Vijnana, Vijñānā, Vijñāna: 30 definitions


Vijnana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Vigyan.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Vijñānā (विज्ञाना):—Third of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Ātmī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ), including Vijñānā, symbolize the different kinds of souls, as well as the impurities by which these souls are bound (except for Niṣkala or Śiva). They are presided over by the Bhairava Caṇḍa and his consort Brāhmī. Ātmī is the second of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the ātman.

Source: Google Books: The Paramarthasara of Abhinavagupta

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to “consciousness”, according to the Paramārthasāra kārikā 27 of Abhinavagupta with the commentary of Yogarāja.—Accordingly, “[The many differing conceptions of the Ultimate—that it is] Consciousness [i.e., vijñāna], or the Inner Controller, or Breath, or the Sovereign Body, or the Genus, or, finally, that it is the Particular—all these are for purpose of disputation only; in ultimate terms, none of them exist [as characterizations of the Ultimate]”.

Note: By consciousness (vijñāna) is meant ‘nothing but consciousness’ (bodhamātra), in isolation (kevala), devoid of limiting attributes. Although devoid of name and form, [consciousness] appears variously, adopting the mode of externality, in shapes such as “blue” and “pleasure”, etc.,—thanks to the power of beginningless latent dispositions [constantly] reawakened (vāsanāprabodha) and infinitely various., Thus say the Vijñānavādins.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) or Vijñānāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Prodgītāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Vijñāna Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Prodgīta-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to “knowledge”, according to the Tantrasadbhāva (verse 6.218): an important Trika Tantra and a major authority for Kashmiri Trika Śaivites.—Accordingly, “Doing (kriyā) is what gives people results; knowledge (vijñāna) does not produce results, just as a man knowledgable in the sexual enjoyment of women is not happy without doing it (kriyā). But doing should be understood as twofold: it is held to be outer and inner. Inner action (kriyā) is through yogic meditation, while outer action is through worship, ascetic observances, etc. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to “one who knows”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 7.210-211, while describing the meditation on the kālahaṃsa]—“Either by reciting or meditating on the kālahaṃsa, O Goddess, [the practitioner] becomes Śiva [who] has the form of kāla and acts freely (or as Svacchanda) like kāla. Death has been destroyed, [the Yogin] has abandoned old age, is free from all danger [caused by] disease, [he] knows (vijñāna), learns, and day-dreams. [He] gains the all supreme siddhis, [which] arise constantly as a result of conquering kāla”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—Specific knowledge or understanding; cf. सिद्धं तु धर्मोपदेशने अनवयव-विज्ञानाद्यथा लौकिकवैदिकेषुः (siddhaṃ tu dharmopadeśane anavayava-vijñānādyathā laukikavaidikeṣuḥ) M. Bh. on P. VI.1. 84 Vart.5.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to “true knowledge”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, while explaining details of worship:—“[...] the root of true knowledge (vijñāna) is unswerving devotion (bhakti). The root of knowledge (jñāna) too is devotion. The root of devotion is good action and the worship of one’s own favourite deity. The root of that is the good preceptor. A good preceptor is secured only through association with good people”.

Vijñāna (“perfect knowledge”) as explained in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.23, as Śiva said to Satī:—“[...] O Goddess Satī, listen, I shall explain the great principle whereby the remorseful creature becomes a liberated soul (mukta). O great Goddess, know that the perfect knowledge (vijñāna) is the great principle (paratattva)—the consciousness that ‘I am Brahman’ in the perfect intellect where nothing else is remembered”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to “(1) Realization of divine knowledge (2) Realization of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s mādhurya (sweetness)”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vijñāna (विज्ञान):—The act of distinguishing or discerning; a systamatic and perfect knowledge

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to the “means of insights”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “[...] Āṇava is said to be (brought about) by the mantras applied through the process (krama) of uttering the letters (that constitute them). In this way, O fair-faced one, in the future, in (the course of) the a eons, great (kalpa) and small (manvantara), the rite (karman) of initiation will be of three types. The rite of initiation in the Kula tradition (āmnāya) will take place during (the various) ages (yuga) and (varies) according to the nature of (each) age, and (will be imparted) through the line (krama) of teachers and disciples by means of insights (vijñāna) (outwardly apparent) as the signs of attainment (pratyaya)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vijnana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to the “faculty (of seeing)” (from afar), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] In three days and nights, the Yogin who is introverted through absorption spontaneously has the faculty (vijñāna) of seeing from afar. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Vijñāna (or viññāṇa) is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment."

Sri Ramakrishna defines vijñāna as

"He alone who, after reaching the Nitya, the Absolute, can dwell in the Līlā, the :Relative, and again climb from the Līlā to the Nitya, has ripe knowledge and :devotion. Sages like Narada cherished love of God after attaining the Knowledge of :Brahman. This is called vijnāna." Also: "What is vijnana? It is to know God distinctly by realizing His existence through an intuitive experience and to speak to Him intimately."

