Uttara, aka: Uttāra, Uttarā; 28 Definition(s)

Introduction

Uttara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

Uttara in Purana glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

1) Uttara (उत्तर).—The son of King Virāṭa of Matsya. Mention is made in the Mahābhārata, Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 9 that Bhūmiñjaya was another name of Uttara. Uttara also accompanied his father Virāṭa, when he went to take part in the Svayaṃvara (choice of a husband) of Draupadī. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Stanza 3). Uttara and Arjuna. See the paragraph Ajñātavāsa under Arjuna. The end of Uttara. Uttara had taken part in the battle between the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 77 that a combat took place on the first day of the battle between Uttara and Vīrabāhu. Uttara attacked Śalya who killed Uttara. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 47, Stanzas 36 to 39). Uttara who met with a glorious death in the battle, got a place in heaven with the gods. (Mahābhārata Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Stanzas 17 and 18). (See full article at Story of Uttara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Uttara (उत्तर).—A King who had gone down because of his contemptuous behaviour towards his superiors.

3) Uttara (उत्तर).—A fire. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Stanza 29 and Sabhā Parva, Chapter 22).

4) Uttarā (उत्तरा).—General information. Daughter of Virāṭa, the King of Matsya. Her brother was called Uttara. Up to marriage. The Pāṇḍavas led their incognito life in the capital of the Matsya Kingdom. Arjuna adopted the name Bṛhannala and was employed as the tutor of princess Uttarā in music and dancing. At the end of the life, King Virāṭa gave his daughter Uttarā in marriage to Abhimanyu the son of Arjuna. (See the paragraph Ajñātavāsa (incognito-life) under Arjuna). Son. The son born to Abhimanyu and Uttarā was Parīkṣit, who became a very famous King later. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Stanzas 83 and 84). See the seventh paragraph under Aśvatthāmā). The death of her husband. Abhimanyu was killed in the battle between the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas. It is mentioned in the Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 78, Stanza 37 that Uttarā fell unconscious, when she heard of the death of her husband. Śrī Kṛṣṇa consoled Uttarā. In the Mahābhārata, Strī Parva, Chapter 20, Stanzas 4 to 28 the lamentation of Uttarā over the death of Abhimanyu is mentioned. To the forest. Uttarā also was seen among the women who accompanied Dhṛtarāṣṭra, to a little distance when he went to the forest after the battle. (M.B Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 15, Stanza 10).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Uttara (उत्तर).—The father of Irāvati and father-in-law of Parīkṣit.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 16. 2.

1b) A Pravara—sage.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 199. 17.

2a) Uttarā (उत्तरा).—The name of an asterism.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 82. 7.

2b) The daughter of Matsya king Virāṭa, and queen of Abhimanyu. Mother of Parīkṣit.1 Aśvathāma wanted to destroy the child in her womb, and sent out flaming arrows. Pursued by them, Uttarā invoked Kṛṣṇa's help, who protected her by his Sudarśana to ensure the continuity of the Kuru line.2 One among the party that welcomed Vidura.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 249; Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 9-10; IX. 22. 33; III. 3. 17.
  • 2) Ib. I. 8. 8-15; 12. 1; III. 3. 17;
  • 3) Ib. I. 13. 4; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 51-2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Uttara (उत्तर) refers to “architrave” (the beam of a column, or, stambha).

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Uttara (उत्तर).—Part of the standard pilaster;—‘Uttara’ means ‘beam’, and the term applies to the structural beams in a temple. It also applies to the representation of a beam along the top of the wall exterioir, directly under the kapota. At every corner in the wall, directly over a pilaster, two uttara-ends cross at right angles, one pointing forward and the other sideways. The uttara is not strictly part of the pilaster itself.

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Uttara (उत्तर).—A part (compound moulding) of the prastara, or ‘entablature’;—Uttara is the beam/architrave placed above the potika of the bhittipāda. according to Manasara it should be slightly projecting forward from the vertical norm of the wall below. The Mānasāra also states that uttara should be decorated with reliefs of squatting and jumping lions.

It is also classified into three categories namely:

  1. khaṇḍottara (panelled),
  2. patrottara (floriated),
  3. rūpottara (sculptured).

