Tamisra, Tamisrā, Tāmisra: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Tamisra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—A hell. (See under Kāla).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Tamisrā (तमिस्रा).—A Śakti on the Ṣoḍasapatrābjā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 11.

2) Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—A hell among the twenty-eight in number. Here are put to torments, those who lay hands on another's property, children and women.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 30. 28; IV. 6. 45; V. 26. 7-8; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 41; III. 11. 104.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Tāmisra (तामिस्र) refers to one of the five Avidyās, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—When Brahmā meditates there is creation of five types of avidyā known as creation predominated by tamas (prādurbhūtaḥ tamomoyaḥ). This avidyā is spoken of as fivefold—tamas, moha, mahāmoha, tāmisra and andhatāmisra. After the creation of this five fold avidyā Brahmā again meditates as, a result of which the world of vegetation is produced. This is termed as mukhyasarga. It is the fourth in order (“mukhyā nagā iti proktā mukhya sargastu sa smṛtaḥ”).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Tāmisra (तामिस्र, “darkness”) is the fourth type of viparyaya (ignorance), according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. Viparyaya refers to a category of pratyayasarga (intellectual products), which represents the first of two types of sarga (products) that come into being during tattvapariṇāma (elemental manifestations), which in turn, evolve out of the two types of pariṇāma (change, modification).

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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Tāmisra (तामिस्र) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Tāmisra), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Tamisra (तमिस्र) is the name of a cave (guhā) located on the Vaitāḍhya mountain which is situated in the center of Bhārata (parallel to the Himavān). The presiding deity over this cave is a vyantara God named Kṛtamālaka. Bhārata is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Tamisrā (तमिस्रा) is the name of a cave at mount Vaitāḍhya, according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism. Accordingly, “[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. They landed on mount Vaitāḍhya which is [...] possessing caves named Khaṇḍaprapātā and Tamisrā that were like houses of pleasure and rest of the Śrīs of the two halves of Bharata”.

Tamisrā is also mentioned in chapter 1.4:—

“[...] Then the cakra-jewel started out in the direction of the cave Tamisrā. The King [Bharata] followed it as if it were a pathfinder. When he had reached the vicinity of Tamisrā, the King settled the soldiers in dwellings, as if the cities of the Vidyādharas had descended to the foot of the mountain. Concentrating his mind on the god Kṛtamāla, the King made a four days’ fast, and the deity’s throne shook”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tamisra (तमिस्र).—a. Dark.

-sram 1 Darkness; एतत्तमालदलनीलतमं तमिस्रम् (etattamāladalanīlatamaṃ tamisram) Gīt 11; करचरणोरसि मणिगणभूषणकिरणविभिन्नतमिस्रम् (karacaraṇorasi maṇigaṇabhūṣaṇakiraṇavibhinnatamisram) 2; Ki.5.2.

2) Mental darkness, illusion.

3) Anger, wrath.

-sraḥ The dark half of the month.

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Tamisrā (तमिस्रा).—

1) A dark night; सूर्ये तपत्यावरणाय दृष्टेः कल्पेत लोकस्य कथं तमिस्रा (sūrye tapatyāvaraṇāya dṛṣṭeḥ kalpeta lokasya kathaṃ tamisrā) R.5.13; Śi.6.7; Ki.9.18; Ku. 6.43.

2) Extensive darkness.

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Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—

1) A division of hell; Ms.4.88; Bhāg.3. 12.2.

2) The dark fortnight of a month.

3) Hatred.

4) Anger; तमिस्रं क्रोध उच्यते (tamisraṃ krodha ucyate) Mb.12.313.25.

5) A demon, Rākṣasa (going about in the dark).

6) (Phil.) Dislike; तामिस्रोष्टादशधा (tāmisroṣṭādaśadhā) Sāṅ K.48.

Derivable forms: tāmisraḥ (तामिस्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamisra (तमिस्र).—m.

(-sraḥ) The dark half of the month, from the full to the change. f.

(-srā) 1. A dark night, or one during the wane of the moon. 2. Great or extensive darkness. 3. The night of the new moon. 4. Any night. n.

(-sraṃ) 1. Darkness. 2. Anger, wrath. E. tamas darkness, ra added, and i substituted for the penultimate.

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Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—n.

(-sraṃ) 1. Great darkness. 2. A hell, that of deep gloom. m.

(-sraḥ) Indignation at being disappointed or slighted. E. tamisra, and aṇ added. tamisrā tamastatiḥ asti atra .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamisra (तमिस्र).—i. e. tamas + ra, I. n. Darkness, a dark night, Mahābhārata 4, 710. Ii. f. , A night without moon or star, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 13.

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Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—i. e. tamisra + a, I. adj. With and without pakṣa, The dark half of the month, from full-moon to new-moon, Mahābhārata 3, 11813. Ii. m. 1. Wrath, Mahābhārata 14, 1019. 2. The name of a hell, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 88.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamisra (तमिस्र).—[neuter] darkness (also [feminine] tamistrā), a dark night; a cert. dark hell, hell i.[grammar]

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Tāmisra (तामिस्र).—(pakṣa) [masculine] the dark half of the moon; [masculine] a Rākṣasa or a cert. hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamisra (तमिस्र):—[from tam] m. = -pakṣa, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) [v.s. ...] n. darkness, dark night (also [plural]), [Mahābhārata iv, 710; Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 13, 9; Gīta-govinda xi, 12]

3) [v.s. ...] a dark hell, hell (in general), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 6, 45]

4) [v.s. ...] anger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Tamisrā (तमिस्रा):—[from tamisra > tam] f. ([Pāṇini 5-2, 114]) a dark night, [Ṛg-veda ii, 27, 14; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa ii, 2, 9, 6; Mahābhārata iii; Raghuvaṃśa etc.]

6) Tamisra (तमिस्र):—[from tam] cf. su-; tāmisra

7) Tāmisra (तामिस्र):—[from tāma] mfn. ([from] tam and tamisrā [gana] jyotsnādi) (with pakṣa) or m. the dark half of the month, [Lāṭyāyana ix; Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa iii f.; Mahābhārata iii, 11813]

8) [v.s. ...] m. ‘nightwalker’, a Rākṣasa, [Raghuvaṃśa xv, 2]

9) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya [philosophy]) indignation, anger (one of the 5 forms of A-vidyā), [Mahābhārata xiv, 1019; Sāṃkhyakārikā; Tattvasamāsa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii] (also n.), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa iii l]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a hell, [Manu-smṛti iv, xii; Yājñavalkya iii, 222; Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii., v; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] cf. andha-.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamisra (तमिस्र):—(sraṃ) 1. m. Dark half of the moon from the full to the change. f. A dark night; great darkness. 1. n. Darkness; anger.

2) Tāmisra (तामिस्र):—(sraṃ) 1. n. Great darkness; a hell of deep gloom. m. Indignation at being slighted.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tamisra in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tamisra in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tamisrā (तमिस्रा):—(nf) darkness; dark night.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tamisra (ತಮಿಸ್ರ):—[noun] = ತಮಿಸ್ರೆ - [tamisre -] 2.

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Tāmisra (ತಾಮಿಸ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the state or fact of being ignorant; lack of knowledge, learning, information, etc.; ignorance.

2) [noun] the condition of not having light; darkness.

3) [noun] the second half of a lunar month following the full moon-day.

4) [noun] (myth.) one of the hells.

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Tāmisra (ತಾಮಿಸ್ರ):—[noun] a gold or silver ring put round the hoof of a horse.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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