Kumuda, Kumudā: 44 definitions

Introduction:

Kumuda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kumuda (कुमुद):—One of the eight guardians of Vaikuṇṭha, according to the Pāñcarātra literature. These eight guardians are part of the celestial entourage of Viṣṇu.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Kumuda (कुमुद) is another name of Mahāvīti, one of the two sons of Savana, who was the grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Savana was the son of Priyavrata. Kumuda ruled over the region Kaumuda.

2) Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Asitoda and mount Vipula, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Vipula mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, who was a son of Priyavrata.

3) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. It is also known by the name Vidruma. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

4) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the two mountains in Gomedadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 89. Gomedadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Havya, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata.

Priyavrata is the son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A prominent serpent. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 15).

2) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A prominent monkey, who was an attendant of Sugrīva. (Vana Parva, Chapter 289, Verse 4).

3) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A great elephant born in the dynasty of Supratīka. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 99, Verse 15).

4) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A son of Garuḍa. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 12).

5) Kumuda (कुमुद).—One of the five attendants given by Brahmā to Skanda. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 39).

6) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A warrior who fought with Skandadeva. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 56).

7) Kumuda (कुमुद).—A synonym of Mahāviṣṇu. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 149, Verse 76).

8) Kumuda (कुमुद).—There are four mountains supporting Mahāmeru on its four sides, and Kumuda is one of those four mountains, Mandara, Merumandara and Supārśva being the other three. According to the 8th Skandha of the Devī Bhāgavata there are other tweny mountains on the four sides of Mahāmeru, viz. Kuraṅga, Kuraga, Kuśumbha, Vikaṅkata, Trikūṭa, Śiśira, Pataṅga, Rucaka, Nīla, Niṣadha, Śitivāsa, Kapila, Śaṅkha, Vaidūrya, Cārudhi, Haṃsa, Ṛṣabha, Nāga, Kālañjara and Nārada.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Sannāha and Kumuda with a hundred crores, Amogha, Kokila and Sumantraka each with a crore. [...]”.

2) Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to the son of Śeṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.11 (“The Victory of Kumāra”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then Kumuda the son of Śeṣa who was harassed by the Asuras came and sought refuge in Kumāra. Another follower of Tāraka—Pralamba who had fled from the previous battle wrought great havoc with full force. Kumuda, the great son of Śeṣa the lord of serpents, sought refuge in Kumāra the son of Pārvatī and eulogised him. [...]”.

Note: According to this account, Kumuda, the son of the serpent-chief Śesa, was troubled by the Asura Pralamba who was the ally of Tāraka. Kumuda slew Pralamba and relieved Kumuda of distress. This Pralamba is distinct from the Asura of the same name whose destruction at the hands of Balarāma is recorded in the Mahābhārata.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kumuda (कुमुद).—An attendant on Hari.1 Attacked Asura followers of Bali.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 8. 38-39; XI. 27. 28.
  • 2) Ib. VIII. 21. 16.

1b) A disciple of Pathya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 7. 2.

1c) A chief Vānara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 242.

1d) A son of Irāvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 292.

1e) A Nāga from Cāndramasa Sāma.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 345.

1f) A son of Maṇivara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 160.

1g) A son of Bṛhatī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 247.

1h) A mountain on one side of Meru west of Śitoda. Here is the celestial Banian Tree Śatabalū's from which flow rivers to Nilāvṛta. The tree would yield whatever was desired of it.1 One of the seven hills of Śālmaladvīpa.2 Residence of the Kinnaras.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 11 and 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 28; 38. 45; 42. 51.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 35; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 32-3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 26.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa 39. 59.

1i) A mountain in Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 52.

1j) A mountain in Gomedaka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 123. 3.

1k) A Cakravāka in Mānasa; a son of Kauśika in previous birth.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 20. 18.

1l) One of the eight nidhis of Kubera.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 10.

1m) A Janapada of the Bhadra continent.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 21.

2a) Kumudā (कुमुदा).—A name of Yogamāya; the goddess enshrined in Mānasa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12; Matsya-purāṇa 13. 27.

