) refers to a “half of the lunar day” [i.e., karaṇe amuka], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to the “cause (for emitting rays)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after the Bhagavān witnessed the drought at the lotus-lake near Aḍakavatī], “Then Sāgara, the Nāga king, having contemplated this [realized] that the rays were created by the power of the Bhagavān. Then Sāgara, the Nāga king, together with other Nāga kings of great supernatural power, approached the Bhagavān, went up to him and having bowed down at his feet said, ‘O Bhagavān, what is the reason for emitting rays? What is the cause (kāraṇa)? Having emitted them, they illuminated all residences, and then returned again’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Karaṇa (करण, “office”) is a Prakrit technical term referring to “names derived from office” and representing kind of a rule when deriving personal names for men, mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning karaṇa) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Karaṇa (करण) refers to one of the four kinds of Dhātu (kind of musical composition), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra.—Dhātu is some kind of musical composition, but exactly what I have not been able to ascertain. There are 4 Dhātus: vistāra, karaṇa, āviddha, and vyañjana. Vyañjana is used for vīṇās. It has 10 subdivisions of which puṣpa is the first. This is according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 29.52ff. which Hemacandra evidently follows, but the Saṅgītaratnākara, 4.7ff., discusses dhātu from quite a different point of view. In this it seems to be vocal composition. Śruti may be used here in the technical sense of an ‘interval’.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kāraṇa (कारण) refers to a “cause” (for enjoyment and liberation), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “If, because of the power of the doctrine, it is not received by those whose minds are boundless, then there is not a cause [com.kāraṇa] for enjoyment and liberation in the three worlds. The thirty gods, whose heads are bowed, bow down to the line of lotus feet of those whose hearts have become a refuge only for the doctrine”.

Synonyms: Nibandhana.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Karana refers to one of the important sub-divisions of the Maravans (one of the first of the Dravidian tribes that penetrated to the south of the peninsula). The Maravan people claim descent from Guha or Kuha, Rāma’s boatman, who rowed him across to Ceylon.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Karaṇa.—(EI 4), an accountant. (EI 28; HD), a clerk; a scribe. Cf. Ep. Ind., Vol. XXII, p. 155. (EI 19), same as Marāṭhī Kulkarṇī. (SITI), a type of law-court lower in rank than an adhikaraṇa. (IE 8-1, 8-8; EI 28, 30), same as or a shortened form of adhikaraṇa; a court of law. (IE 8-3), an office or department. (CII 4), a committee. (LP), a department, according to the editors of the Lekhapaddhati, the thirtytwo karaṇas or departments being the following; śrī-karaṇa, vyaya-karaṇa, dharm-ādhikaraṇa, maṇḍapikā- karaṇa, velākula-karaṇa, jala-karaṇa, [sthala] patha-karaṇa, ghaṭi- kāgṛha-karaṇa, ṭaṅkaśālā-karaṇa, dravya-bhāṇdāra-karaṇa, aṃśuka- bhāṇdāra-karaṇa, vārigṛha-karaṇa, devaveśma-karaṇa, gaṇikā-karaṇa, karaṇa, hastiśālā-karaṇa, aśvaśālā-karaṇa, kalabhaśālā-karaṇa, śreṇi- karaṇa, vyāpāra-karaṇa, tantra-karaṇa, koṣṭhāgāra-karaṇa, upakrama- karaṇa, karākara-karaṇa, sthāna-karaṇa, deva-karaṇa, sandhi [vigraha]- karaṇa, mahākṣapāla-karaṇa, mahārasa-karaṇa, jayanaśālā-karaṇa., sattrāgāra-karaṇa, antaḥpura-[karaṇa] and koṣṭhikā-[karaṇa]. (CII 3, 4), a document. Cf. Karaṇam (SII 1; SITI), Tamil; also spelt Karṇam; a document; an accountant, also called Kaṇakkaṉ or Karaṇikka. (IA 17), name of the half of a tithi. Note: karaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Kāraṇa.—cf. ahaṃ kāraṇaṃ karomi (LP), ‘I shall prove’. Note: kāraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

