Buddhi; 19 Definition(s)
Buddhi means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Buddhi (बुद्धि).—According to the Sāṅkhyakārikā (second half of 37), it is the buddhi that is responsible for discriminating between prakṛti and the soul. The Śaiva justification for having vidyā as well is that buddhi cannot examine itself and therefore the soul must have a further instrument. See Sadyojyotis’s argumentation in the Bhogakārikā (93c-98b):Source: archive.org: The Parakhya Tantra
Buddhi: intellect. Thought is the first wave in the mind and has to be adjudicated by Buddhi (Intellect) before a decision for an action is made. Normal Buddhi is Sattva-dominant.Source: bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Buddhi (बुद्धि, “reason, intellect, mind”):—One of the names attributed to Devī, as chanted by the Vedas in their hymns, who were at the time incarnated in their personified forms. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa chapter 5.51-68, called “the narrative of Hayagrīva”.Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Buddhi (बुद्धि) alone among the twenty-four components of prakṛti directly interacts with puruṣa. Orthodox Sāṃkhya wishes to maintain (1) a radical distinction between puruṣa and prakṛti, and (2) a prakṛti that is at once fully cognitive, sensorially aware and active, intellective, etc., and at the same time non-conscious (acetana). How can buddhi be rational, discerning, reflective, discriminative, in short, cognitive, and yet lack consciousness? Buddhi must provide both the linkage or communication between puruṣa and prakṛti, as well as generate the discernment that realizes their ultimate separation.Source: China Buddhism Encyclopedia: Sāṃkhya
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Buddhi (बुद्धि) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “intellect”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called boddhavya (the certainly knowable) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is brahmā. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the knowable (buddhi), in boddhavya, in brahmā, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Buddhi (बुद्धि).—A wife of Dharmadeva. In Viṣṇu Purāṇa Aṃśa 1, Chapter 7, it is mentioned that Dharmadeva had married thirteen daughters of Dakṣa. They are Śraddhā, Lakṣmī, Dhṛti, Tuṣṭi, Medhā, Puṣṭi, Kriyā, Buddhi, Lajjā, Vapus, Śānti, Siddhī and Kīrti.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 50-51. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 50 and 60; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 25.
- 2) Ib. 10. 36; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 23 and 30.
1b) A Tuṣita god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 19; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 18.
1c) A son of Śatarūpā.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 25.
1d) A deity, attendant on Vināyaka.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 260. 55.
1e) Is four-fold; jñānam, vairāgyam, aiśvarya and dharma.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 4. 34; 59. 74.
1f) A term for mahat.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 21.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)
Buddhi (बुद्धि, “knowledge”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Buddhi (बुद्धि, “intelligence”) refers to one of the twelve effects of āya (“profit”), according to the Mānasāra. Āya is the first of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular āya (eg., buddhi) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The twelve effects of āya may all be assumed as auspicious.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Buddhi (बुद्धि).—Notion, mental understanding; mental inclination; cf. बुद्धिः संप्रत्यय इत्यनर्थान्तरम् । (buddhiḥ saṃpratyaya ityanarthāntaram |) Or अस्तेर्भूर्भवतीत्यस्तिबुद्ध्यां भवतिबुद्धिं प्रतिपद्यते (asterbhūrbhavatītyastibuddhyāṃ bhavatibuddhiṃ pratipadyate) M. Bh on P. I.1.56 Vart. 14; (2) mental inclusion; cf. यां यां विभक्तिं आश्रयितुं बुद्धिरुपजायते सा साश्रयितव्या (yāṃ yāṃ vibhaktiṃ āśrayituṃ buddhirupajāyate sā sāśrayitavyā) M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 57: cf. अथ बुद्धिः अविशेषात्स्मपुरा हेतू (atha buddhiḥ aviśeṣātsmapurā hetū), M. Bh. on III.2.118 Vart. 4.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Buddhi (बुद्धि) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.14). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Buddhi) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Nyaya (school of philosophy)
1) Buddhi (बुद्धि, “knowledge”) refers to one of the seven categories mentioned in Annaṃbhaṭṭa’s Tarkasaṃgraha.—Buddhi or knowledge is of two kinds–anubhava (experience) and smṛti (recollection). Anubhava or experience may be right or wrong. The right experience is divided into four kinds, viz. perceptual knowledge (pratyakṣa), inferential knowledge (anumiti), comparative knowledge (upamiti) and verbal knowledge (śabda). These are called four pramāṇas which are accepted from the Nyāya system.
