Kumuda, Kumudā: 26 definitions

Introduction

Kumuda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kumuda (कुमुद):—One of the eight guardians of Vaikuṇṭha, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These eight guardians are part of the celestial entourage of Viṣṇu.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Kumuda (कुमुद) is another name of Mahāvīti, one of the two sons of Savana, who was the grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Savana was the son of Priyavrata. Kumuda ruled over the region Kaumuda.

2) Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Asitoda and mount Vipula, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Vipula mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, who was a son of Priyavrata.

3) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. It is also known by the name Vidruma. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

4) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the two mountains in Gomedadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 89. Gomedadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Havya, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

Priyavrata is the son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A prominent serpent. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 15).

2) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A prominent monkey, who was an attendant of Sugrīva. (Vana Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 4).

3) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A great elephant born in the dynasty of Supratīka. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15).

4) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A son of Garuḍa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).

5) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the five attendants given by Brahmā to Skanda. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 39).

6) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A warrior who fought with Skandadeva. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 56).

7) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A synonym of Mahāviṣṇu. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 76).

8) Kumuda (कुमुद).—There are four mountains supporting Mahāmeru on its four sides, and Kumuda is one of those four mountains, Mandara, Merumandara and Supārśva being the other three. According to the 8th Skandha of the Devī Bhāgavata there are other tweny mountains on the four sides of Mahāmeru, viz. Kuraṅga, Kuraga, Kuśumbha, Vikaṅkata, Trikūṭa, Śiśira, Pataṅga, Rucaka, Nīla, Niṣadha, Śitivāsa, Kapila, Śaṅkha, Vaidūrya, Cārudhi, Haṃsa, Ṛṣabha, Nāga, Kālañjara and Nārada.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Sannāha and Kumuda with a hundred crores, Amogha, Kokila and Sumantraka each with a crore. [...]”.

These [viz., Kumuda] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

Kumuda participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“O Nārada, listen to the numerical strength of the most important and courageous of those groups. [...] Sannāha with hundred crores; Kumuda with a crore; Amogha and Kokila the chief of Gaṇas each with a crore of crores. [...] Thus at the bidding of Śiva, the heroic Vīrabhadra went ahead followed by crores and crores, thousands and thousands, hundreds and hundreds of Gaṇas [viz., Kumuda]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kumuda (कुमुद).—An attendant on Hari.1 Attacked Asura followers of Bali.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 8. 38-39; XI. 27. 28.
  • 2) Ib. VIII. 21. 16.

1b) A disciple of Pathya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 7. 2.

1c) A chief Vānara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 242.

1d) A son of Irāvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 292.

1e) A Nāga from Cāndramasa Sāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 345.

1f) A son of Maṇivara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 160.

1g) A son of Bṛhatī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 247.

1h) A mountain on one side of Meru west of Śitoda. Here is the celestial Banian Tree Śatabalū's from which flow rivers to Nilāvṛta. The tree would yield whatever was desired of it.1 One of the seven hills of Śālmaladvīpa.2 Residence of the Kinnaras.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 11 and 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 28; 38. 45; 42. 51.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 35; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 32-3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 26.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa 39. 59.

1i) A mountain in Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 52.

1j) A mountain in Gomedaka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 123. 3.

1k) A Cakravāka in Mānasa; a son of Kauśika in previous birth.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 20. 18.

1l) One of the eight nidhis of Kubera.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 10.

1m) A Janapada of the Bhadra continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 21.

2a) Kumudā (कुमुदा).—A name of Yogamāya; the goddess enshrined in Mānasa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12; Matsya-purāṇa 13. 27.

2b) The wily sister of Mahādeva in the isle of Kumuda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 35.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kumuda (कुमुद) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.15, I.35, V.101.13/V.103, IX.44.52, IX.44.35, IX.44.52) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumuda) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to members of the moulding of a pedestal (pīṭha), used in the construction of liṅgas. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Kumuda (कुमुद).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—The lowest two mouldings of a plinth, kumuda and jagatī, are not representational in the same sense as the other mouldings, which depict a timber architecture. The forms of the kumuda are expressive of support, being resilient-looking and cushion-like. A variety of kumuda forms is used, the most common being the tripaṭṭa (three-faced) type.

Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka

Kumuda (कुमुद) is an essential moulding of the plinth. It is moulded in different shapes like, rounded, three-faceted and multi-faceted. Kumuda is also decorated with different types of designs. The important designs found on the vṛttakumuda are ribbings., creeper scrolls (kalpavalli) and other minute decorative designs. All three types of kumudas such as vṛtta, tripaṭṭa and dhārāvṛtta are found carved in the same plinth alternatively in a few temples.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Kumuda (कुमुद) or Kumudaparvata is the name of a mountain whose lord is named Kākaṇḍaka: a Vidyādhara king who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side but was slain by Prabhāsa, who participated in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when they heard that [speech of Śrutaśarman], eight warriors in anger surrounded Prabhāsa.... And the seventh one, whose chariot was drawn by asses, was named Varāhasvāmin, king of the mount Kumuda, and he was chief of a host of great warriors. And the eighth warrior was like him, Medhāvara, King of Dundhubhi”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kumuda, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kumudā (कुमुदा) is another name for Śāliparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Desmodium gangeticum (sal leaved desmodium), from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.17-20 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kumudā and Śāliparṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to the “white water-lilly” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—The food-utensils that are made of Kumuda-patra (white water-lilly leaf) have the following dietetic effects: nindita, śīta, rūkṣa (scorned, cool, pungent) vṛṣya, klamahara and “yātrārthināṃ abhihita” (aphrodisiac, removes weariness and suitable for travellers).