karaṇa : (nt.) 1. doing; making; 2. production. || kāraṇa (nt.), reason; cause. kāraṇā (abl.) by means of; through; by. (f.), torture; bodily punishment.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Karaṇa, (fr. kṛ, cp. Vedic karaṇa) 1. adj. (f. ī) (-°) doing, making, causing, producing; as cakkhu° ñāṇa° (leading to clear knowledge) S. IV, 331; V, 97; It. 83; and acakkhu° etc. S. V, 97; nāthā °ā dhammā A. V, 23 (cp. V. 89) and thera° A. II, 22; dubbaṇṇa° S. V, 217; see also D. I, 245; M. I. 15; S. V, 96, 115; A. IV, 94; V, 268; Miln. 289. ‹-› 2. (nt.) (-°) the making, producing of; the doing, performance of (=kamma), as bali° offering of food =bali kamma) PvA. 81; gabbha° Sn. 927; pānujja° Sn. 256. 3. (abs.) (a) the doing up, preparing J. V, 400, VI, 270 (of a building: the construction) (b) the doing, performance of, as pāṇâtipātassa k° and ak° (“commission and omission”); DhA. I, 214; means of action J. III, 92. (c) ttg. the instrumental case (with or without °vacana) PvA. 33; VvA. 25, 53, 162, 174. —°atthe in the sense of, with the meaning of the instrumental case J. III, 98; V, 444; PvA. 35; VvA. 304; DhsA. 48; Kacc 157.—4. (-°) state, condition; in noun-abstract function= °ttaṃ (cp. kamma I. 2) as nānā° (=nānattaṃ) difference M. II, 128; S. IV, 294; Bdhd 94; kasi° ploughing PvA. 66; kattabba° (=kattabbattaṃ) “what is to be done, ” i.e. duty PvA. 30; pūjā° veneration PvA. 30. sakkāra° reverence, devotion SnA 284.

Note: in massu° and kamma° some grammarians have tried to derive k° from a root kṛ, to hurt, cut, torture (see Morris J. P. T. S. 1893, 15), which is however quite unnecessary (see kamma 3 A (b), kataII 1 (b)). Karaṇa here stands for kamma, as clearly indicated by semantic grounds as well as by J. VI, 270 where it explains kappita-kesa-massu, and J. V, 309 & DhA. I, 253 where massukamma takes the place of °karaṇa, and J. III, 314, where it is represented by massu-kutti (C. : massukiriya). Cp. also DA. I, 137. a° Negative in all meanings of the positive, i.e. the non-performing J. I, 131; V, 222; Nett 81; PvA. 59; DhsA. 127; non-undertaking (of business) J. I, 229; noncommission M. I, 93; abstaining from Dhs. 299. Cpd. —uttariya (nt.) angry rejoinder, vehement defence DhA. I, 44. (Page 196)

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Kāraṇa, (nt.) (in meaning 1 represented in later Sk. by kāraṇā f. , in meaning 2=Sk. kāraṇa nt. , equivalent to prakṛti, natural form, constituent, reason, cause). 1.—(a) a deed, action, performance, esp. an act imposed or inflicted upon somebody by a higher authority (by the king as representative of justice or by kamma: M. III, 181; see kamma 11 3. A b.) as an ordeal, a feat or punishment: a labour or task in the sense of the 12 labours of Heracles or the labours of Hades. kāraṇaṃ kārāpeti “he makes somebody perform the task. ” Pass, kāraṇaṃ or kāraṇā karīyati. Thus as a set of five tasks or purgatory obligations under the name of pañcavidha-bandhana “the group of five” (not, as Warren trsl. p. 257 “inflict on him the torture called the fivefold pinion”), a means of punishment in Niraya (q. v. under pañca). Not primarily torture (Rh. Davids, Miln. trsl. I. 254, and others with wrong derivation from kṛṇtati). At DhA. III, 70 these punishments are comprehended under the term dasa-dukkhakāraṇāni (the ten punishments in misery); the meaning “punishment” also at J. IV, 87 (tantarajjukaṃ k°ṃ katvā), whereas at J. VI, 416 k. is directly paraphrased by “maraṇa, ” as much as “killing. ” Often spelt karaṇa, q. v.; the spelling kāraṇā (as f.) at Miln. 185 seems to be a later spelling for kāraṇaṃ. See karaṇa for further reference.—Kiṃ kāraṇaṃ ajja kāressati “what task will he impose on me to-day?” A. V, 324; as pañcavidhabandhana K° A. I, 141, PvA. 251, Nd2 304III, — As adj. °kāraṇa in dāruṇa° “being obliged to go through the dreadful trial” PvA. 221.—(b) duty obligation, in kāraṇ’âkāraṇā (pl.) duties great and small DhA. I, 385. Cp. also kāraṇaṃ karoti to try M. I, 444.—(c) a trick (i.e. a duty imposed by a higher authority through training) J. II, 325 (ānañja°); Miln. 201 (ākāsa-gamana°). 2.—(a) acting, action as (material) cause: k°-bhūta being the cause of ... PvA. 15;—(b) (intellectual) cause, reason Miln. 150; DhA. I, 389; esp. as —°: arodana° the reason for not crying PvA. 63; asocana° same, ibid. 62; āgamana° the reason for coming (here) ibid. 81, 106. =pariyatti, DhA. 36. =attha, SA on I. 215, SnA. I. 238—Instr. kāraṇena by necessity, needs PvA. 195; tena k° therefore ibid. 40 — Abl. kāranā by means of, through, by (=hetu or nissāya) PvA. 27; imasmā k° therefore PvA. 40; kāraṇaṭṭhā (expl. as attha-kāraṇā Nd2) for the purpose of some object or advantage Sn. 75; opp. nikkāraṇā from unselfishness ibid. -sakāraṇa (adj.) with good reason (of vacana) PvA. 109. (Page 210)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karaṇa (करण).—m (Popular form of karṇa S amongst artisans. ) The hypotenuse of a triangle, or the diagonal of a quadrangular figure.

