Samkhya, Sāṅkhya, Saṃkhyā, Sāṃkhya, Saṅkhyā, Sankhya, Shankhya, Saṃkhya: 25 definitions
Samkhya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Saṃkhyā (संख्या, “enumeration”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Saṃkhyā refers to the determining of an amount, eg: the number of symptoms, doṣas, medicines, doses.Source: Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna
Sankhya means number (numerical figure or digit). It is one of the most ancient and fundamental philosophy in India. In English language, Sankhya means counting. The essence of Sankhya is to access the amount of a particular thing. Even though, it is related to numerical but it also acknowledges observation, deduction and proof as a way of information and awareness. Every one has this Sankhya guna but there are very few people who are able to accurately interpret it.Source: Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana
Samkhya-guna has been mentioned by Charaka as ganita, i.e. ‘counting’. Gangadhara has added that all other Samkhyas except one are nothing but abhyasa / gunadhikya of one (eka-samkhya).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Sāṅkhya (साङ्ख्य).—Analytical discrimination between spirit and matter and the path of devotional service as described by Lord Kapila, the son of Devahūti in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; analytical understanding of the body and the soul. Sāṅkhya-yoga-the process of linking with the Supreme by intellectually tracing out the source of creation; An analysis of matter and spirit taught by sage Nirīśvara Kapila. One of the six systems of Vedic philosophy.Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Sāṅkhya (साङ्ख्य) refers to “(1) Analytically discriminat-ing between spirit and matter (2) The path of bhakti practised by analyzing the twenty-four universal elements”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Saṃkhyā (संख्या).—In ancient India digits up to 19 were in vogue. Bhāskarācārya the great mathematician, has in his work, "Līlāvatī", given the following names to the nineteen digits. 1 Ekam 10 Daśam 100 Śatam 1000 Sahasram 10000 Ayutam 100000 Lakṣam 1000000 Prayutam 10000000 Koṭi 100000000 Arbudam 1000000000 Abjam 10000000000 Kharvam 10000000000000 Trikharvam 1000000000000 Mahāpadmam 1000000000000 Śaṅku 1000000000 Jaladhi 100000000000000 Antyam 1000000000000000 Madhyam 100000000000000000 Parārdham 1000000000000000000 Daśaparārdham.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 220. 97. 175.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Saṃkhyā (संख्या, “number”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)
Sāṃkhyā (सांख्या).—The philosophic system of Sāṃkhyā, “enumerationism”, undergirds the theology of Śaiva Siddhānta: among the thirty-six categories, twenty-five, beginning with puruṣa, are derived from Sāṃkhyā, to which eleven that are particular to Śaiva revelation are added to complete the system.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Saṅkhyā (सङ्ख्या).—Number.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Saṃkhyā (संख्या).—A numeral such as एक,द्वि (eka, dvi) etc. In Panini Astadhyayi, although the term is defined as applicable to the word बहु, गण (bahu, gaṇa) and words ending with the tad. affixes वतु (vatu) and डति (ḍati), such as तावत्, कति (tāvat, kati) and the like, still the term is applied to all numerals to which it is seen applied by the people; cf M. Bh. on P. I. 1.23 also Pari. Sek. Pari. 9;
2) Saṃkhyā.—Numerical order; cf. स्पर्शेष्वेव संख्या (sparśeṣveva saṃkhyā) V. Pr. I. 49.
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Sāṃkhya (सांख्य).—A rule or a topic concerning number; cf. यदि तर्हि कृत्स्नः पदार्थोभि-धीयते लैङ्गाः सांख्याश्च विधयो न सिध्यन्ति (yadi tarhi kṛtsnaḥ padārthobhi-dhīyate laiṅgāḥ sāṃkhyāśca vidhayo na sidhyanti), M. Bh. on P. II. 2 24 Vart. 8,9.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Saṃkhyā (संख्या, “number”) or Saṃkhyāguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Saṃkhyā (number) is the fifth quality (guṇa). It is a general quality. It can be apprehended by eye and skin. Praśastapāda defines saṃkhyā as for which one, two, three etc. are used that are known as saṃkhyā. Viśvanātha gives the definition of saṃkhyā thus the cause of the convention of counting is called number. According to Śivāditya, the definition of saṃkhyā is that which has the generality of numberness is known as saṃkhyā.