2b) The wily sister of Mahādeva in the isle of Kumuda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 35.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kumuda (कुमुद) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.15, I.35, V.101.13/V.103, IX.44.52, IX.44.35, IX.44.52) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kumuda) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Kumuda is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Kumuda].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to members of the moulding of a pedestal (pīṭha), used in the construction of liṅgas. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Kumuda (कुमुद).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—The lowest two mouldings of a plinth, kumuda and jagatī, are not representational in the same sense as the other mouldings, which depict a timber architecture. The forms of the kumuda are expressive of support, being resilient-looking and cushion-like. A variety of kumuda forms is used, the most common being the tripaṭṭa (three-faced) type.

Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka

Kumuda (कुमुद) is an essential moulding of the plinth. It is moulded in different shapes like, rounded, three-faceted and multi-faceted. Kumuda is also decorated with different types of designs. The important designs found on the vṛttakumuda are ribbings., creeper scrolls (kalpavalli) and other minute decorative designs. All three types of kumudas such as vṛtta, tripaṭṭa and dhārāvṛtta are found carved in the same plinth alternatively in a few temples.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to “torus (molding) § 3.7.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Kumuda (कुमुद) or Kumudaparvata is the name of a mountain whose lord is named Kākaṇḍaka: a Vidyādhara king who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side but was slain by Prabhāsa, who participated in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when they heard that [speech of Śrutaśarman], eight warriors in anger surrounded Prabhāsa.... And the seventh one, whose chariot was drawn by asses, was named Varāhasvāmin, king of the mount Kumuda, and he was chief of a host of great warriors. And the eighth warrior was like him, Medhāvara, King of Dundhubhi”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kumuda, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Kumudā (कुमुदा) is another name for Śāliparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Desmodium gangeticum (sal leaved desmodium), from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.17-20 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Kumudā and Śāliparṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to the “white water-lilly” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—The food-utensils that are made of Kumuda-patra (white water-lilly leaf) have the following dietetic effects: nindita, śīta, rūkṣa (scorned, cool, pungent) vṛṣya, klamahara and “yātrārthināṃ abhihita” (aphrodisiac, removes weariness and suitable for travellers).

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Nymphoea alba Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kumuda] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Kumuda (कुमुद) (white water lily) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to one of the sixteen varieties of “rats” (Ākhu or Mūṣika), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā seems to consider rat poison as the next powerful one, seriously affecting human beings. Kāśyapa gives antidotes for the 16 varieties of rats (e.g., Kumuda). The author follows this up with certain general instructions in tackling poisons.

Symptoms of Kumuda: Emaciation of limbs, hallucination, thirst and fever.

Treatment (Antidote) of Kumuda: Paste of powder made from the sprouts of Aśvāri, two types of Puṅkha, Aṅkola, Pūtika, and Śirīṣa Kapitha, Arjuna and Pāṭalī leaves. The same can be used as a drink and also for fumigation, which will provide relief.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Kumuda (कुमुद) (identified with Nymphaea alba) is the object of certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “The seed of Cordia dichotoma should be forced out and cultured seven times in the flesh (oil) of Alangium salviifolium and then it should be rubbed with the dung of she-buffalo and dried in shade. If these seeds are mixed in dry buffalo dung and earth and sown and watered with coconut water (gale water?) they turn into a plant of Nymphaea alba [identified with Kumuda] or Nymphaea nouchali and there is no wonder [uptaṃ janayati kumudaṃ kumadaṃ kurute kimāścayaṃ]”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of an Apabhraṃśa metre classified as Dvipadi (metres with two lines in a stanza) discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Subhagā has 34 mātrās in each of their two lines, made up by 1 ṣaṇmātra, 2 caturmātras, 1 ṣaṇmātra, 3 caturmātras and 1 dvimātra. Its yati is after the 10th and the 18th mātrās. If on the other hand, the yati of the Kumuda is shifted from the 10th to the 12th mātrā, it gets the name of Bhārākrānta. These two Dvipadis are not mentioned by Svayambhū.—The Tārādhruvaka of Svayambhū is the same as Kumuda, but with the yati on the 14th and the 22nd mātrās instead of the 10th and the 18th.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to a particular type of lunar disc, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the lunar disc be of ashy colour, of sharp rays or red, or rayless, or red black, or appear broken there will be fear of hunger, of war, of disease and of robbers. If the lunar disc should appear white and of the colour of the snow, of Kunda, of Kumuda and of crystal he brings prosperity on the land”.

2) Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to “white jasmine”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “If the disc of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) be full of pure rays and large and appear of the colour of white jasmine or white water lily or crystal [i.e., kumuda-kunda-kusuma-sphaṭika-ābha] and if he does not suffer by occulation by or conjunction with, other planets and when he is in his good course mankind will be happy”.

3) Kumuda (कुमुद) or Kumudaketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).— Accordingly, “Kumuda Ketu is a comet of the colour of the white water lily. It appears in the west with its tail pointing to the east and is visible only for a night. When it appears there will be unprecedented happiness in the land for a period of ten years. Maṇi Ketu is a comet which appears for only 3 hours occasionally; it possesses an invisible disc and appears in the west; its tail is straight and white and it resembles a line of milk drawn from a human breast. There will be happiness in the land from the very time of its appearance for four and a half months; reptiles and venomous creatures will come into existence”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kumudā (कुमुदा) is the name of the Creeper (latā) associated with Tisra, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kumuda - A niraya - strictly speaking, a period of suffering. It is equal to twelve Padumas.

The Kokalika monk was born in Kumuda niraya. S.i.152f; see also SN., p.126; SNA.ii.476.

2. Kumuda - One of the three palaces of Sobhita Buddha in his last lay life. Bu.vii.17.

3. Kumuda - A city. There an enemy of Piyadassi Buddha, Sona by name, made an unsuccessful attempt to kill him by means of the elephant Donamukha. Bu.xiv.6; BuA.174.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kumudī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kumuda] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to “white water-lilies” (covering the lotus-lake near Aḍakavatī), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] That lotus lake was covered by various blue lotuses, lotuses, white water-lilies (kumuda) and white lotuses. It contained various fish, Makaras, Timiṅgilas, alligators, bees and various other water-born beings. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Kumuda (कुमुद) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kumuda] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Kumuda (कुमुद) refers to “night-blooming lotuses” (which is closed during the day), according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “in this province there (i.e., Vatsa) is a famous city, suitably named Susīmā (Well-bounded), a depository of wealth, resembling a tilaka on the earth. [...] The sun’s rays did not penetrate at all into the head-coverings, which resembled the interiors of night-blooming lotuses (i.e., kumuda), of the high-born women. Fluttering ends of flags shone on the shrines, as if they warded off the sun repeatedly, saying, ‘Do not go above the shrine’. [...]”.

2) Kumuda (कुमुद) is the name of a southern province situated in West-Videha in Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2.—Accordingly, “[...] Between them (i.e., the Vidyutprabha and Saumanasa Mountains) are the bhogabhumis, the Devakurus. [...] Between them (i.e., the Gandhamādana and Mālyavat Mountains) are the very charming Uttarakurus [...] East of the Devakurus and Uttarakurus, they are called East Videhas, and to the west, West Videhas, like different countries to each other. In each, there are 16 provinces, inaccessible to each other, separated by rivers and mountains, suitable to be conquered by a Cakrin. [viz., Kumuda, etc.] are the southern provinces of West Videha. [...]”.

3) Kumudā (कुमुदा) refers to one of the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [e.g., Kumudā, ...]. At a distance of 500 yojanas from each of them there are great gardens, 500 yojanas wide and 100,000 long, [...]. Within the lotus-lakes are the crystal Dadhimukha Mountains, [...] Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains. On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kumuda in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Nymphaea alba L. from the Nymphaeaceae (Waterlily) family having the following synonyms: Castalia alba, Nymphaea venusta, Nymphaea splendens. For the possible medicinal usage of kumuda, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Kumuda [कुमुद] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Nymphaea pubescens Willd. from the Nymphaeaceae (Waterlily) family having the following synonyms: Nymphaea lotus var. pubescens, Nymphaea purpurea, Nymphaea esculenta.

