Bhrama, Bhrāma: 24 definitions


Bhrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to “vertigo” according to the fifth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 23). Accordingly, “In vertigo (bhrama), the whole body, and especially the head, appear to reel. Every thing, outside the patient, also appears to whirl round him. At the time he feels this sensation, he is unable to stand steadily on his legs”.

Source: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Bhrama (भ्रम).—In vertigo (bhrama), the whole body, and especially the head, appear to reel. Every thing, outside the patient, also appears to whirl round him. At the time he feels this sensation, he is unable to stand steadily on his legs.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to “giddiness”, mentioned in verse 4.11-17 and 5.15, 22 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Xerostomia, flaccidity of limbs, deafness, stupor, giddiness [viz., bhrama], and heart-disease (result) from the restraint of thirst. In this ease every cold application (is) wholesome. Racking in the limbs, anorexia, lassitude, emaciation, stitches, and giddiness [viz., bhrama] (result from the restraint) of hunger. In this case light, fat, warm, and little food (is) to be taken. [...] catarrh, pain in the eyes, the head, and the heart, stiffness of the neck, anorexia, and giddiness [viz., bhrama]—along with visceral induration— (result) from (suppressed) tears. In this case sleep, liquor, (and) cheerful words (are wholesome)”.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to “giddiness” (dizziness: a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall). Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to “giddiness” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning bhrama] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Bhrama (भ्रम):—Giddiness, Dizziness or tremor.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to:—Bewilderment; delusion. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bhrāma (भ्राम) refers to “rolling (all over the earth)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.19 (“Kāma’s destruction by Śiva”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Naradā: “[...] When the gods eulogised thus, a great flame of fire sprang up from the third eye of the infuriated Śiva. That fire originating instantaneously from the eye in the middle of His forehead blazed with flames shooting up and resembling the fire of final dissolution in refulgence. After shooting up in the sky, it fell on the ground and rolled [i.e., bhrāma] over the earth all round. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Bhrama (भ्रम) or Bhramavega refers to the “great force (of delusion)”, according to the Kulakaulinīmata.—Although the text does not say so, it is clear that the red Nityā is a form of Kāmeśvarī. She both looks almost the same and grants the same boon, that is, the power to be irresistibly attractive to women. When Nityā is in her black form, she is Kālī. Surrounded by the same Yoginīs, the power to attract women becomes ‘the great force of delusion’ (mahāvega, bhramavega) by means of which the adept can control and even kill his enemies. All forms of magic are based essentially on the power to control and subjugate (vaśīkaraṇa). ‘Black’ rites direct this power at enemies, ‘red’ rites subjugate women and ‘white’ ones are the means to achieve control of higher, spiritual powers.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

1) Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to an “error (of mind)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] By astonishing, [magical] feats such as [creating] enmity [among friends], driving off and killing [adversaries] and by [tantric] mantras [of all kinds], [deluded] multiplicity multiplies. By all [yogic] practices, the various Bandhas and Mudrās, nothing but union with ignorance [is achieved]. Meditation on points in the body, the channels [of vitality] and the six Cakras is an error of mind (cetas-bhrama). Therefore, having abandoned all that, [because it has been] constructed by the mind, resort to the no-mind [state]. [...]”.

2) Bhrama (भ्रम) refers to “one’s confusion (over sense objects)”, according to Hemacandra’s Yogaśāstra (12.22-25): “Always sitting comfortably in an isolated, very clean and beautiful place, [the Yogin] whose whole body has become relaxed from the top of his crown to the tips of his feet, [so that] even [if he is] looking at a beautiful form [or] even hearing a voice, melodious and pleasing to the mind, even smelling lovely smells, even eating agreeable tastes, even touching soft things [or] even not restraining the activity of his mind, his detachment is upheld and his confusion over sense objects (viṣaya-bhrama) is destroyed forever more. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhrama (भ्रम).—m (S) Whirling or going round, circular motion. 2 Roaming, straying, wandering. 3 A whirl; a gyration or circumvolution. 4 Mistake, misapprehension, error, erroneous conception or judgment. 5 Wandering of mind; aberration; incoherence or wildness of thought. 6 Stray- ing figuratively; deviation from rectitude. 7 Slight belief or persuasion; suspicion or surmise; thought regarding as probable. Ex. hyāpāśīṃ lākha rupayē asāvē asā gāṃvāsa bhrama hōtā; jyācā āmhī bhrama dharalā hōtā tōca śēvaṭīṃ cōra ṭharalā. 8 Doubtfulness or doubt. Ex. hā brāhmaṇa kiṃvā śūdra hyāviṣayīṃ āmhālā bhrama āhē.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhrama (भ्रम).—m Doubt. Roaming; whirling. Error. Wandering of mind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम).—[bhram-ghañ]

1) Moving or roaming about, roving.

2) Turning round, whirling, revolving.

3) Circular motion, rotation.

4) Straying, deviating.

5) An error, a mistake, misapprehension, delusion; शुक्तौ रजतमिति ज्ञानं भ्रमः (śuktau rajatamiti jñānaṃ bhramaḥ); भ्रमं संमोहमावर्तमभ्यासाद्विनिवर्तयेत् (bhramaṃ saṃmohamāvartamabhyāsādvinivartayet) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.274.7; भ्रमो द्विविधः विपर्यासः संशयश्च (bhramo dvividhaḥ viparyāsaḥ saṃśayaśca) T. S.

