Akara, aka: Ākara, Ākāra, Akāra; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Akara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

1) Akāra (अकार).—Its significance in oṃ;1 the source of 63 varṇas;2 the primordial svara and its place in creation.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 20. 8ff.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 28.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 29ff.

2) Ākāra (आकार).—The second face of the fourteen faced Deva, Manu Svārociṣa born in white colour.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 33.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Akāra (अकार).—The letter a, (अ) inclusive of all its eighteen kinds caused by shortness, length, protraction, accentuation and nasalization in Pānini's grammar, in cases where a(अ) is not actually prescribed as a termination or an augment or a substitute. cf. अणुदित्सवर्णस्य चाप्रत्ययः (aṇuditsavarṇasya cāpratyayaḥ) P. I.1.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet (वर्णसमाम्नाय (varṇasamāmnāya)) in all Prātiśākhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Varṇopadeśa, as mentioned in the Ṛk Tantra cf. ए ओ ऐ औ आ ॠ लॄ ई ऊ ऋ लृ इ उ आः । रयवलाः । ङञणनमाः । अः (e o ai au ā ṝ lṝ ī ū ṛ lṛ i u āḥ | rayavalāḥ | ṅañaṇanamāḥ | aḥ)क (ka)पाः । हुं कुं खुं गुं घुं अं आं एवमुपदेशे (pāḥ | huṃ kuṃ khuṃ guṃ ghuṃ aṃ āṃ evamupadeśe) etc. R. T.I. 4.

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Ākāra (आकार).—The letter आ; cf. आकारस्य विवृतोप-देश आकारग्रहणार्थः । (ākārasya vivṛtopa-deśa ākāragrahaṇārthaḥ |) M. Bh. I.1 Āhn. 2.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

The term ākāra literally means shape or form, with a secondary meaning of appearance, aspect, or image. Classical Indian philosophers, Buddhist and non-Buddhist, have long debated the status and role of ākāra in cognition and in consciousness more generally, with major questions including whether the forms in awareness are intrinsic to cognition and whether such forms can be taken as evidence of an external world.

Birgit Kellner’s contribution to this issue thus brings us back to some of the earliest technical uses of the term ākāra in Indian Buddhist Abhidharma and Yogācāra treatises, showing how those usages should not too quickly be conflated with later uses in the logico-epistemological or pramāṇa tradition stemming from Dignāga (ca. 480–540 CE) and elaborated by Dharmakīrti (between mid-sixth and mid-seventh century CE). In particular, she points to another meaning of the term ākāra found in Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (ca. second half of fourth century CE) in which the word indicates “a mode of mental functioning” such that all mental events (citta) and their associates (caitta) can be said to have their own distinct manner of operating.

The term ākāra plays an important role also in discussions of the path to liberation, as indicated in the well-known rubric of the sixteen aspects (ākāra) of the four noble truths. Although Kellner concludes ultimately that this usage can be seen as a sub-species of the mode-ākāra she has already delineated from the object-ākāra prevalent in Buddhist epistemological use, her search for an “umbrella concept” that would unite these various usages leaves her unsatisfied.

Variations in the meaning and usage of the term ākāra in Buddhist texts is just one of the complicating factors in any thematic study of ākāra across time. Disagreements have most characteristically revolved around the question whether the ākāra of a cognized object—its “form,” its particular way of presenting itself–may be said to “belong” to the external world or more properly to cognition alone. The question seems to have been explicitly raised first in Śabara’s Bhāṣya on the Mīmāṃsāsūtras in the late fifth century, and it continued to occupy thinkers for centuries.