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Nymphoea alba Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kumuda] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kumuda - A niraya - strictly speaking, a period of suffering. It is equal to twelve Padumas.

The Kokalika monk was born in Kumuda niraya. S.i.152f; see also SN., p.126; SNA.ii.476.

2. Kumuda - One of the three palaces of Sobhita Buddha in his last lay life. Bu.vii.17.

3. Kumuda - A city. There an enemy of Piyadassi Buddha, Sona by name, made an unsuccessful attempt to kill him by means of the elephant Donamukha. Bu.xiv.6; BuA.174.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kumudī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kumuda] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kumuda (कुमुद) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kumuda] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kumuda : (nt.) white water lily.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kumuda, (nt.) 1. the white lotus Dh. 285; Vv 354 (=VvA. 161); J. V, 37 (seta°); Vism. 174; DA. I, 139.—2. a high numeral, in vīsati kumudā nirayā A. V, 173=Sn. p. 126.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kumuda (कुमुद).—n S The white water lily, Nymphæa esculenta. kumudinī f S The plant bearing it.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kumuda (कुमुद).—n The white water lily. kumudinī f The plant bearing it.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—[kau bhodate iti kumudam]

1) The white waterlily said to open at moon-rise [Nymphea alba] नोच्छ्वसिति तपनकिरणैश्चन्द्रस्येवांशुभिः कुमुदम् (nocchvasiti tapanakiraṇaiścandrasyevāṃśubhiḥ kumudam) V.3.16; so Ś.5. 28; Ṛs.3.2,21,23; Me.42. कुमुदवनमपश्रि श्रीमदम्भोजषण्डम् (kumudavanamapaśri śrīmadambhojaṣaṇḍam) Śi.11.64.

2) A red lotus.

-dam Silver.

-daḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu.

2) Name of the elephant supposed to guard the south.

3) Camphor.

4) A species of monkey.

5) Name of a Nāga who gave his younger sister कुमुद्वती (kumudvatī) to Kuśa, son of Rāma; see R.16.79.86.

-dā A form of Durgā.

Derivable forms: kumudaḥ (कुमुदः), kumudam (कुमुदम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—n.

(-daṃ) 1. The white esculent water lily, (Mymphæa esculenta.) 2. The red lotus, (Nrubra.) 3. silver. m.

(-daḥ) 1. The elephant of the south-west quarter. 2. One of the monkey heroes of the Ramayana. 3. One of the Naga or serpent race. 4. A Danava or infernal deity. 5. Camphor. f.

(-dā) 1. An aquatic plant, (Pistia stratiotes.) 2. A tree, (Gmelina arborea:) see gambhārī. (-dī) A medicinal and aromatic shrub, commonly Kayap'hal. E. ku the earth &c. mud to be pleased, and ka aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—[ku-mud + a], I. m. and n. The white esculent water-lily, Nymphæa esculenta, [Pañcatantra] 50, 10. Ii. m. The name of a Nāga or serpent, Mahābhārata 1, 1560; of a celestial being, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 8, 39; of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 39, 37; of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 16, 12; of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 422.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Kumuda (कुमुद) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. Śp. p. 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kumuda (कुमुद):—[=ku-muda] [from ku] a See sub voce

2) [=ku-muda] [from ku-mud] b n. [as m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]], ‘exciting what joy’, the esculent white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta), [Atharva-veda iv, 34, 5; Suśruta; Śakuntalā] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the red lotus (Nymphaea rubra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] m. camphor, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Dhruvaka

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a particular comet, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] of an attendant of Skanda ([Mahābhārata ix, 2558]) or of Viṣṇu ([Bhāgavata-purāṇa])

9) [v.s. ...] of the elephant of the south-west or southern quarter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] of a Daitya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] of a son of Gada by Bṛhatī, [Harivaṃśa 9193]

12) [v.s. ...] of a confidant of king Unmattāvanti, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

13) [v.s. ...] of a monkey-hero, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] of a poet

15) [v.s. ...] of a pupil of Pathya, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 7, 2]

16) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] of one of the smaller Dvīpas, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) Kumudā (कुमुदा):—[=ku-mudā] [from ku-muda > ku-mud] f. a form of Durgā, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 2, 12; Matsya-purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] the plant Gmelina arborea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] the plant Pistia Stratiotes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] the plant Desmodium gangeticum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] the plant Grislea tomentosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] another plant (commonly Kaṭphala), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) Kumuda (कुमुद):—[=ku-muda] [from ku-mud] n. camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] silver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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