Kumuda [कुमुद] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Nymphaea pubescens Willd. from the Nymphaeaceae (Waterlily) family having the following synonyms: Nymphaea lotus var. pubescens, Nymphaea purpurea, Nymphaea esculenta.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Kumuda in India is the name of a plant defined with Cinnamomum camphora in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cinnamomum camphora var. glaucescens (Braun) Meisn. (among others).

2) Kumuda is also identified with Commiphora mukul It has the synonym Balsamodendrum mukul Hook. ex Stocks (etc.).

3) Kumuda is also identified with Desmodium gangeticum It has the synonym Meibomia polygonodes (Baker) Kuntze (etc.).

4) Kumuda is also identified with Nymphaea lotus It has the synonym Castalia mystica Salisb. (etc.).

5) Kumuda is also identified with Nymphaea nouchali It has the synonym Nymphaea stellata F. Muell. (etc.).

6) Kumuda is also identified with Nymphaea rubra It has the synonym Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex Salisb..

7) Kumuda is also identified with Nymphaea tetragona It has the synonym Castalia crassifolia Hand.Mazz. (etc.).

8) Kumuda is also identified with Pistia stratiotes It has the synonym Apiospermum obcordatum Klotzsch (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1978)
· Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo (1906)
· Monographiae Phanerogamarum (1883)
· Flora of Puná Island (2001)
· AAU Reports (1990)
· Hooker’s Journal of Botany Kew Gard. Misc. (1849)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kumuda, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kumuda : (nt.) white water lily.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kumuda, (nt.) 1. the white lotus Dh. 285; Vv 354 (=VvA. 161); J. V, 37 (seta°); Vism. 174; DA. I, 139.—2. a high numeral, in vīsati kumudā nirayā A. V, 173=Sn. p. 126.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kumuda (कुमुद).—n S The white water lily, Nymphæa esculenta. kumudinī f S The plant bearing it.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kumuda (कुमुद).—n The white water lily. kumudinī f The plant bearing it.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—[kau bhodate iti kumudam]

1) The white waterlily said to open at moon-rise [Nymphea alba] नोच्छ्वसिति तपनकिरणैश्चन्द्रस्येवांशुभिः कुमुदम् (nocchvasiti tapanakiraṇaiścandrasyevāṃśubhiḥ kumudam) V.3.16; so Ś.5. 28; Ṛtusaṃhāra 3.2,21,23; Meghadūta 42. कुमुदवनमपश्रि श्रीमदम्भोजषण्डम् (kumudavanamapaśri śrīmadambhojaṣaṇḍam) Śiśupālavadha 11.64.

2) A red lotus.

-dam Silver.

-daḥ 1 An epithet of Viṣṇu.

2) Name of the elephant supposed to guard the south.

3) Camphor.

4) A species of monkey.

5) Name of a Nāga who gave his younger sister कुमुद्वती (kumudvatī) to Kuśa, son of Rāma; see R.16.79.86.

-dā A form of Durgā.

Derivable forms: kumudaḥ (कुमुदः), kumudam (कुमुदम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—n.

(-daṃ) 1. The white esculent water lily, (Mymphæa esculenta.) 2. The red lotus, (Nrubra.) 3. silver. m.

(-daḥ) 1. The elephant of the south-west quarter. 2. One of the monkey heroes of the Ramayana. 3. One of the Naga or serpent race. 4. A Danava or infernal deity. 5. Camphor. f.

