Rahu, Rāhu: 28 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Rahu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rāhu (राहु).—An Asura. Birth. Son of Kaśyapaprajāpati by his wife Siṃhikā. (Ādi Parva. Chapter 65, Verse 31). Rāhu and the Solar eclipse. The oldest story about Rāhu is that about the solar eclipse. (See under Candra IV, Para 4). Other information.

(i) Rāhu is a member of Brahmā’s court. (Sabhā Parva Chapter 11, Verse 29).

(ii) Sañjaya once spoke to Dhṛtarāṣṭra about Rāhu. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 40).

(iii) Rāhu exists 10,000 yojanas below the Sun. (Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha).

(iv) Rāhu is installed in temples as wearing a half-moon on his head. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51). (See full article at Story of Rāhu from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Rāhu (राहु).—(also Svarbhānu); an Asura and the eldest of the 14 sons of Vipracitti and Simhikā; a servant of Hiraṇyakaśipu; attained the status of a planet and immortality by drinking amṛta in the disguise of a deva, and when detected and reported by the sun and the moon, the Lord threw his cakra which cut off his head; hence he became the enemy of the sun and the moon.1 Asked by Bali to refrain from battle; position on the Śiśumāra about the neck; with Soma in the devāsura war;2 his daughter, was the wife of Āyu.3 one of the nine planets; black in colour; it is said that the sun and the moon interrupt him and therefore both are attacked on new moon or full moon days; it is Sudarśana that makes Rāhu withdraw himself; such occurrences are said to be eclipses; below the region of Rāhu is the abode of the Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Vidyādharas;4 Rāhu leaving the moon is compared to getting rid of all sins by a bath in Prayāgā;5 attains Soma in Parvas and then Ādityas;6 swallowing of the moon is a bad omen;7 with sun or moon fit for gifts in Amarakaṇṭaka;8 rise of, must lead to the performance of śrāddha.9

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 37; 18. 13-14; VIII. 9. 24-26; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 13; 6. 20; Matsya-purāṇa 251. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 81; 67. 60; 68. 20; 111. 5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 19. 52; II. 12. 22.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 23. 7; VIII. 10. 31; 21. 19.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 8. 1.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 24. 1-4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 89; 24. 136; III. 14. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 93. 10.
  • 5) Ib. 106. 26.
  • 6) Ib. 107. 12; 127. 10.
  • 7) Ib. 163. 42.
  • 8) Ib. 188. 87.
  • 9) Vāyu-purāṇa 78. 3.

1b) A Parā god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 57.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Rāhu (राहु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.31, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rāhu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets).—Rahu: left hand–Sarpa-śīrṣa, right hand–Sūci.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Rāhu (राहु) or Svarbhānu refers to a planet which can de depicted using hand gestures (hasta or mudrā).—When the left hand and the right hand assume sarpaśīrṣa hasta and sūcī hasta respectively, it denotes the planet Rāhu. Rāhu is also called Svarbhānu.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1

Rāhu (राहु) was the Asura who, disguised as a god at the Churning of the Ocean, obtained possession of some of the Amṛta and proceeded to drink it in order to become immortal. Sūrya and Soma (the sun and moon), however, noticed what was going on, and immediately told Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu), who instantly cut off Rāhu’s head with his discus. As the head contained Amṛta it became immortal and came to represent the ascending nodes of the moon’s orbit. The body of Rāhu, according to the Puranic notion, was called Ketu, and represented the descending nodes.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Rāhu (राहु) refers to one of the Navagraha (“nine planetary divinities”), as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Few planets are discussed with respect to the hastas in Bharatanatyam and iconography. In images, Rāhu is shown seated in sukhāsana posture with two hands. The right hand holds kaṭaka-hasta holding a flower and the left hand is in kaṭaka-hasta placed near the left thigh.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Rahu is one of the nine planets, Navagrahas. He was originaly one of the Asuras, who became immortal by drinking Amrit, disguised as one of the Devas. He was decapitated by the discus of Vishnu. His head became Rahu, while the rest of his body became Ketu. This incident is chronicled elsewhere. He causes the eclipses of the sun, by eating Surya occasionally in revenge.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rāhu (राहु): Rahu is a snake that swallows the sun or the moon causing eclipses. Rahu is one of the navagrahas.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

An Asura chieftain (Asurinda) (cp. Mtu.iii.138, 254). The Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.49f) says that on one occasion when he seized Candima (Moon god), and on another Suriya (Sun god), both these invoked the aid of the Buddha. The Buddha then instructed Rahu to let them free. Rahu immediately let them go and ran to Vepacitti, trembling and with stiffened hair. This incident evidently refers to the Indian myth of the eclipses, and the legend has been annexed by the Buddhists to illustrate the Buddhas power and pity.