2) Buddhi (बुद्धि, “knowledge”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “buddhi (intellect), jñāna (knowledge and upalabdhi (apprehension) are not different from one another”.
3) Buddhi (बुद्धि, “cognition”) or Buddhiguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Buddhi or cognition or knowledge is included under guṇa by the Vaiśeṣikas and it is said to be the special quality of the self. Gautama maintains that buddhi (cognition) is not different from upalabdhi (apprehension) and jñāna (knowledge). Hence, knowledge denotes awareness or apprehension of objects. Praśastapāda also maintains that buddhi, upalabdhi, jñāna and pratyaya (judgement) are synonymous. Buddhi again means manifestation of objects. All things are manifestated only when they become objects of knowledge. All living beings deal with the objects the world only on the basis of knowledge of some kind. Hence, knowledge is regarded as the basis of the behavior or conduct of a living being.
Annaṃbhaṭṭa takes into note this basic character of knowledge in defining it. He maintains that buddhi is jñāna and defines it as the quality which is the cause of all vyavahāra. Nyāyabodhinī clarifies that here vyavahāra means employment of words. It means utterance of words for the purpose of communicating ideas. As employment of words is not possible without knowledge, hence knowledge is defined as the cause of such behaviour. If the definition is given only as guṇa, buddhi then this will be overpervasive to all other guṇas like rūpa etc. But rūpa etc. is not vyavahārahetu and as such over-pervasion is avoided.
According to Praśastapāda, buddhi is divided into two kinds:—
- vidyā (valid knowledge),
- avidyā (invalid knowledge).
Valid knowledge has four kinds–perception, inference, recollection and supernormal occult perception. Invalid knowledge has also four kinds–doubt, illusion, indefinite knowledge and dream.
According to Annaṃbhaṭṭa, buddhi is of two kinds:—
- smṛti (remembrance),
- anubhava (apprehension).
That knowledge is known as smṛti which is produced from mental impressions only. Annaṃbhaṭṭa explains in the Dīpikā that the word mātra is used in the definition to avoid over-pervasion to pratyabhijñā.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
General definition (in Jainism)
Buddhi (बुद्धि).—The name of a Goddess residing over the padmahrada (big lotus-island) which lies in the center of a lake named Mahāpuṇḍarīka. This lake is situated on top of the mountain range (varṣadharaparvatas) named Rukmin, one of the six mountain ranges in Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa lies at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Buddhi (बुद्धि, “wisdom”) is the name of a deity residing in the lotus (puṣkara) in the middle of the Mahāpuṇḍarīka lake, which lies on top of the Rukmī (Rukmin) mountain. This mountain is situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.
Jambūdvīpa (where Buddhi resides) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.
2) Buddhi (बुद्धि, “wisdom”) or Buddhirddhi refers to one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (eg., Buddhi).
Buddhi-ṛddhi (extraordinary intellect) is of eighteen subtypes namely:
- omniscience (kevala),
- telepathy/ mental modes reading (manaḥparyaya),
- clairvoyance (avadhi),
- seed intellect (bīja),
- search-intellect (koṣṭha),
- sounds discriminating intellect (sambhinnaśrotri),
- syllable based intellect (padānusārī),
- tele-touch intellect (dūrasparśī),
- tele-taste intellect (dūrasvādī),
- tele-smell intellect (dūraghrāṇa-samartha),
- tele-hearing intellect (dūraśravaṇa-samartha),
- tele-viewing intellect (dūrāvalokana-samartha),
- authoritative knowledge of ten purvas (daśapūrvī),
- authoritative knowledge of 14 purvas (caturdaśapūrvī),
- eightfold prognostical intellect (aṣṭāṅgamahānimittajñāna),
- self-owned intellect (pratyekabuddha),
- debating capability (vāditva),
- sagacity (prajñāśramaṇatva).