Uttara corresponds to the beam above the potika in the architectural framework of the temple. Hence it should be of one stone sitting like a beam. But in practice, while carving the uttara on the exterior wall surface it is carved to look like a beam but actually it may not be so. In the gap between two bhittipādas, the uttara may be carved in several piece

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Uttara (उत्तर, “northern”) refers to “inhabitants of the north”, who are usually to be represented by a reddish-yellow (gaura) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

2) Uttara (उत्तर, “northern”) refers to one of the seven types of song (gitaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “it (uttara) should have mukha and pratimukha. As in the ullopyaka, it should have in the beginning a mātrā made up of four kalās, and as in the rovindaka it should use at the beginning a group with āvāpa (ākāra)”.

3) Uttara also refers to one of the ten kinds of dhruvā (“songs”) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32. Accordingly, “the dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruva) connected with one another”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Uttara (उत्तर) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure uttara has been first mentioned by Rudraṭa in his Kāvyālaṃkāra (K.A. VII/93). Ruyyaka (A.S. P/172) has admitted two varieties of uttara. In the first variety from an answer a question is contemplated. In the second variety an answer is conceived from the question explicitly stated.

Cirañjiva has defined uttara as—“praśnottarakrameṇoktāmettarālaṅkṛtirbhavet”.—“When in an utterance we have the question-answer form, it is the figure uttara”. In this figure first a question is raised and then the answer is given immediately. Cirañjīva has perhaps simplified of the definition of the second variety of uttara given by Mammaṭa and Ruyyaka.

Example of the uttara-alaṃkāra:—

mṛto’pi ko jīvati yo yaśasvī jīvanmṛtaḥ ko na hi yaḥ parārthī |
ko vā sukhī cetasi yasya śāntiḥ ko nāma duḥkhi hṛdi yasya lobhaḥ ||

“Who is alive even after death? He who has fame. Who is not dead when alive? He who likes for others. Who is happy? He in whose mind there is peace. Who is distressed? He who has greed in his heart”.

Notes: In this verse four questions are raised and their answers are given immediately. For example the question—‘who is alive after death’ has been answered without delay. The same happens in the case of other three questions. So this is an example of the figure uttara.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Uttarā (उत्तरा) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā (Indian lute) in right hand and a lotus flower in the left hand. Her bodice is of light-green colour, and the scarf is of saffron colour with a design of black colour and red flowers. She wears a trouser.

The illustrations (of, for example Uttarā) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Uttara (उत्तर) or jñānapada refers to the fourth (and last) division of the āgamas.—The four classes of devotees (bhakta) or the states of spiritual life somewhat correspond to the four divisions of the Āgamas and the four modes of sādhana, spiritual practice, they entail. Thus, sālokya corresponds to carya, ritual and moral conduct, sāmīpya to kriyā, architectural and iconographic making, sārūpya to yoga, meditation, and sāyūjya ta jñāna, theology and gnosis.

Uttara (or, Uttarapada) is also known as Jñāna (or, Jñānapada).

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

1) Uttara (उत्तर).—Following, subsequent, e. g. उत्तरपद (uttarapada), the latter part of a compound word;

2) Uttara.—End of a word, पदान्त (padānta); cf. उत्तरे पदान्ते वर्तमानः (uttare padānte vartamānaḥ) Com. on T.Pr. III.1.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Uttara (उत्तर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Uttara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Uttarā is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.90) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Katha (narrative stories)

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Uttara (उत्तर) is the name of a mountain near Kāmpilya where was situated the hermitage of Dīrghatapas, according to the “story of the golden city”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 25. Accordingly, after Śaktideva was instructed by the hermit Sūryatapas (borther of Dīrghatapas) to go to the hermitage of Dīrghatapas: “and wearied with the laborious journey through difficult forest country, he at last reached that region of Kāmpilya and ascended that mountain Uttara; and there he beheld that hermit Dīrghatapas in a hermitage”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Uttara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

1) Uttara (the Prince of Matsya) was the youngest son of Virata, the King of Matsya. He had an elder brother named Shweta. Being the youngest, he was much indulged and was a great favorite of his sister Uttara and his mother.

When the Kaurava army threatened the borders of Matsya, King Virata, his eldest son Shweta and all the Pandavas excepting Arjuna accompanied him to battle, with the entire army. The Pandavas were incognito, for that was the condition for the thirteenth year of their exile.

2) Uttara (the wife of Abhimanyu) was the daughter of King of Virata of Matsya. It was in this kingdom that the Pandavas spent the thirteenth year of their exile, which they were required to spend incognito. Arjuna who had been cursed to be an eunuch for a year by Urvashi, was the dance teacher for the ladies in the Virata palace, where he taught Uttara also.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Uttara (उत्तर): A son of the Raja of Virata. Uttara was killed in battle by Salya.