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karaṇa (करण).—n (S) An instrument or a means of action; an organ of sense, or a member of the body. Ex. kiṃ karaṇāmmājīṃ capala mana || tayāhūna savēga kapi uḍḍāṇa || 2 In grammar. The instrumental case. 3 An astronomical period. There are eleven in irregular recurrence, each answering to half a lunar day. These are bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, garaja, vaṇija, viṣṭi, śakuni, catuṣpada, nāga, kiṃstughna. 4 A treatise containing tables for calculating eclipses &c. from any particular epoch:--thus contrad. from siddhānta & tantra. 5 In comp. Doing or making. Ex. pavitrīkaraṇa, nirmalīkaraṇa, pāpakaraṇa, śuddhī- karaṇa, vyaktīkaraṇa, pṛthakkaraṇa, sañcayīkaraṇa, spaṣṭīkaraṇa, śucīkaraṇa, vidēśīkaraṇa, mandīkaraṇa, śvacchīkaraṇa, malī- karaṇa ēkīkaraṇa. Such compounds are valuable, and they are formed at will. They are omitted, however, save a few bearing some special claim for insertion.

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karaṇā (करणा).—m ( H from A) The large brass trumpet which sounds the bass.

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karāṇā (कराणा).—m A particular esculent vegetable.

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kāraṇa (कारण).—n (S) A cause or an efficient. Three kinds are reckoned, samavāyī kāraṇa, asamavāyī kāraṇa, nimitta kāraṇa Intimate and inseparable (thus, inherent or direct); not intimate or inherent (thus, proximate or indirect); instrumental or incidental. 2 A reason or ground; an object proposed; a motive or principle in general. 3 Need of; call or occasion for. Ex. āja pāūsa nāhīṃ mhaṇūna chatrīcēṃ kā0 nāhīṃ. 4 Any festive occasion, as a marriage, a thread investiture &c. 5 S An instrument or a means; a material or elementary matter; an element or a rudiment. Note. kāraṇa as CAUSE answers to Efficient--the maker or doer; to Final cause--the object or aim; to Necessitating or determining cause--the motive; to Principle or spring of action--the reason or ground. kāraṇīṃ lāvaṇēṃ To apply to its purpose (dēha, dravya, sāmarthya, āyuṣya, janma &c.)

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kāraṇā (कारणा).—f (Vulgar corr. from karuṇā) Pity, com- passion, mercy. 2 Pitiful complaining or solicitation. v bhāka.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

karaṇa (करण).—n An instrument or a means of action. The instrumental case. An organ of sense or a member of the body.

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karaṇā (करणा).—m A large brass trumpet, a bugle, horn.

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kāraṇa (कारण).—n A reason. A cause or an effi- cient. An instrument or a means. kāraṇatva Causality or causation. Need of. Any festive occasion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karaṇa (करण).—a. [kṛ-lyuṭ]

1) Making, doing, effecting, producing.

2) (Ved.) Clever, skilled; रथं न दस्रा करणा समिन्वथः (rathaṃ na dasrā karaṇā saminvathaḥ) Ṛgveda 1.119.7.

-ṇaḥ 1 (Ved.) An assistant. यमस्य करणः (yamasya karaṇaḥ) Av.6.46.2.

2) A man of a mixed tribe.

3) A writer, जज्ञे धीमांस्ततस्तस्यां युयुत्सुः करणो नृप (jajñe dhīmāṃstatastasyāṃ yuyutsuḥ karaṇo nṛpa) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.115. 43; Manusmṛti 1.22.