The word ‘extraordinary’ in English and ‘ṛddhi’ in Hindi is added to each one of these.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
buddhi : (f.) a wisdom; intelligence.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Buddhi, (f.) (fr. budh; cp. Class. Sk. buddhi) wisdom, intelligence D. III, 165 (in sequence saddhā sīla suta b. cāga etc.); J. III, 369; V, 257; Miln. 349; Sdhp. 263. The ref. Vism. 439 should be read vuddhi for b°.—carita one whose behaviour or character is wisdom Vism. 104 (=paññavā).—sampanna endowed with (highest) wisdom PvA. 39. (Page 490)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
buddhi (बुद्धि).—f (S) pop. buddha f The understanding or intellect. 2 Wisdom, sense, judgment. Pr. jyāsa buddhi nāhīṃ tyāsa bhāṇḍavala nāhīṃ; śikivalēlī buddhi āṇi bāndhalēlī śidōrī bahuta divasa purata nāhīṃ; adhīṃ buddhi jātī maga vaibhava jātēṃ. 3 Purpose, intention, mind. Ex. kāla dētōṃ mhaṇālā āja buddhi phira- lī; or kāśīhūna māghārēṃ yāvēṃ asī malā tēvhāṃ buddhi jhālī. 4 Opinion or notion; mental determination or view respecting. 5 The will and affections; the heart considered as the seat or motor of good and evil emotions, purposes, or actions. Pr. buddhīsārakhēṃ phaḷa. 6 A device, contrivance, scheme; an expedient or a way devised. Ex. tyāsa hēṃ sāṅgāvēṃ varttamāna || tō buddhi pūrṇa sāṅgēla ||. 7 buddhi, in the sense of Mind, view, regard, reckoning, account, estimation, is much and elegantly used in comp.; as apakāra-upakāra-upēkṣā-tiraskāra-nindya-pūjya-hita- ahita-buddhi Deeming or considering as an injury, as a benefit or a service, as a matter worthy to be overlooked or treated lightly, as to be scornfully rejected, as blamable, as adorable, &c. &c. Also in the sense of Holding, apprehending, understanding, mentally accepting; as kāca-kāṣṭha-carma-jala- pāṣāṇa, mṛtikā-buddhi Holding (a substance) to be glass, wood, leather &c.; also as guru-pitṛ-mātṛ- bhrātṛ-mitra-śatru-buddhi Holding to be (or as) one's Guru, father, mother, brother &c. 8 Compounds are numerous; as dvēṣabuddhi, prēmabuddhi, mamatābuddhi, vaira- buddhi, snēhabuddhi, karuṇābuddhi, lōbhabuddhi, mōhabuddhi A heart or will or intention of malice, of love, of fondness &c., i.e. malice &c. as awake and acting; also as ahaṅkārabuddhi, vinayabuddhi or namrabuddhi, krauryabuddhi, pāruṣyabuddhi A disposition of pride, humility, ferocity &c., i.e. proudmindedness, humblemindedness &c. Other compounds requiring explanation or, because of establishment in the language or of great serviceableness, demanding insertion, appear in their order; and others, such as buddhivikāra, buddhivikāsa, buddhitaraṅga, buddhiprakāśa, buddhiprasāra, buddhisāgara, buddhayādarśa, and thus endlessly, can be created at the need or the will of the speaker.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
buddhi (बुद्धि).—f The intellect. Wisdom. Purpose. Mental determination. Opinion. A device. buddhisa lāgaṇēṃ Act under the guidance of.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Buddhi (बुद्धि).—f. [budh-ktin]
1) Perception, comprehension.
2) Intellect, understanding, intelligence, talent; तीक्ष्णा नारुंतुदा बुद्धिः (tīkṣṇā nāruṃtudā buddhiḥ) Śi.2.19; शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिः (śāstreṣvakuṇṭhitā buddhiḥ) R.1.19.
3) Information, knowledge; बुद्धिर्यस्य बलं तस्य (buddhiryasya balaṃ tasya) H.2.122 'knowledge is power'; P.I.4.52.
4) Discrimination, judgement, discernment; विदेशेष्वपि विज्ञाताः सर्वतो बुद्धिनिश्चयाः (videśeṣvapi vijñātāḥ sarvato buddhiniścayāḥ) Rām.1.7.17.
5) Mind; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः (mūḍhaḥ parapratyayaneyabuddhiḥ) M.1.2; so कृपण°, पाप° (kṛpaṇa°, pāpa°) &c.
6) Presence of mind, readiness of wit.
7) An impression, opinion, belief, idea, feeling; दूरात्तमवलोक्य व्याघ्रबुद्ध्या पलायन्ते (dūrāttamavalokya vyāghrabuddhyā palāyante) H.3; अनया बुद्ध्या (anayā buddhyā) Mu.1 'in this belief'; अनुक्रोशबुद्ध्या (anukrośabuddhyā) Me.117.