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Uttarā (उत्तरा): A daughter of the Raja of Virata. She married Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Uttara (उत्तर).—A son of King Virāṭa. He was afraid to confront the Kurus when they stole the cows from his father's kingdom. Arjuna revealed his disguise to this prince and then single-handedly fought with the Kauravas and defeated them all. Uttara was killed in the first day’s fighting at Kurukṣetra by Śalya.

2) Uttarā (उत्तरा).—The daughter of King Virāṭa and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virāṭa first want Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttarā became the mother of King Parīkṣit.

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Uttara - A thera. He was the son of an eminent brahmin of Rajagaha (of Savatthi, according to the Apadana). He became proficient in Vedic lore and renowned for his breeding, beauty, wisdom and virtue. The kings minister, Vassakara, seeing his attainments, desired to marry him to his daughter; but Uttara, with his heart set on release, declined, and learnt the Doctrine under Sariputta. Later he entered the Order and waited on Sariputta.

One day Sariputta fell ill and Uttara set out early to find a physician. On the way he set down his bowl by a lake and went down to wash his mouth. A certain thief, pursued by the police, dropped his stolen jewels into the novices bowl and fled. Uttara was brought before Vassakara who, to satisfy his grudge, ordered him to be impaled. The Buddha, seeing the ripeness of his insight, went to him and placing a gentle hand, like a shower of crimson gold, on Uttaras head, spoke to him and encouraged him to reflection. Transported with joy and rapture at the Masters touch, he attained sixfold abhinna and became arahant. Rising from the stake, he stood in mid air and his wound was healed. Addressing his fellow celibates, be told them how, when he realised the evils of rebirth, he forgot the lesser evil of present pain (Thag.vv.121-2; ThigA.i.240ff).

In the time of Sumedha Buddha, he bad been a Vijjadhara. Once, while flying through the air, he saw the Buddha at the foot of a tree in the forest and, being glad, offered him three kanikara flowers.

By the Buddhas power, the flowers stood above him forming a canopy. The Vijjadhara was later born in Tavatimsa, where his palace was known as Kanikara.

He was king of the gods one hundred and five times, and king of men one hundred and three times.

According to the Apadana (quoted in ThigA.), he became an arahant at the age of seven. This does not agree with the rest of the story and is probably due to a confusion with some other Uttara.

Uttara is probably to be identified with Tinikpikarapupphiya of the Apadana. Ap.ii.441ff. Ras.i.52f.

2. Uttara - A thera. He was the son of a brahmin of Saketa. While on some business at Savatthi, he saw the Twin Miracle and, when the Buddha preached the Kalakarama Sutta at Saketa, he entered the Order. He accompanied the Buddha to Rajagaha and there became an arahant (Thag.vv.161-2; ThagA.i.283f).

During the time of Siddhattha Buddha he had been a householder and became a believer in the Buddha. When the Buddha died, he called together his relations and together they paid great honour to the relics.

He is evidently identical with Dhatupujaka of the Apadana (ii.425).

It is probably this thera who is mentioned in the Uttara Sutta (A.iv.162ff).

3. Uttara - A devaputta who visits the Buddha at the Anjanavana in Saketa.

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1. Uttara - A theri.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

N That which is noble.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Uttara means higher, beyond.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

1) Uttara (उत्तर, “north”) represents one of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Uttarā is a Sanskrit and Pali word which is known in Tibetan as byaṅ and in Chinese as pei.

2) Uttara (उत्तर, “north”).—According to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra Chapter XV (the arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the ten directions), “in the north (uttara), beyond universes as numerous as the sands of the Ganges and at the extreme limits of these universes, there is the universe called Cheng wang (Jayendra) and its bodhisattva Tö cheng (Jayadatta)”.

3) Uttara (उत्तर) is the name of a Bhikṣu during the time of Buddha Kāśyapa, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLII.—accordingly, “... it is said that the Bodhisattva, after having traveled through the three asaṃkhyeyakalpas of his career, must travel through a further additional hundred kalpas. However, ever in possession of the knowledge of his former abodes, he remembers that at the time of the Buddha Kia-chö (Kāśyapa), he was the Bhikṣu Yu-to-lo (Uttara) and was already practicing the attributes of the Buddhas.”.