Elsewhere (A.ii.17) Rahu is spoken of as the chief of those possessing personality (attabhava). The Commentaries (E.g., AA.ii.474; DA.ii.487f.; MA.ii.790; SA.i.86, contains more details and differs slightly) explain that he is four thousand eight hundred leagues in height, and that the breadth of his chest is one thousand two hundred yojanas. His hands and feet are two hundred leagues long, each finger joint measuring fifty leagues, the space between the eyebrows also measuring fifty leagues. His forehead is fifty leagues broad, and his head nine hundred leagues in height. His face measures one hundred leagues, his nose three hundred, and the depth of his mouth one hundred. He is jealous of the gods of the Sun and the Moon, and stands in their paths with wide open mouth. When they fall into his mouth, the gods abandon their abodes and flee for their lives. Sometimes he caresses their abodes with his hand only, or with the lower part of his jaw, or with his tongue. Sometimes he takes them up and places them against his cheek; but he cannot stop the course of either the Sun or the Moon; if he attempts to do so, he will meet with disaster. So he journeys along with them.

The seizure of the Moon by Rahu and the escape from him is often used as a simile (E.g., SN. vs. 465; J.i.183, 274; iii.364, 377; iv.330; v.453; DhA.iv.19, etc.). Rahu is one of the four stains (upakkilesa) of the Sun and the Moon, preventing them from shining in all their glory (A.ii.53; Vin.ii.295; cp. J.iii.365). He is further mentioned as one of the five causes of lack of rain (vassassa antaraya). When he gathers water into his hands and spills it into the ocean, there is no rain (A.iii.243). The idea seems to be that he gathers up the rain water which is in the sky in order to cool his body.

To bring Rahu down from the sky is mentioned as one of the impossible tasks (J.iii.477).

It is said (DA.i.285; MA.ii.790f ) that for a long time Rahu did not visit the Buddha, he thought that being so tall he would fail to see the Buddha. One day, however, he decided to go, and the Buddha, aware of his intention, lay on a bed when he arrived, and, by his iddhi power, contrived to make himself so tall that Rahu had to crane his neck to see his face. Rahu, thereupon, confessed his folly and accepted the Buddha as his teacher.

Rahu is mentioned (D.ii.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Rāhu (राहु) is the name of an Asura king mentioned in the Tsa a han according to appendix 8 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “Once the Buddha was dwelling at Śrāvastī in the Jetavana, in the garden of Anāthapiṇḍada. At that time, Rāhu, king of the Asuras, was blocking Candima, the Devaputra. Then full of terror, Candima Devaputra came to the Buddha and having bowed his head to the Buddha’s feet, stood aside and spoke these stanzas of praise to the Buddha...”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Rāhu (राहु) is the name of a Dānava king (i.e., Dānavendra) mentioned [twice] as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Rāhu).

2) Rāhu (राहु) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Rāhu (राहु) refers to one of the nine planets (Navagraha), commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is reddish-blue; his Symbols are the sun and the moon; he has two arms.

Rāhu is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Rāhu is reddish blue in colour, and he holds in his two hands the Sun and the Moon”.

[As Rāhudeva he occurs once in the Chinese collection]

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Rāhu (राहु) refers to the planet Rāhu and represents one of the items held in the right hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, rāhu]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Longchen Nyingtik in Ukraine: The Great Chariot

Rahu: A dark monster/ planet said to be responsible for the phases of the moon by swallowing it.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Rāhu (राहु) is the name of a deity from the Jyotiṣka-Devas or Navagraha group of deities commonly depicted as in Jaina iconography.—Rāhu is represented by the Śvetāmbara as a rider of lion and bearer of an axe. He has the charge of the South-western quarters. The Digambara Rāhu seems to have the symbol of a flag.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

rāhu : (m.) name of an asura king; an eclipse.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Rāhu, (Vedic rāhu) N. of an Asura: see under Proper Names.—rāhumukha “mouth of Rāhu, ” designation of a certain punishment for criminals (M. I, 87; III, 164; Nd1 154 (in list of tortures)=Nd2 604=Miln. 197. (Page 571)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rahū (रहू).—m C More commonly rōha.