Annaṃbhaṭṭa also gives the similar definition of saṃkhyā as number is the cause of common usage of expressions like one, two etc. In this definition, the word hetu is used in the sense of asādhāraṇanimittakāraṇa i.e., the extraordinary efficient cause. Annaṃbhaṭṭa says that it exist in all the nine Dravyas saṃkhyā starts from one and ends with parārdha. Oneness is eternal and non-eternal, when it is in atoms, it is eternal and when it is in products, it is non-eternal. But number two or all other higher numbers are non-eternal everywhere.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Saṃkhya (संख्य) refers to a “battle”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 12.58.—(“saṃkhyāpagamaṃ vinā” when construed as “saṃkhyādapagamaṃ vinā”).—Used mostly in compounds.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Sāmkhya (सांख्य): A school of philosophy emphasising a dualism between Purusha and Prakrti, propounded by sage Kapila.Source: Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God
Sāṅkhya — The system of non-theistic philosophy attributed to the sage Kapila. It is called Sāṅkhya because it enumerates twenty five Tattvas or various categories of reality beginning with Prakṛti or Pradhāna — primordial matter; and Puruṣa or Self. The conscious Self Puruṣa is passive and Prakṛti Active. Puruṣa becomes entangled in samsara and its attendant sufferings and is born again and again. A correct knowledge of the 25 categories will enable one to overcome ignorance and suffering and achieve liberation from samsāra.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Saṃkhyā (संख्या, “enumeration”).—What is meant by ‘numerical determination or just number’ (saṃkhyā)? Enumeration of the divisions /types of an entity is called number.
According to Tattvārthasūtra 1.8, “the categories and their details are undefrstood in detail in terms of existence, number (enumeration) (saṃkhyā), place or abode, extent of space touched (pervasion), continuity /time, interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparison”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
saṅkhyā : (f.) enumeration; calculation; a number; definition.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śaṅkhyā (शंख्या).—m (śaṅkha) An illiterate lout. 2 A luckless or forlorn wight.
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saṅkhyā (संख्या).—f (S) Number. 2 A number or a numeral. saṅkhyā mōjaṇēṃ To count the number of Ex. saṅkhyā mōjitāṃ jāhalē kitī || tēhī tujapratīṃ sāṅgatōṃ ||.
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sāṅkhya (सांख्य).—n m (S) One of the six Shastras,--the Sankhya system of philosophy. 2 m One that follows, or that is studying, this Shastra.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
saṅkhyā (संख्या).—f Number. A numeral. saṅkhyā mōjaṇēṃ Count the number of.
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sāṅkhya (सांख्य).—n m The Sankhya system of philosophy.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Saṃkhya (संख्य).—War, battle, fight; एकमुक्त्वार्जुनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् (ekamuktvārjunaḥ saṃkhye rathopastha upāviśat) Bg.1.47; संख्ये द्विषां वीररसं चकार (saṃkhye dviṣāṃ vīrarasaṃ cakāra) Vikr.1.68. 7; Ve.3.25; Śi.18.7; Māl.8.9.
Derivable forms: saṃkhyam (संख्यम्).
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Saṃkhyā (संख्या).—2 P.
1) To count, enumerate, calculate, sum up; तावन्त्येव च तत्त्वानि सांख्यैः संख्यायन्ते (tāvantyeva ca tattvāni sāṃkhyaiḥ saṃkhyāyante) Ś. B.
2) Ved. To appear along with, be connected with.
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Saṃkhyā (संख्या).—1 Enumeration, reckoning, calculation; संख्यामिवैषां भ्रमरश्चकार (saṃkhyāmivaiṣāṃ bhramaraścakāra) R.16.47.
2) A number.
3) A numeral.
5) Reason, understanding, intellect; उदारसंख्यैः सचिवैरसंख्यैः (udārasaṃkhyaiḥ sacivairasaṃkhyaiḥ) Bu. Ch.1.14.
5) Deliberation, reflection, exposition; धर्मसंख्या महाराज व्यवहार इतीष्यते (dharmasaṃkhyā mahārāja vyavahāra itīṣyate) Mb.12.121. 9.