6) Confusion, perplexity, embarrassment.

7) An eddy, a whirlpool.

8) A potter's wheel.

9) A grind-stone.

1) A lathe.

11) Giddiness.

12) A fountain, watercourse; भ्रमागतैरम्बु- भिरम्बुराशिः (bhramāgatairambu- bhiramburāśiḥ) Śiśupālavadha 3.38.

13) An umbrella.

14) A circle.

Derivable forms: bhramaḥ (भ्रमः).

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Bhrāma (भ्राम).—[bhram-aṇ]

1) Roaming about.

2) Delusion, error, mistake.

Derivable forms: bhrāmaḥ (भ्रामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम).—(m.? Sanskrit Lex. spring), water-course, conduit, in udaka-bhrama, q.v.; and in Divyāvadāna 538.10, where text Kubjottarānukrameṇa niṣpalāyitā; mss. are cited as reading -bhrameṇa, which must certainly be kept; it is not clear whether the syllable -nu- is in the mss. or not; if it is, we should have to assume an otherwise unknown stem anubhrama; if not, since Kubjottarā is fem., bhra- meṇa gives excellent sense. See Lévi, Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) p. 269.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Whirling, going, round. 2. Straying, roaming. 3. Error, ignorance, mistake, misapprehension. 4. A whirlpool, an eddy 5. A drain, a water-course. 6. A lathe, a potter’s wheel, &c. E. bhram to go round, aff. ghañ .

--- OR ---

Bhrāma (भ्राम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Wandering, roving. 2. Error. E. bhram to turn round, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम).—[bhram + a], m. 1. Whirling, going round, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 363. 2. Straying, roaming. 3. Error, Bhāṣāp. 133. 4. A whirlpool. 5. A watercourse. 6. A potter’s wheel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम).—[masculine] roaming, wandering, moving to and fro; wandering through (—°); whirling flame, whirlpool, eddy, a potter’s wheel; giddiness, wandering of mind, confusion, mistake, error.

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Bhrāma (भ्राम).—[masculine] roaming about, unsteadiness, fickleness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhrama (भ्रम):—[from bhram] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) wandering or roaming about, roving over or through ([compound]), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

2) [v.s. ...] moving about, rolling (as of the eyes), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

3) [v.s. ...] turning round, revolving, rotation ([accusative] with √ = to swing), [Mahābhārata; Sūryasiddhānta; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

4) [v.s. ...] a whirling flame, [Ṛg-veda]

5) [v.s. ...] a whirlpool, eddy, [Prabodha-candrodaya]

6) [v.s. ...] a spring, fountain, watercourse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a potter’s wheel, [Sāṃkhyakārikā]

8) [v.s. ...] ([varia lectio] mi), a grindstone (See [compound])

9) [v.s. ...] a gimlet or auger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a circle, [Āryabhaṭa]

11) [v.s. ...] giddiness, dizziness, [Suśruta]

12) [v.s. ...] confusion, perplexity, error, mistake (ifc. mistaking anything for), [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.

13) Bhrāma (भ्राम):—[from bhram] m. roaming about, unsteadiness, [Gīta-govinda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhrama (भ्रम):—(maḥ) 1. m. Whirling, wandering about; error; an eddy; a drain.

2) Bhrāma (भ्राम):—(maḥ) 1. m. A wandering; error.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bhrama (भ्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Tamāḍa, Tāliaṃṭa, Paviraṃjia, Bhama, Bhamāḍa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bhrama (भ्रम) [Also spelled bhram]:—(nm) misunderstanding, illusion, misconception; confusion; ~[janaka] illusory, fallacious; ~[janya] resulting from misunderstanding/confusion; -[jāla] illusion; ~[mūlaka] illusory; caused by misunderstanding/misconception; -[ṭūṭanā] to be disillusioned; -[meṃ honā] to be under an illusion.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Bhrama (ಭ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of wandering (aimlessly or uselessly).

2) [noun] a flying around (as a bumble bee).

3) [noun] a turning or spinning motion of a body around a center.

4) [noun] water moving rapidly in a circle so as to produce a depression in the centre into which floating objects may be drawn; a whirlpool.

5) [noun] an act of swerving or turning aside from what is right or correct.

6) [noun] a noticeable imperfection; a blemish; a fault.

7) [noun] the state of having a whirling, dazed sensation; dizziness.

8) [noun] perception of something objectively existing in such a way as to cause misinterpretation of its actual nature; illusion.

9) [noun] a stream; a small river.

10) [noun] a potteṛs wheel.

11) [noun] a hand-driven grinding mill, made of two stone discs, the below one being stationary on which the other one is rotated.

12) [noun] a mobile, collapsible shade for protection against weather consisting of fabric stretched over hinged ribs radiating from a central pole; an umbrella.

13) [noun] a plain figure bounded by a single line, all points of which are equally distant from the centre of the figure; a circle.

14) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech that describes something in a manner which it is really not.

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Bhrāma (ಭ್ರಾಮ):—

1) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of wandering (aimlessly or uselessly).

2) [noun] perception of something objectively existing in such a way as to cause misinterpretation of its actual nature; illusion.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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