8) Intention, purpose, design; मन्दीचकार मरणव्यवसायबुद्धिम् (mandīcakāra maraṇavyavasāyabuddhim) Ku.4.45. (buddhyā 'intentionally', 'purposely', deliberately').
9) Returning to consciousness, recovery from a swoon; Māl.4.1.
1) (In Sāṅ. phil.) Intellect, the second of the 25 elements of the Sāṅkhyas; एषा तेऽभिहिता सांख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृणु (eṣā te'bhihitā sāṃkhye buddhiryoge tvimāṃ śṛṇu) Bg.2.39.
11) Nature (prakṛti); Bhāg.3.27.18.
12) A means, way (upāya); किं करिष्याम भद्रं ते बुद्धिरत्र विचार्यताम् (kiṃ kariṣyāma bhadraṃ te buddhiratra vicāryatām) Rām.1.4.9.
13) Name of the 5th astrological mansion.
Derivable forms: buddhiḥ (बुद्धिः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 267 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Duṣṭabuddhi (दुष्टबुद्धि) is the son of a merchant (vaṇij), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, ...
Buddhitattva (बुद्धितत्त्व).—the second element of the Sāṅkhya philosophy. Derivable forms: bud...
Samabuddhi (समबुद्धि).—a. 1) impartial. 2) indifferent, stoical. Samabuddhi is a Sanskrit compo...
Alambuddhi (अलम्बुद्धि).—1) sufficient sense. 2) false notion (mithyābuddhi). Derivable forms: ...
Buddhisaṃkīrṇa (बुद्धिसंकीर्ण).—a kind of pavilion. Derivable forms: buddhisaṃkīrṇam (बुद्धिसंक...
Hitabuddhi (हितबुद्धि).—a. friendly-minded, a well-wisher. Hitabuddhi is a Sanskrit compound co...
Śīghrabuddhi (शीघ्रबुद्धि).—a. acute, sharp-witted. Śīghrabuddhi is a Sanskrit compound consist...
Durbuddhi (दुर्बुद्धि).—a. 1) silly, foolish, stupid. 2) perverse, evil-minded, wicked; धार्तरा...
Pāpabuddhi (पापबुद्धि).—a. evil-minded, wicked, depraved. Pāpabuddhi is a Sanskrit compound con...
Prapañcabuddhi (प्रपञ्चबुद्धि) is the name of a mendicant from Pāṭaliputra, according to the Ka...
Buddhibala (बुद्धिबल).—a kind of play. Derivable forms: buddhibalam (बुद्धिबलम्).Buddhibala is ...
Yathābuddhi (यथाबुद्धि).—ind. to the best of one's knowledge. Yathābuddhi is a Sanskrit compoun...
Sthirabuddhi (स्थिरबुद्धि) was a leader of hosts of hosts of warriors in Sunītha and Sūryaprabh...
Alpabuddhi (अल्पबुद्धि).—a. weakminded, unwise, silly, ignorant; Ms.12.74. Alpabuddhi is a Sans...
Apekṣābuddhi (अपेक्षाबुद्धि).—(In Vaiśeṣika Phil.) the distinguishing perception by which we ap...
Search found 85 books and stories containing Buddhi. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 1 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 19 - Buddhi and Puruṣa < [Chapter VII - The Kapila and the Pātañjala Sāṃkhya (yoga)]
Part 13 - Mahat and Ahaṃkāra < [Chapter VII - The Kapila and the Pātañjala Sāṃkhya (yoga)]
Part 21 - Sorrow and its Dissolution < [Chapter VII - The Kapila and the Pātañjala Sāṃkhya (yoga)]
Vedānta-sūtras Part II (by George Thibaut)
II, 3, 30 < [Second Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
II, 3, 38 < [Second Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
II, 3, 29 < [Second Adhyāya, Third Pāda]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 4 - Brahma-Experience and Experience < [Chapter XXII - The Philosophy of Vijñāna Bhikṣu]
Part 5 - Self-Luminosity and Ignorance < [Chapter XXII - The Philosophy of Vijñāna Bhikṣu]
Part 3 - The Individual < [Chapter XXII - The Philosophy of Vijñāna Bhikṣu]
Vivekachudamani (by Shankara)
The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux (by Satkari Mookerjee)