6) War, battle; संख्यासमयविस्तीर्णमभि- जातोद्भवं बहु (saṃkhyāsamayavistīrṇamabhi- jātodbhavaṃ bahu) Mb.12.98.21.
9) Appellation, name; ततो द्वापरसंख्या सा युगस्य समजायत (tato dvāparasaṃkhyā sā yugasya samajāyata) Rām.7.74.22 (com. dvāpara- saṃkhyā dvāpara iti nāma | pṛṣodarāditvāt sādhuḥ |).
1) (In geom). A gnomon.
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Sāṃkhya (सांख्य).—a. [saṃkhyayā nirvṛttam aṇ]
1) Relating to number.
2) Calculating, enumerating.
4) Deliberating, reasoning, a reasoner; त्वं गतिः सर्वसांख्यानां योगिनां त्वं परायणम् (tvaṃ gatiḥ sarvasāṃkhyānāṃ yogināṃ tvaṃ parāyaṇam) Mb.
-khyaḥ, -khyam Name of one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy, attributed to the sage Kapila; (this philosophy is so called because it 'enumerates' twentyfive Tattvas or true principles; and its chief object is to effect the final emancipation of the twenty-fifth Tattva, i.e. the Puruṣa or soul, from the bonds of this worldly existence-the fetters of phenomenal creation -by conveying a correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tattvas and by properly discriminating the Soul from them. It regards the whole universe as a development of an inanimate principle called Prakṛti q. v, while the Puruṣa is altogether passive and simply a looker-on. It agrees with the Vedānta in being synthetical and so differs from the analytical Nyāya or Vaiśeṣika; but its great point of divergence from the Vedānta is that it maintains two principles which the Vedānta denies, and that it does not admit God as the creator and controller of the universe, which the Vedānta affirms); सांख्यमिव कपिला- धिष्ठितम् (sāṃkhyamiva kapilā- dhiṣṭhitam) K.
-rūyaḥ 1 A follower of the Sāṃkhya philosophy; ज्ञानयोगेन सांख्यानां कर्मयोगेण योगिनाम् (jñānayogena sāṃkhyānāṃ karmayogeṇa yoginām) Bg.3.3; 5.5.
2) An epithet of Śiva.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Saṃkhya (संख्य).—nt., Mahāvyutpatti 7928 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha), or saṃ- khyā, f., Gaṇḍavyūha 106.19; 134.4, a high number.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṅkhyaṃ) War, battle. f.
(-ṅkhyā) 1. Number in general, or a number, a numeral. 2. Deliberation, reasoning, reflection. 3. Intellect, understanding. 4. Manner. 5. Enumeration. E. sam before khyā substituted for cakṣ to speak well, affs. aṅ and ṭāp .
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(-khyaḥ-khyī-khyaṃ) See sāṅkhya .
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(-ṅkhyaḥ-ṅkhyī-ṅkhyaṃ) 1. Numeral, relating to number. 2. Deliberating, reasoning. 3. Rational, discriminative. m.
(-ṅkhyaḥ) 1. The Sankhya system of philosophy, ascribed originally to the Muni Kapila, and so called as enumerating twenty-five Tatwas or true principles; its object is to effect the final liberation of the twenty-fifth Tatwa, viz. Purusha, (the soul,) from the fetters of the phenomenal creation by conveying a correct knowledge of the twenty-four other Tatwas; the Sankhya system agrees with Vedantism in being synthetical, so differing from the analytical Nyaya; its great point of divergence from the Vedanta is its maintaining two principles, which the Vedanta denies. 2. A follower of the Sankhya system of philosophy. E. saṅkhyā number, &c., aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃkhya (संख्य).—i. e. sam-khyā, I. n. War, battle, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 54, 28. Ii. f. yā, 1. Number in general, [Pañcatantra] 156, 6; saṃkhyayā parivarjita, Without number, innumerable, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 62. 2. A numeral. 3. Reflection, deliberation. 4. Intellect. 5. Manner, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 172.