4) A child. cf. ...... करणः शिशौ । शूद्राविशोः सुतेऽपि स्यात् (karaṇaḥ śiśau | śūdrāviśoḥ sute'pi syāt) Nm.

-ṇam 1) Doing, performing, accomplishing, effecting; परहित°, संध्या°, प्रिय° (parahita°, saṃdhyā°, priya°) &c.

2) Act, action.

3) Religious action; Y.1.251.

4) Business, trade.

5) An organ of sense; वपुषा करणोज्झि- तेन सा निपतन्ती पतिमप्यपातयत् (vapuṣā karaṇojjhi- tena sā nipatantī patimapyapātayat) R.8.38,42; पटुकरणैः प्राणिभिः (paṭukaraṇaiḥ prāṇibhiḥ) Meghadūta 5; R.14.5.

6) The body; उपमानमभूद्विलासिनां करणं यत्तव कान्तिमत्तया (upamānamabhūdvilāsināṃ karaṇaṃ yattava kāntimattayā) Kumārasambhava 4.5.

7) An instrument or means of an action, न तस्य कार्यं करणं न विद्यते (na tasya kāryaṃ karaṇaṃ na vidyate) Śvet.6.8; करणं च पृथग्विधम् (karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 18.14.18. उपमितिकरणमुपमानम् (upamitikaraṇamupamānam) T. S.; तस्य भोगाधिकरणे करणानि निबोध मे (tasya bhogādhikaraṇe karaṇāni nibodha me) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.181.19.

8) (In Logic) The instrumental cause which is thus defined :व्यापारवद- साधारणं कारणं करणम् (vyāpāravada- sādhāraṇaṃ kāraṇaṃ karaṇam).

9) A cause or motive (in general).

10) The sense expressed by the instrumental case (in gram.); साधकतमं करणम् (sādhakatamaṃ karaṇam) P.1.4.42; or क्रियायाः परिनिष्पत्तिर्यद्- व्यापारादनन्तरम् । विवक्ष्यते यदा यत्र करणं तत्तदा स्मृतम् (kriyāyāḥ pariniṣpattiryad- vyāpārādanantaram | vivakṣyate yadā yatra karaṇaṃ tattadā smṛtam) ||

11) (In law) A document, a bond, documentary proof; Manusmṛti 8.15,52,154.

12) A kind of rhythmical pause, beat of the hand to keep time; अनुगर्जितसंधिग्धाः करणै- र्मुरजस्वनाः (anugarjitasaṃdhigdhāḥ karaṇai- rmurajasvanāḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.4.

13) (In Astrol.) A Division of the day; (these Karaṇas are eleven).

-bava, bālava, kaulava, taitila, gara, vaṇija, viṣṭi, śakuni, catuṣpāda, nāga and [rkistughna].

14) The Supreme Being.

15) Pronunciation.

16) The posture of an ascetic.

17) A posture in sexual enjoyment. बोभुज्यते स्म करणेन नरेन्द्रपुत्री (bobhujyate sma karaṇena narendraputrī) Bil. ch.42. वात्स्यायनोक्तकरणैर्निखिलैर्मनोज्ञै । संभुज्यते कविवरेण नरेन्द्रपुत्री (vātsyāyanoktakaraṇairnikhilairmanojñai | saṃbhujyate kavivareṇa narendraputrī) || Ibid.45.

18) A field.

19) Plastering with the hand.

2) The usage of the writer caste.

21) The Principle of intelligence; दृष्टाः करणाश्रयिणः (dṛṣṭāḥ karaṇāśrayiṇaḥ) Sāṃkhyakārikā 43.

22) (In Astron.) Name of a treatise of Varāhamihira on the motion of planets.

-ṇī 1) A woman of a mixed caste. माहिष्येण करण्यां तु रथकारः प्रजायते (māhiṣyeṇa karaṇyāṃ tu rathakāraḥ prajāyate) Y.1.95.

2) Absurd or irrational number.

-sutā f. An adopted daughter.

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—[kṛ-ṇic lyuṭ]

1) A cause, reason; कारणकोपाः कुटुम्बिन्यः (kāraṇakopāḥ kuṭumbinyaḥ) M.1.18; R.1.74; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 13.21; oft. with loc. of the effect; Bhartṛhari 2.84.