(-dā) 1. An aquatic plant, (Pistia stratiotes.) 2. A tree, (Gmelina arborea:) see gambhārī. (-dī) A medicinal and aromatic shrub, commonly Kayap'hal. E. ku the earth &c. mud to be pleased, and ka aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—[ku-mud + a], I. m. and n. The white esculent water-lily, Nymphæa esculenta, [Pañcatantra] 50, 10. Ii. m. The name of a Nāga or serpent, Mahābhārata 1, 1560; of a celestial being, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 8, 39; of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 39, 37; of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 16, 12; of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 422.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद).—[neuter] the flower of the white water-lily.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Kumuda (कुमुद) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. Śp. p. 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kumuda (कुमुद):—[=ku-muda] [from ku] a See sub voce

2) [=ku-muda] [from ku-mud] b n. [as m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]], ‘exciting what joy’, the esculent white water-lily (Nymphaea esculenta), [Atharva-veda iv, 34, 5; Suśruta; Śakuntalā] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] the red lotus (Nymphaea rubra), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] m. camphor, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Dhruvaka

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a particular comet, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [v.s. ...] of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] of an attendant of Skanda ([Mahābhārata ix, 2558]) or of Viṣṇu ([Bhāgavata-purāṇa])

9) [v.s. ...] of the elephant of the south-west or southern quarter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] of a Daitya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] of a son of Gada by Bṛhatī, [Harivaṃśa 9193]

12) [v.s. ...] of a confidant of king Unmattāvanti, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

13) [v.s. ...] of a monkey-hero, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] of a poet

15) [v.s. ...] of a pupil of Pathya, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 7, 2]

16) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] of one of the smaller Dvīpas, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) Kumudā (कुमुदा):—[=ku-mudā] [from ku-muda > ku-mud] f. a form of Durgā, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 2, 12; Matsya-purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] the plant Gmelina arborea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] the plant Pistia Stratiotes, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] the plant Desmodium gangeticum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] the plant Grislea tomentosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] another plant (commonly Kaṭphala), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) Kumuda (कुमुद):—[=ku-muda] [from ku-mud] n. camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] silver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद):—(daṃ) 1. n. The white esculent water-lily; red lotus; silver; camphor. m. Elephant of the southwest quarter. f. () An aquatic plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kumuda (कुमुद) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kumua, Kumuā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kumuda in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kumuda (कुमुद) [Also spelled kumud]:—[[kumudinī]] (nm), [kumudini] (nf) a lily (flower).

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kumuda (ಕುಮುದ):—

1) [noun] happiness of people (in gen.).

2) [noun] absence of joy; the state of being sorrowful; grief.

--- OR ---

Kumuda (ಕುಮುದ):—

1) [noun] the plant esculent whiter waterlily, Nymphaea esculenta.

2) [noun] its white flower.

3) [noun] the plant Nymphaea nelumbo; lotus plant.

4) [noun] its flower; lotus.

5) [noun] the blue water lily, Nymphaea cyanea.

6) [noun] its flower; blue lotus.

7) [noun] a volatile, crystalline ketone, C10H16O, with a strong characteristic odor, derived from the wood of the camphor tree or synthetically from pinene, used to protect fabrics from moths, in manufacturing cellulose plastics, and in medicine as an irritant and stimulant; camphor.

8) [noun] orange-brown or yellow-brown colour; tawny colour.

9) [noun] the sun.

10) [noun] water.

11) [noun] a large, powerful cat (Panthera leo) with a tawny coat, a tufted tail, and, in the adult male, a shaggy mane; a lion.

12) [noun] the organ of sight; the eye.

13) [noun] a pond; a water tank; a lake.

14) [noun] money, either in the form of paper currency or coins.

15) [noun] the quality of being hard, powerful, violent and vigorous.

16) [noun] (myth.) one of the eight celestial elephants that hold this universe; the regent-elephant of South.

17) [noun] the moon.

18) [noun] a lotus-like structure in a temple building.

19) [noun] the tree Cinnamomum camphora of Lauraceae family; camphor cinnamon.

20) [noun] name of a monkey in the army of Rāma in the epic Rāmāyaṇa.

21) [noun] (pros.) name of a meter.

22) [noun] (myth.) one of the fourteen mountains.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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