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) (pali viññāṇa) refers to the third of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. From saṃskāra there arises a defiled mind (samalacitta), initial cause of the present existence. Because it is aware in the way that a calf (vatsa) is aware of its mother, it is called vijñāna, consciousness. This vijñāna produces both the four formless aggregates (arūpiskandha) [perception (saṃjñā), feeling (vedanā), volition (saṃskāra), consciousness (vijñāna)] and form (rūpa) which serves as base them. This is name and form, nāmarūpa.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) refers to the “consciousness”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “Śāriputra, the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, seating in the lion’s throne thus, explained the dharma-seal called Gaganapariśuddhi to these Bodhisattvas, which has thirty-two aspects of entrance. What is this Dharma-seal (dharmamudrā) called Gaganapariśuddhi which has thirty-two aspects of entrance? [...] all dharmas are fully purified because of their essential tranquility; 17) all dharmas are tranquil since they are free from thought, mind and consciousness (citta-manas-vijñāna-vigata); 18) all dharmas lack characteristics (svalakṣaṇa-vigata) since they are non-originated from the very beginning (ādyanutpanna); [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) refers to one of the five Skandhas (cosmic elements), according to Vajrayāna or Tantric Buddhism.—The Buddhists believe that the world is composed of five cosmic elements or Skandhas [viz., Vijñāna (consciousness)...]. These elements are eternal cosmic forces and are without a beginning or an end. These cosmic forces are deified in Vajrayāna as the five Dhyāni Buddhas. In the course of time they were regarded as the five primordial gods responsible for this diversified creation, [..].

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) or Vijñānaskandha refers to “(the aggregate of) consciousness”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “There, in the five aggregates, originates the making of I. Vairocana in the aggregate of forms. Vajrasūrya in sensations. Padmanṛtyeśvara in perceptions. Vajrarāja in mental formations. Vajrasattva in consciousness (vijñāna-skandha). Śrī Heruka Vajra in the truth of all Tathāgata”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) refers to the last of the “five components” (pañcaskandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 22). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., vijñāna). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Vijñāna also refers to the third of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42).

Vijñāna also refers to one of the “six elements” (ṣaḍdhātu) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 58 respectively).

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vijñāna (विज्ञान).—n S Knowledge, science, learning, any department or field of worldly knowledge. 2 Knowledge of; acquaintance with; understanding of (any subject of worldly knowledge). 3 Experience or experimental knowledge. 4 Popularly understood to mean Knowledge of God or Truth. Ex. aisā jō jhālā paripūrṇa || tyāsi samādhi āṇi vijñāna || (prāpta hōtāta.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vijñāna (विज्ञान).—n Knowledge, science. Ex- perience.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—1 Knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, understanding; यज्जीव्यते क्षणमपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर्विज्ञानशौर्यविभवार्यगुणैः समेतम् । तन्नाम जीवितमिह (yajjīvyate kṣaṇamapi prathitaṃ manuṣyairvijñānaśauryavibhavāryaguṇaiḥ sametam | tannāma jīvitamiha) ... Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.24;5.3; विज्ञानमयः कोशः (vijñānamayaḥ kośaḥ) 'the sheath of intelligence' (the first of the five sheaths of the soul).

2) Discrimination, discernment.

3) Skill, proficiency; प्रयोगविज्ञानम् (prayogavijñānam) Ś.1.2.

4) Worldly or profane knowledge, knowledge derived from worldly experience (opp. jñāna which is 'knowledge of Brahma or Supreme Spirit'); ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः (jñānaṃ te'haṃ savijñānamidaṃ vakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 7.2;3.41;6.8; (the whole of the 7th Adhyāya of Bg. explains jñāna and vijñāna).

5) Business, employment.

6) Music.

7) Knowledge of the fourteen lores.

8) The organ of knowledge; पञ्चविज्ञानचेतने (pañcavijñānacetane) (śarīre) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.187. 12.

9) Knowledge beyond the cognisance of the senses (atīndriyaviṣaya); विज्ञानं हि महद्भ्रष्टम् (vijñānaṃ hi mahadbhraṣṭam) Rām.3.71.3.

1) Information; लब्धविज्ञानम् (labdhavijñānam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.44.5.