2) Ground, motive, object; प्रव्राज्य चीरवसनं किं नु पश्यसि कारणम् (pravrājya cīravasanaṃ kiṃ nu paśyasi kāraṇam) Rām.2.73. 12. किं पुनः कारणम् (kiṃ punaḥ kāraṇam) Mahābhārata ; Y.2.23; Manusmṛti 8.347; कारण- मानुषीं तनुम् (kāraṇa- mānuṣīṃ tanum) R.16.22.

3) An instrument, means; गर्भस्रावे मासतुल्या निशाः शुद्धेस्तु कारणम् (garbhasrāve māsatulyā niśāḥ śuddhestu kāraṇam) Y.3.2,65.

4) (In Nyāya phil.) A cause, that which is invariably antecedent to some product and is not otherwise constituted; or, according to Mill, 'the antecedent or concurrence of antecedents on which the effect is invariably and unconditionally consequent'; according to Naiyāyikas it is of three kinds; (1) समवायि (samavāyi) (intimate or inherent); as threads in the case of cloth; (2) असमवायि (asamavāyi) (non-intimate or non-inherent), as the conjunction of the threads in the case of cloth; (3) निमित्त (nimitta) (instrumental) as the weaver's loom.

5) The generative cause, creator, father; Kumārasambhava 5.81.

6) An element, elementary matter; Y.3.148; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 18. 13.

7) The origin or plot of a play, poem &c.

8) An organ of sense; हित्वा तनुं कारणमानुषीं ताम् (hitvā tanuṃ kāraṇamānuṣīṃ tām).

9) The body.

10) A sign, document, proof or authority; प्रमाणं चैव लोकस्य ब्रह्मात्रैव हि कारणम् (pramāṇaṃ caiva lokasya brahmātraiva hi kāraṇam) Manusmṛti 11.84.

11) That on which any opinion or judgment is based.

12) Action; आत्मना कारणैश्चैव समस्येह महीक्षितः (ātmanā kāraṇaiścaiva samasyeha mahīkṣitaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.59.13.

13) A legal instrument or document.

14) Agency, instrumentality.

15) A deity (as the proximate or remote cause of creation)

16) Killing, injuring.

17) A desire (vāsanā) created formerly (as pūrvavāsanā); पूर्वं नित्यं सर्वगतं मनोहेतुम- लक्षणम् । अज्ञानकर्मनिर्दिष्टमेतत्कारणलक्षणम् (pūrvaṃ nityaṃ sarvagataṃ manohetuma- lakṣaṇam | ajñānakarmanirdiṣṭametatkāraṇalakṣaṇam) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.211.6.

-ṇā 1) Pain, agony.

2) Casting into hell.

3) Urging, instigation. (-kāraṇāt for the reason that; dveṣa° on account of hatred; matkāraṇāt for my sake; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.22.)

4) Action; निमित्ते कारणात्मके (nimitte kāraṇātmake) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.289.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karaṇā (करणा).—(compare karaṇī; both = Sanskrit karaṇa, nt.), means, cause: Lalitavistara 434.2, repeated 3—4, sarva-sāmkleśikāntarāyika- dharmāntarāya-karaṇā-nirvāṇasye 'ti (both times one ms., a different one each time, with Calcutta (see LV.) °karaṇa-).

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—cause (as in Sanskrit; a few special uses): (1) Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 9.18 f. sarva-kāraṇa-tīrthya-vyapeta-buddheḥ (Laṅ- kādhipateḥ), probably having his intellect turned away from the heretics (who are characterized by the view that) all things are caused (Suzuki's version is impossible); (2) acc. adv., for the sake (of, gen.): Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 74.8 (prose) āgacchata (read probably °tha with most mss.) śīghraṃ teṣāṃ kāraṇaṃ nirdhāvata (°tha), come, run forth quickly for the sake of (getting) these (toys)!; (3) loc., quasi-adv., used in a way resembling Sanskrit sthāne, with good reason: Jātakamālā 223.20 (verse) jagad idam avakīrṇam kāraṇe tvadyaśobhiḥ.

