Vijnana, aka: Vijñānā, Vijñāna; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Vijnana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Vijñānā (विज्ञाना):—Third of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Ātmī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ), including Vijñānā, symbolize the different kinds of souls, as well as the impurities by which these souls are bound (except for Niṣkala or Śiva). They are presided over by the Bhairava Caṇḍa and his consort Brāhmī. Ātmī is the second of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the ātman.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Vijñāna (or viññāṇa) is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment."

Sri Ramakrishna defines vijñāna as

"He alone who, after reaching the Nitya, the Absolute, can dwell in the Līlā, the :Relative, and again climb from the Līlā to the Nitya, has ripe knowledge and :devotion. Sages like Narada cherished love of God after attaining the Knowledge of :Brahman. This is called vijnāna." Also: "What is vijnana? It is to know God distinctly by realizing His existence through an intuitive experience and to speak to Him intimately."

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) (pali viññāṇa) refers to the third of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. From saṃskāra there arises a defiled mind (samalacitta), initial cause of the present existence. Because it is aware in the way that a calf (vatsa) is aware of its mother, it is called vijñāna, consciousness. This vijñāna produces both the four formless aggregates (arūpiskandha) [perception (saṃjñā), feeling (vedanā), volition (saṃskāra), consciousness (vijñāna)] and form (rūpa) which serves as base them. This is name and form, nāmarūpa.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

General definition (in Buddhism)

Vijñāna (विज्ञान, “consciousness”) refers to the last of the “five components” (pañcaskandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 22). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., vijñāna). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Vijñāna also refers to the third of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42).

Vijñāna also refers to one of the “six elements” (ṣaḍdhātu) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 58 respectively).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

vijñāna (विज्ञान).—n S Knowledge, science, learning, any department or field of worldly knowledge. 2 Knowledge of; acquaintance with; understanding of (any subject of worldly knowledge). 3 Experience or experimental knowledge. 4 Popularly understood to mean Knowledge of God or Truth. Ex. aisā jō jhālā paripūrṇa || tyāsi samādhi āṇi vijñāna || (prāpta hōtāta.)

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vijñāna (विज्ञान).—n Knowledge, science. Ex- perience.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vijñāna (विज्ञान).—1 Knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, understanding; यज्जीव्यते क्षणमपि प्रथितं मनुष्यैर्विज्ञानशौर्यविभवार्यगुणैः समेतम् । तन्नाम जीवितमिह (yajjīvyate kṣaṇamapi prathitaṃ manuṣyairvijñānaśauryavibhavāryaguṇaiḥ sametam | tannāma jīvitamiha) ... Pt.1.24;5.3; विज्ञानमयः कोशः (vijñānamayaḥ kośaḥ) 'the sheath of intelligence' (the first of the five sheaths of the soul).

2) Discrimination, discernment.

3) Skill, proficiency; प्रयोगविज्ञानम् (prayogavijñānam) Ś.1.2.

4) Worldly or profane knowledge, knowledge derived from worldly experience (opp. jñāna which is 'knowledge of Brahma or Supreme Spirit'); ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः (jñānaṃ te'haṃ savijñānamidaṃ vakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ) Bg.7.2;3.41;6.8; (the whole of the 7th Adhyāya of Bg. explains jñāna and vijñāna).

5) Business, employment.

6) Music.

7) Knowledge of the fourteen lores.

8) The organ of knowledge; पञ्चविज्ञानचेतने (pañcavijñānacetane) (śarīre) Mb.12.187. 12.

9) Knowledge beyond the cognisance of the senses (atīndriyaviṣaya); विज्ञानं हि महद्भ्रष्टम् (vijñānaṃ hi mahadbhraṣṭam) Rām.3.71.3.

1) Information; लब्धविज्ञानम् (labdhavijñānam) Mb.12.44.5.

Derivable forms: vijñānam (विज्ञानम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

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