Derivable forms: vijñānam (विज्ञानम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—nt. (in mgs. 3—5 = Pali viññāna; orig. in Sanskrit, practical knowledge, opp. to jñāna, theoretical know- ledge, see Edgerton, Festschrift Winternitz, 217 ff.), (1) practical knowledge, applied knowledge, as in Sanskrit, still clearly in Lalitavistara 422.13 durvijñānaṃ (or v.l. °jñeyaṃ) tac cakraṃ jñāna-vijñāna-samatānubaddhatvāt, this wheel (of the Doctrine) is hard to know (practically), because it is [Page486-a+ 71] inseparably connected with identify of theoretical and prac- tical knowledge (i.e. can only be known by one whose theoretical knowledge is at the same time applied in practice); in Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 156.11 ff. a dissertation on the dif- ference between jñāna and vi°, rendered by Suzuki, Studies 272, transcendental (i.e. absolute) and (merely) relative knowledge; I should prefer abstract and applied knowledge; but it is true that to the author of Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra applied knowledge (vij°) has only practical, and hence in the last analysis no real, application; the passage cited makes this very clear. Essentially similar is the contrast in jñāna-prati- saraṇena bhavitavyaṃ, na vijñāna-pratisaraṇena Mahāvyutpatti 1548; more at length Bodhisattvabhūmi 257.16 ff. bodhisattvaḥ adhi- gama-jñāne sāradarśī bhavati, na śruta-cintā-dharmārtha- vijñāna-mātrake; sa yad bhāvanāmayena jñānena jñāta- vyaṃ na tac chakyaṃ śrutacintā-vijñāna-mātrakeṇa vijñātum iti viditvā paramagambhīrān api tathāgatabhā- ṣitāṃ dharmān śrutvā na pratikṣipati; (2) two kinds of vi°, khyāti-vi° and vastuprativikalpa-vi°, qq.v., Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 37.14 f.; vi° is aṣṭa-lakṣaṇa, ib., the list of 8 being given 235.7 ff., Suzuki, Studies, 189 (‘Ālaya, Manas, Manovi- jñāna, and the five sense-vijñāna’, on which see dhātu 3; the sixth is mano-vij°); (3) the sixth of the six ‘elements’, see dhātu 1b; (4) the fifth of the five (upādāna-)skandha, qq.v.; (5) the third link in the pratītyasamutpāda, q.v. In the last four categories often rendered consciousness, etc.; no single word or brief phrase can, of course, really suffice. In Bodhisattvabhūmi 49.17—18 (see s.v. naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñā°) short for vijñānānantyāyatana, in a [compound]

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Vijñāna (विज्ञान) or Vijñānaka.—(-vijñānaka) , ifc. [bahuvrīhi], in sa-°ke kāye Divyāvadāna 534.25, the body possessing consciousness (same phrase in Pali, saviññānake kāye).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Knowledge, science, learning, worldly knowledge or wisdom, that which comprehends any subject, except an understanding of the true nature of God or Brahma, acquirable by abstract meditation and the study of the Vedas; it is also described as conversancy with the arts of painting, &c., and with books, as the Smriti-Shastras or works on law, and other branches of science or literature. 2. Business, employment. 3. Music. E. vi implying variety, and jñāna knowledge.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—i. e. vi-jñā + ana, n. 1. Knowledge, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 142. 2. Learning. 3. Wisdom, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 167, M.M. 4. Art, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 2. 5. Music. 6. Intelligence, Chr. 6, 9 (at the end of a comp. adj.). 7. Distinction, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 5. 8. Business, employment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—[neuter] knowing, knowledge, intelligence, wisdom, learning, science, art, the capacity or organ of knowledge; the meaning by, knowing as, supposing (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vijñāna (विज्ञान):—[=vi-jñāna] [from vi-jñā] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) the act of distinguishing or discerning, understanding, comprehending, recognizing, intelligence, knowledge, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] skill, proficiency, art, [Uttamacaritra-kathānaka, prose version]

3) [v.s. ...] science, doctrine, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] worldly or profane knowledge (opp. to jñāna, ‘kn° of the true nature of God’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] the faculty of discernment or of right judgement, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] the organ of kn° (= manas), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) the understanding of (a particular meaning), regarding as, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 17; 66 etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) consciousness or thought-faculty (one of the 5 constituent elements or Skandhas, also considered as one of the 6 elements or Dhātus, and as one of the 12 links of the chain of causation), [Dharmasaṃgraha 22; 42; 58] (cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 102; 109])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान):—[vi-jñāna] (naṃ) 1. n. Knowledge or learning of any kind not divine; business; music.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Viāṇa, Viāṇaṇa, Viṇṇāṇa, Vinnāṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vijnana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vijnana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान) [Also spelled vigyan]:—(nm) science; ~[maya] scientific; consisting of knowledge or intelligence; •[kośa] the intelligence sheath (of the soul, according to the [vedāṃta]); ~[vāda] Idealismthe doctrine that only intelligence has reality (and not the objects exterior to us); ~[vādī] an Idealist, a believer in the doctrine of [vijñānavāda]; idealistic; ~[vettā] a Scientist, man of Science.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vijñāna (ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ):—

1) [noun] special knowledge.

2) [noun] the skill, knowledge of an expert; expertise.

3) [noun] systematised knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation carried on; science.

4) [noun] a branch of knowledge or study, esp. one concerned with establishing and systematising facts, principles and methods, as by experiments and hypotheses; science.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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