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Kāraṇā (कारणा).—(= Pali id.; essentially Buddhist word, tho cited in Sanskrit Lexx. and once from Daśak., [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v.), torture, torment, especially applied to torments of hell: with kārayati, causes to undergo, inflicts, °ṇāṃ kārayanti Divyāvadāna 376.12; °ṇāḥ (so with mss.) sattvānām ārabdhāḥ kārayitum id. 16; kāraṇāviśeṣāḥ (in hell) pratiprasrabhyante, are allayed, quieted, Divyāvadāna 68.3; 138.10; 265.23 (°srabdhāḥ); 568.15; Avadāna-śataka i.4.10—11; 10.10—11, etc.; kāraṇābhiḥ kārito, tortured with torments (in hell and elsewhere) Śikṣāsamuccaya 186.11; of earthly torments, kāraṇāś ca kārenti Lalitavistara 259.19 (verse), they make him (the Bodhisattva, practising austerities) undergo (physical) torments; ātmanaḥ kāraṇāṃ kārayasi Śikṣāsamuccaya 39.3; you inflict torture on yourself.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaṇa (करण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. An instrument or means of action. 2. Making, doing. 3. Action, act. 4. Cause, motive. 5. Business, occupation, as trade. &c. 6. An organ of sense. 7. The body. 8. The mind or heart. 9. A field. 10. Grain. 11. The posture, abstinence, &c. of an ascetic. 12. Copulation, (seu modus coeundi.) 13. The usage or practice of the writer caste. 14. Acting, dramatic action. 15. Song, singing. 16. The particular business of any tribe or caste. 17. Plaistering, spreading any thing with the hand. 18. A Karana, an astrological division of time; the Karanas are eleven: 7 moveable and 4 fixed, and two are equal to a lunar day; or the time during which the moon’s motion from the sun amounts to 6º. 19. (In grammar) The instrumental case, or noun in that case. m.

(-ṇaḥ) A man of a mixed class, the son of a Sudra woman by a Vaisya; or, according to some, of an outcaste K'shetriya, by a K'shetriya female; the occupation of this class is writing, accounts, &c. a writer, a scribe. f. (-ṇī) 1. A woman of the same caste. 2. (In arithmetic, &c.) A surd or irrational quantity. E. kṛ to do, to act, &c. lyuṭ aff.

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Cause, motive, origin, principle: in logic, cause is of three kinds; Samavayi inherent or direct; Asamavayi proximate or indirect; and Nimitta instrumental or incidental. 2. Action, agency. 3. Killing, injuring. 4. An organ of sense. 5. An instrument or means. 6. An element, elementary matter. 7. A deity, as the remote or proximate cause of creation. 8. A number of scribes. 9. A kind of musical instrument. 10. A sort of song, &c. see karaṇa. 11. The origin of a story (of a play or poem.) f.

(-ṇā). 1. Pain, agony. 2. Casting into hell. 3. An astronomical period. E. kṛñ to do or act, in the causal form, and yuc or lyuṭ affix, or karaṇa, and aṇ added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaṇa (करण).—i. e. kṛ + ana, I. adj., f. ṇī, Making, causing, e. g. vaidhavya-, Causing widowhood, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 95, 27. saṃjīva-, Causing health, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 26, 5. Ii. n. 1. Making, Mahābhārata 3, 15297; performing, [Pañcatantra] 40, 15. 2. Action, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 11, 17. 3. Instrument, Bhāṣāp. 57. 4. An organ of sense, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 8, 38. 5. The body, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 5. 6. A document, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 51. 7. Musical time, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 6, 40. Iii. m. The son of a Vrātya Kṣatriya, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 22.

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—i. e. kṛ, [Causal.], + ana. I. m. 1. Motive, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 99. 2. Cause, [Suśruta] 1, 310, 4; [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 3, 31 (with the loc.). 3. Primary cause, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 152; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 82. 4. An element, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 148. 5. Basis, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 84. 6. Argument, [Nala] 16, 27; proof, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 200. 7. An instrument, a means, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 65, 10 (cf. Gorr. 1, 67, 4, who reads upāyaiḥ). 8. An organ of sense, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 16, 22. 9. Abl. kāraṇāt, and loc. ṇe, On account of, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 56, 136; 5, 28, 9. Instr. ṇena, By some reason, [Cāṇakya] 23. yena kāraṇena, Because, [Pañcatantra] 175, 10. kiṃ punaḥ kāraṇam, From what motive, Mahābhārata 1, 3600. Ii. f. ṇā, Torture, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 195, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaṇa (करण).—1. [adjective] active, clever, skilled.

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Karaṇa (करण).—2. [feminine] ī making, causing (—°). [masculine] helper, assistant, [Name] of a caste ([feminine] ī); complex of sounds, i.e. word. [neuter] making, doing, causing; action, occupation; organ, instrument; instrumentality or the instrumental case ([grammar]); document, bond, evidence ([jurisprudence]).