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rāhu (राहु).—m (S) The ascending node. 2 In mythology. A daitya with the tail of a dragon whose head was severed from his body by Vishn̤u. The head and tail, retaining their separate existence, were transferred to the planetary heavens, and became, the first, the eighth planet, the second (or kētu) the ninth. To them are ascribed the eclipses of the sun and moon. rāhukētu māgēṃ lāgaṇēṃ or rāhūsārakhā māgēṃ lāgaṇēṃ-yēṇēṃ -pāṭha ghēṇēṃ &c. To press upon and worry greatly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rāhu (राहु).—m The ascending node. A daitya.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rāhu (राहु).—[rah-uṇ Uṇ.1.3]

1) Name of a demon, son of Viprachitti and Siṃhikā and hence often called Saiṃhikeya; ग्रसते हि तमोपहं मुहुर्ननु राह्वाह्वमहर्पतिं तमः (grasate hi tamopahaṃ muhurnanu rāhvāhvamaharpatiṃ tamaḥ) Śi.16.57; विधुरपि विधियोगाद् ग्रस्यते राहुणासौ (vidhurapi vidhiyogād grasyate rāhuṇāsau) H. [When the nectar, that was churned out of the ocean, was being served to the gods, Rāhu disguised himself and attempted to drink it along with them. But he was detected by the sun and the moon who informed Viṣṇu of the fraud. Visnu, thereupon, severed his head from the body; but as he had tasted a little quantity of nectar the head became immortal, and is supposed to wreak its vengeance on the sun and moon at the time of conjunction and opposition; cf. Bh.2.34. In astronomy Rāhu is regarded, like Ketu, as one of the nine planets, or only as the ascending node of the moon.]

2) An eclipse, or rather the moment of occultation.

3) Abandoning.

4) One who abandons.

5) The regent of the southwest quarter.

Derivable forms: rāhuḥ (राहुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Rāhu (राहु).—(= Sanskrit and Pali id.), in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] chiefly noted in formulaic lists of asurendras (Rāhu is an asura also in Sanskrit, [Boehtlingk and Roth] and [Boehtlingk] s.v. asura): so Mahāvastu iii.138.1; 254.8; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 5.3; Gaṇḍavyūha 250.8; Rāhor āgamanam asurāṇām adhipateḥ (so read, text corrupt) (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 218.5. In none of these is there any clear indication of association with eclipse. Cf. next.

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Rāhu (राहु) or Rāhuka.—(-rāhuka, Rāhu) (-rāhuka) , ifc., [bahuvrīhi]: grahe…sarāhuke (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 224.22 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāhu (राहु).—m.

(-huḥ) The ascending node; in mythology, the son of Viprachitti by Sinhika, a Daitya, with the tail of a dragon, whose head was severed from his body by Vishnu, on the information of the sun and the moon who caught him in the act of drinking Amrita which was being served to gods, but being immortal by tasting it, his head and tail retained their separate existence, and being transferred to the stellar sphere, became the authors of eclipses; the first especially, by endeavouring at various times to swallow the sun and the moon to wreak his vengeance. E. rah to abandon, (the planets which it has vainly attempted to devour,) aff. uṇ, and the vowel made long.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāhu (राहु).—i. e. rah + u, m. 1. A Daitya to whom the eclipses are ascribed, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 20, M.M. 2. The ascending node.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāhu (राहु).—[masculine] the Seizer, [Epithet] of a demon supposed to swallow the sun and moon and thus cause eclipses.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rāhu (राहु):—m. ([from] √rabh; cf. graha and √grah) ‘the Seizer’, Name of a Daitya or demon who is supposed to seize the sun and moon and thus cause eclipses (he is fabled as a son of Vipra-citti and Siṃhikā and as having a dragon’s tail; when the gods had churned the ocean for the Amṛta or nectar of immortality, he disguised himself like one of them and drank a portion; but the Sun and Moon revealed the fraud to Viṣṇu, who cut off Rāhu’s head, which thereupon became fixed in the stellar sphere, and having become immortal through drinking the Amṛta, has ever since wreaked its vengeance on the Sun and Moon by occasionally swallowing them; while at the same time the tail of the demon became Ketu [q.v.] and gave birth to a numerous progeny of comets and fiery meteors; in [astronomy] Rāhu is variously regarded as a dragon’s head, as the ascending node of the moon [or point where the moon intersects the ecliptic in passing northwards], as one of the planets cf. graha, and as the regent of the south-west quarter [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira] ; among Buddhists many demons are called Rāhu), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) an eclipse or (rather) the moment of the beginning of an occultation or obscuration, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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