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Sāṅkhya (साङ्ख्य).—i. e. saṃkhya + a, I. adj. 1. Numeral, relating to number. 2. Deliberating, reasoning, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 3, 3. 3. Rational, discriminative. Ii. m. The Sāṅkhya system of philosophy, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 18, 33; [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 39.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śāṅkhya (शाङ्ख्य).—[adjective] made of shells.
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Saṃkhya (संख्य).—[neuter] fight, war.
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Saṃkhyā (संख्या).—[feminine] reckoning up, numbering; number (also [grammar]), numeral; appellation, name.
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Sāṃkhya (सांख्य).—[adjective] relating to the number ([grammar]); [neuter] [Name] of a philosophical system, [masculine] an adherent of it.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+51): Samkhyacandrika, Samkhyacarya, Samkhyadarshana, Samkhyajnana, Samkhyaka, Samkhyakalpa, Samkhyakarika, Samkhyakarikabhashya, Samkhyakaumudi, Samkhyalamkara, Samkhyalipi, Samkhyamangalagranthi, Samkhyamata, Samkhyamatra, Samkhyamimamsa, Samkhyamukhya, Samkhyamushtyadhikaranakshepa, Samkhyana, Samkhyanaman, Samkhyanidanatika.
Ends with (+18): Abhedaikatvasamkhya, Abhisamkhya, Agrasamkhya, Anusamkhya, Apratisamkhya, Arthaprasamkhya, Asamkhya, Astasamkhya, Baitsamkhya, Chandahsamkhya, Chhandahsamkhya, Dashardhasamkhya, Ghanahastasamkhya, Gosamkhya, Kalasamkhya, Katisamkhya, Kratusamkhya, Kulasamkhya, Lipisamkhya, Nadisamkhya.
Full-text (+470): Samkhyakarika, Samkhyatva, Asamkhya, Abhisamkhya, Kapila, Samkhyaka, Samkhyata, Cittasankhya, Samkhyakaumudi, Seshvarasamkhya, Mulaprakriti, Pratisamkhya, Gosamkhya, Samkhyamukhya, Sahasrasamkhya, Vaikritika, Shadvidhasamkhya, Samkhyavat, Shashti-tantra, Parisamkhya.
Search found 80 books and stories containing Samkhya, Sāṅkhya, Saṃkhyā, Sāṃkhya, Saṅkhyā, Sankhya, Sāṃkhyā, Shankhya, Śaṅkhyā, Saṃkhya, Saṅkhya, Śāṅkhya, Sam-khya, Saṃ-khyā, Saṃ-khya; (plurals include: Samkhyas, Sāṅkhyas, Saṃkhyās, Sāṃkhyas, Saṅkhyās, Sankhyas, Sāṃkhyās, Shankhyas, Śaṅkhyās, Saṃkhyas, Saṅkhyas, Śāṅkhyas, khyas, khyās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brahma Sutras (Nimbarka commentary) (by Roma Bose)
Brahma-Sūtra 1.4.11 < [Adhikaraṇa 3 - Sūtras 11-13]
Brahma-Sūtra 1.4.1 < [Adhikaraṇa 1 - Sūtras 1-7]
Brahma-Sūtra 2.2.1 < [Adhikaraṇa 1 - Sūtras 1-10]
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Perception (pratyakṣa) [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 6 - Source of Knowledge (pramāṇa)]
World Construction (Sāṃkhya and Caraka) < [Chapter 3 - Fundamental Theories]
Cosmology [in Charaka philosophy] < [Chapter 3 - Fundamental Theories]
Bhagavadgita (by Kashinath Trimbak Telang)
Brahma Sutras (Vedanta Sutras) (by George Thibaut)
I, 4, 11 < [First Adhyāya, Fourth Pāda]
First Adhyāya < [Introduction]
II, 2, 1 < [Second Adhyāya, Second Pāda]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 3 - The Categories < [Chapter XXXI - The Philosophy of Vallabha]
Part 4 - Kapila’s philosophy in the Bhāgavata-purāṇa < [Chapter XXIV - The Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
Part 5 - A general review of the other important topics of the Brahma-sūtras < [Chapter XXVI - Madhva’s Interpretation of the Brahma-sūtras]
Brahma Sutras (Shankara Bhashya) (by Swami Vireshwarananda)