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Kāraṇa (कारण).—[adjective] = 1 kāra (—°). [neuter] (adj. —° [feminine] ī) cause, reason, motive, first or chief matter or element, substance; sign, mark, document, proof; means, instrument, organ. °—, [ablative], [instrumental], & [locative] from some cause or reason; for the sake of ([genetive]); [ablative] also instead of ([genetive]). —* Abstr. [feminine], tva [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karaṇa (करण):—[from kara] a mf(ī) n (once karaṇa, [Ṛg-veda i, 119, 7]) doing, making, effecting, causing ([especially] ifc.; cf. antakaraṇa, uṣṇaṃ-k, etc.), [Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] clever, skilful, [Ṛg-veda i, 119, 7]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a helper, companion, [Atharva-veda vi, 46, 2; xv, 5, 1-6; xix, 57, 3]

4) [v.s. ...] a man of a mixed class (the son of an outcast Kṣatriya, [Manu-smṛti x, 22]; or the son of a Śūdra woman by a Vaiśya, [Yājñavalkya i, 92]; or the son of a Vaiśya woman by a Kṣatriya, [Mahābhārata i, 2446; 4521]; the occupation of this class is writing, accounts etc.)

5) [v.s. ...] writer, scribe, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] m. (in [grammar]) a sound or word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context; in this sense usually n.), [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 3-1, 41; Patañjali] [commentator or commentary] on [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

7) [v.s. ...] m. (in mus.) a kind of time, [Kumāra-sambhava vi, 40]

8) [from kara] n. the act of making, doing, producing, effecting, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc. (very often ifc. e.g. muṣṭi-k, virūpa-k)

9) [v.s. ...] an act, deed, [Ṛg-veda]

10) [v.s. ...] an action ([especially] a religious one), [Yājñavalkya i, 250; Rāmāyaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] the special business of any tribe or caste, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a calculation ([especially] an astronomical one), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

13) [v.s. ...] an astrological division of the day (these Karaṇas are eleven, viz. vava, valava, kaulava, taitila, gara, vaṇija, viṣṭi, śakuni, catuṣpada, kintughna, and nāga, two being equal to a lunar day; the first seven are called a-dhruvāṇi or movable, and fill, eight times repeated, the space from the second half of the first day in the moon’s increase to the first half of the fourteenth day in its wane; the four others are dhruvāṇi or fixed, and occupy the four half-days from the second half of the fourteenth day in the wane of the moon to the first half of the first day in its increase), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Suśruta] etc.

14) [v.s. ...] pronunciation, articulation, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya]

15) [v.s. ...] (in [grammar]) a sound or word as an independent part of speech, separated from its context, [Pāṇini; Kāśikā-vṛtti] etc., (karaṇa may be used in this way like kāra e.g. iti-karaṇa, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra])

16) [v.s. ...] the posture of an ascetic

17) [v.s. ...] a posture in sexual intercourse

18) [v.s. ...] instrument, means of action, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Yājñavalkya; Meghadūta]

19) [v.s. ...] an organ of sense or of speech, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra]

20) [v.s. ...] (in law) an instrument, document, bond, [Manu-smṛti viii, 51; 52; 154]

21) [v.s. ...] (in [grammar]) the means or instrument by which an action is effected, the idea expressed by the instrumental case, instrumentality, [Pāṇini 1-4, 42; ii, 3, 18; iii, 2, 45]

22) [v.s. ...] cause (= kāraṇa)

23) [v.s. ...] a spell, charm, [Kathāsaritsāgara] (cf. karaṇa-prayoga)

24) [v.s. ...] rhythm, time, [Kumāra-sambhava]

25) [v.s. ...] body, [Meghadūta; Kumāra-sambhava; Kādambarī]

26) [v.s. ...] Name of a treatise of Varāha-mihira on the motion of the planets

27) [v.s. ...] of a work belonging to the Śiva-darśana

28) [v.s. ...] a field, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

29) [v.s. ...] the mind, heart, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. antaḥ-karaṇa)

30) [v.s. ...] grain, [Horace H. Wilson]

31) [v.s. ...] (also) a sinew, tendon, muscle, [Kirātārjunīya]

32) b etc. See p. 254, col. 1.

33) Kāraṇa (कारण):—[from kāra] 1. kāraṇa n. cause, reason, the cause of anything ([genitive case], also often [locative case]), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.

34) [v.s. ...] instrument, means

35) [v.s. ...] motive origin, principle

36) [v.s. ...] a cause (in [philosophy] id est. that which is invariably antecedent to some product cf. samavāyi-k, asamavāyi-k, nimitta-k)

37) [v.s. ...] an element, elementary matter, [Yājñavalkya iii, 148; Bhagavad-gītā xviii, 13]

38) [v.s. ...] the origin or plot of a play or poem, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

39) [v.s. ...] that on which an opinion or judgement is founded (a sign, mark; a proof; a legal instrument, document), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

40) [v.s. ...] an organ of sense, [Raghuvaṃśa xvi, 22 etc.]