(Source): Springer: ākāra in Buddhist Philosophical and Soteriological Analysis

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

ākara : (m.) a mine; place of production. || ākāra (m.), manner; condition; state; appearance.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Ākara, (cp. Sk. ākara) a mine, usually in cpd. ratan-ākara a mine of jewels Th.1, 1049; J.II, 414; VI, 459; Dpvs.I, 18. — Cp. also Miln.356; VvA.13. (Page 93)

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Ākāra, (a + karoti, kṛ) “the (way of) making”, i. e. (1) state, condition J.I, 237 (avasan° condition of inhabitability); II, 154 (patan° state of falling, labile equilibrium), cp. paṇṇ°. — (2) property, quality, attribute D.I, 76 (anāvila sabb°-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of a jewel); II, 157 (°varûpeta); J.II, 352 (sabb° paripuṇṇa altogether perfect in qualities). — (3) sign, appearance, form, D.I, 175; J.I, 266 (chātak° sign of hunger); Miln.24 (°ena by the sign of . .); VvA.27 (therassa ā. form of the Th.); PvA.90, 283 (rañño ā. the king’s person); Sdhp.363. — (4) way, mode, manner, sa-ākāra in all their modes D.I, 13 = 82 = III, 111; J.I, 266 (āgaman° the mode of his coming). Esp. in Instr. sg. & pl. with num. or pron. (in this way, in two ways etc.): chah’ākārehi in a sixfold manner Nd2 680 (cp. kāraṇehi in same sense); Nett 73, 74 (dvādasah’ākārehi); Vism.613 (navah’ākārehi indriyāni tikkhāni bhavanti); PvA.64 (yen’ākārena āgato ten’ākārena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). ‹-› (5) reason, ground, account D.I, 138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 38; DhA.I, 14; KhA 100 (in expln. of evaṃ). In this meaning freq. with dass (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) in commentary style “what is meant by”, the (statement of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA.26 (dātabb°dassana), 27 (thoman°-dassana), 75 (kāruññ °ṃ dassesi), 121 (pucchan°-nidassanaṃ what has been asked); SnA 135 (°nidassana).

—parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, examination of reasons S.II, 115; IV, 138; A.II, 191 = Nd2 151. (Page 93)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

akarā (अकरा).—a ind (ēkādaśa S H) Eleven.

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ākara (आकर).—m (S) A mine or quarry lit. fig. Ex. ratnākara, tāmrākara, guṇākara, dayākara, karūṇākara.

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ākāra (आकार).—m (S) Form, figure, shape. 2 Appearance, aspect, form, similitude. 3 An image impressed upon the mind, an impression: also an idea. 4 Definiteness or determinateness of form or appearance (as of a work approaching to completion; of a transaction, event, or other object of consideration or conjecture). 5 A roughly framed statement or estimate (of expenses, profits, produce, revenue); the Jamabandi settlement. 6 Sign, semblance, indication, appearance. Ex. hyā vyavahārānta śambhara rūpayē miḷatīla asā ā0 disatō. 7 An affection of the body considered as indicative of mental sentiment or emotion; as trembling, smiling, horripilation &c. are of dread, gratification, fright &c. 8 This word is much and neatly used in comp. as maṇḍalākāra, cakrākāra, gōlākāra, candrākāra, vartulākāra, śūrpākāra, gṛhākāra, vṛkṣākāra, aṇḍākāra, pustakākāra, Annular, circular, globular, moon-form, like a house, tree &c. 9 (In modern geometrical works.) Figure. 10 Manner, way, style, fashion. Ex. mī parabrahma yēṇēṃ ākārēṃ || jēthēṃ jīva svarūpa sphurē || When the jīva calls to mind its true being as śivātmā, and disallows its distinctness as jīvātmā, then it exclaims after this fashion. ā0 dākhaviṇēṃ To make the show or pretence of. 2 To present the form, figure, or appearance of. ākārāsa yēṇēṃ To be assuming some definite shape or likeness--a work &c. in progress, a sickness, a transaction or an event. 2 To fall or be reduced into some moderate form or amount; to abate.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

akarā (अकरा).—a Eleven.

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ākara (आकर).—m A quarry, mine.

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ākāra (आकार).—m Form. A rough estimate. The Jamabandi settlement. An idea. Ap- pearance. ākārāsa yēṇēṃ Be assuming some definite shape. ākārē raṅgatī cēṣṭā Face is the mirror of man's mind.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Akara (अकर).—a. [na. ba.]