41) [v.s. ...] an action, [Mahābhārata xii, 12070]

42) [v.s. ...] agency, instrumentality, condition, [Kathāsaritsāgara cxii, 178]

43) [v.s. ...] ‘the cause of being’, a father, [Horace H. Wilson]

44) [v.s. ...] ‘cause of creation’, a deity, [Horace H. Wilson]

45) [v.s. ...] the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

46) [v.s. ...] a kind of musical instrument, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

47) [v.s. ...] a sort of song, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

48) [v.s. ...] a number of scribes or Kāyasthas, [Horace H. Wilson]

49) Kāraṇā (कारणा):—[from kāraṇa > kāra] f. pain, agony, [Daśakumāra-carita]

50) [v.s. ...] an astronomical period, [Horace H. Wilson] ([kāraṇāt, from some cause or reason, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya iii, 13; Manu-smṛti viii, 355]; kasmāt kāraṇāt, from what cause? mama-kāraṇāt, for my sake, [Rāmāyaṇa] etc.; a-kāraṇena, without a reason, [Yājñavalkya ii, 234]; yena kāraṇena, because; yasmin kāraṇe, from which motive, wherefore.])

51) Kāraṇa (कारण):—[from kāra] 2. kāraṇa n. killing, injury, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karaṇa (करण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ)] 1. n. An instrument or means of action; act; organ; cycle; business. m. Man of a mixed caste.

2) Kāraṇa (कारण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. n. Cause; or means. f. (ṇā) Agony; a cycle.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karaṇa (करण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Karaṇa, Karāvaṇa, Kāraṇa, Kāravaṇa, Ṇivvolaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Karaṇa (करण) [Also spelled karan]:—(nm) articulation; articulator; instrumental case; an organ; instrument; function; doing.

2) Karanā (करना) [Also spelled karna]:—(v) to do; to perform; to complete; to act; to execute; to commit; to hire; to have as man or wife; to run or set up (as [dukāna]—); to practise (as [vakālata]—); to solve (as [savāla]—); to cohabit; [karai koī bharai koī] to bark up a wrong tree.

3) Kāraṇa (कारण) [Also spelled karan]:—(nm) reason, cause; agency, instrument; ~[] causation; causality; —[śarīra] causal body —the original embryo or source of the body existing with the Universal Impersonal Spirit; [kāraṇātmaka] causal.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Karaṇa (करण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Karaṇa.

2) Karaṇa (करण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Karaṇa.

3) Kāraṇa (कारण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kāraṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karaṇa (ಕರಣ):—

1) [noun] an act; an action; a deed; a work.

2) [noun] a thing by means of which something is done; means; an instrument; a device.

3) [noun] any of the five organs (the eye, nose, skin, ear or tongue) of C human being; an organ of sense.

4) [noun] a gesture or motion that conveys information, gives a command, etc.; a sign.

5) [noun] the body (of a human being).

6) [noun] a piece of land used for farming, agriculture; a field.

7) [noun] something one intends to get or do; an intention; a purpose.

8) [noun] a writer or accountsman.

9) [noun] (gram.) the sense expressed by the instrumental case.

10) [noun] (dance) coordinated movements of the hands and feet.

11) [noun] (astrol.) one of the eleven divisions of a lunar day.

12) [noun] a symbol for the number five 5.

13) [noun] a man whose mother belongs to fourth caste and father to the trading caste.

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Kāraṇa (ಕಾರಣ):—

1) [noun] anything producing an effect or result; a cause.

2) [noun] a person or thing acting voluntarily or involuntarily as the agent that brings about an effect or result.

3) [noun] a reason, motive or ground for some action, feeling, etc.; esp., sufficient reason.

4) [noun] a generative cause; a creator; a god; a father.

5) [noun] necessity or obligation created by some situation; a need.

6) [noun] a heavenly soul that has taken birth on the earth for some special purpose.

7) [noun] an auspicious occasion or celebration.

8) [noun] one of the twenty eight Śaiva sectarian works which contain mythological, epical and philosophical materials.

9) [noun] the causal body that carries the seeds of the past deeds into future lives.

10) [noun] pain; agony; distress.

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Kāraṇa (ಕಾರಣ):—

1) [adverb] because of; on account of; as a result of.

2) [adverb] for; with the purpose of; in order to.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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