1) Handless, maimed.

2) Exempt from tax or duty.

3) [na. ta.] Not doing or acting; not disposed to work, ceasing from work.

-rā Name of a plant आमलकी (āmalakī), Emblic Myrobalan, Phyllanthus Emblica (Mar. āṃvaḷā) (akaṃ duḥkhaṃ sevanāt lokānāṃ rāti gṛhṇāti nāśa- yatīti; rā-ka Tv.).

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Akāra (अकार).—a. [karotīti kāraḥ kṛ-ghañ aṇ vā na. ta.] Not doing or acting, void of action (kriyārahita).

-raḥ The letter अः अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि (aḥ akṣarāṇāmakāro'smi) Bg.1.33.

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Ākara (आकर).—See under आकृ (ākṛ).

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Ākara (आकर).—[by पुंसि संज्ञायां घः प्रायेण (puṃsi saṃjñāyāṃ ghaḥ prāyeṇa) P.III.3.118 आकुर्वन्त्यस्मिन् (ākurvantyasmin); Kāśi.

1) A mine; मणिराकरोद्भवः (maṇirākarodbhavaḥ) R.3.18; आकरे पद्मरागाणां जन्म काचमणेः कुतः (ākare padmarāgāṇāṃ janma kācamaṇeḥ kutaḥ) H. Pr.38; Ms.7.62; आकरे- ष्वधिकारिता (ākare- ṣvadhikāritā) Y.3.242; (fig.) a mine or rich source of anything (utpattisthānam); मासो नु पुष्पाकरः (māso nu puṣpākaraḥ) V.1.1; अशेष- गुणाकरम् (aśeṣa- guṇākaram) Bh.2.92; सौभाग्यपण्याकरः (saubhāgyapaṇyākaraḥ) Mk.8.38; आकरः सर्व- शास्त्राणाम् (ākaraḥ sarva- śāstrāṇām) Mu.7.7.

2) A collection, group; पद्माकरं दिनकरो विकचीकरोति (padmākaraṃ dinakaro vikacīkaroti) Bh.2.73; कमलाकर (kamalākara) Ku.2.29; स्नेहाकराणि (snehākarāṇi) Māl.9.47.

3) Best, excellent.

4) Name of a country.

5) Name of the Mahābhāṣya.

6) Name of a country (the modern Khandesh); Bṛ. S. a. Best, excellent.

Derivable forms: ākaraḥ (आकरः).

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Ākāra (आकार).—[ā-kṛ-ghañ]

1) Form, shape, figure, द्विधा° (dvidhā°) of two forms or sorts; Pt.3.37.

2) Aspect, appearance. mien, countenance; आकारसदृशप्रज्ञः (ākārasadṛśaprajñaḥ) R.1.15,16.7, Ś.1;

3) (Particularly) expression of the face, as giving a clue to one's inward thoughts or mental disposition; तस्य संवृतमन्त्रस्य गूढाकारेङ्गितस्य च (tasya saṃvṛtamantrasya gūḍhākāreṅgitasya ca) R.1.2; Pt.1; भवानपि संवृताकारमास्ताम् (bhavānapi saṃvṛtākāramāstām) V.2; Ś.7; Ki.1.14; साकारो निःस्पृहः (sākāro niḥspṛhaḥ) Pt.3.88 giving no clue to his inward thoughts, reserved; K.233; Mv.6; Ms.7.63,8.25; -आकारैरिङ्गि- तैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषितेन च । नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च गृह्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः (ākārairiṅgi- tairgatyā ceṣṭayā bhāṣitena ca | netravaktravikāraiśca gṛhyate'ntargataṃ manaḥ) || Ms.8.26.

4) Hint, sign, token.

5) Identity, oneness

6) Recognition of identity (in Sāṅ. Phil.).

7) The letter आ (ā).

Derivable forms: ākāraḥ (आकारः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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