Notes: This Uttara is none other than Śākyamuni himself in one of his earlier lifetimes where the Buddha Kāśyapa had made his prediction. (cf. Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya; Divyāvadāna): “the blessed perfectly and fully enlightened Kāśyapa made the prediction to a young Brāhman named Uttara: ‘Young man, when the life-span of creatures will be one hundred years, you, under the name of Śākyamuni, will be a Tathāgata, saint, fully and completely enlightened’”.

Elsewhere Uttara Māṇavaka is designated by the name Jyotipāla or Jyotiṣpāla, while Nandapāla, the potter, is also called Ghaṭīkāra. In any case, it is the same jātaka, well known to the canonical and post-canonical sources.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Uttarā (उत्तरा) is a Prakrit ending for deriving proper personal names, mentioned as an example in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning uttarā) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Uttara is the name of a convent (monastary for bhikkuṇis) built by Mahāsena (275-301) in the Citadel (inner city) of Anurādhapura.—It is likely that the Abhaya and Uttara convents were in the Abhayagiri Entourage. The cital (inner city) of Anurādhapura was included in Paṇḍukābhaya’s 4th-century layout of this town and featured gates on the cardinal faces. The town also included buildings such as the Uttara.

Source: archive.org: Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 1963

Uttara.—cf. uttarāṇi (LP), same as uttara-akṣarāṇi. See akṣara. Note: uttara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Uttāra.—(SITI), a regular fixed payment; same as uddhāra. Note: uttāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Uttara in Pali glossary... « previous · [U] · next »

uttara : (adj.) higher; further; northern; over. (nt.), an answer; reply. || uttarā (f.), the northern direction.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

1) Uttara, 2 (adj.) (fr. uttarati) crossing over, to be crossed, in dur° difficult to cross or to get out of S. I, 197 (not duruttamo); Miln. 158; and in cpd. °setu one who is going to cross a bridge Miln. 194 (cp. uttara-setu). (Page 131)

2) Uttara, 1 (adj.) compar. of ud°, q. v. for etym.; the superl. is uttama) — 1. higher, high, superior, upper, only in cpds. J. II, 420 (musal° with the club on top of him? Cy not clear, perhaps to uttara2); see also below.—2. northern (with disā region or point of compass) D. I, 153; M. I, 123; S. I, 224; PvA. 75. uttarāmukha (for uttaraṃmukha) turning north, facing north Sn. 1010.—3. subsequent, following, second (°-) J. I, 63 (°āsāḷha-nakkhatta). ‹-› 4. over, beyond (-°): aṭṭh’utara-sata eight over a hundred, i.e. 108; DhA. I, 388.—sa-uttara having something above or higher, having a superior i.e. inferior D. I, 80 (citta), II. 299; M. I, 59; S. V, 265; Vbh. 324 (paññā); Dhs. 1292, 1596; DhsA. 50.—anuttara without a superior, unrivalled, unparalleled D. I, 40; S. I, 124; II, 278; III, 84; Sn. 179. See also under anuttara.

—attharaṇa upper cover J. VI, 253. —âbhimukha facing North D. II, 15. —āsaṅga an upper robe Vin. I, 289; II, 126; S. I, 81; IV, 290; A. I, 67, 145; II, 146; DhA. I, 218; PvA. 73; VvA. 33 = 51. —itara something higher, superior D. I, 45, 156, 174; S. I, 81; J. I, 364; DhA. II, 60; IV, 4. —oṭṭha the upper lip (opp. adhar°) J. II, 420; III, 26; IV, 184. —chada a cover, coverlet, awning (sa° a carpet with awnings or canopy above it) D. I, 7; A. I, 181; III, 50. —chadana = °chada D. II, 187; DhA. I, 87. —dvāra the northern gate J. VI, 364. —dhamma the higher norm of the world (lok°), higher righteousness D. II, 188 (paṭividdha-lok’uttara-dhammatāya uttama-bhāvaṃ patta). —pāsaka the (upper) lintel (of a door) Vin. II, 120 = 148. —pubba north-eastern J. VI, 518. —sse (v. l. °suve) on the day after tomorrow A. I, 240. (Page 131)

— or —

Uttāra, (fr. ud + tṛ as in uttarati) crossing, passing over, °setu a bridge for crossing (a river) S. IV, 174 = M. I, 134; cp. uttara2. (Page 132)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

uttara (उत्तर).—f (S) The north.

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uttara (उत्तर).—n (S) An answer, reply, rejoinder. 2 In law. A defence. 3 It is often used in the sense of mere speech. Ex. mīṃ ēka u0 hī bōlalōṃ nāhīṃ āṇi hā malā ugīca śivyā dētō; uttarāsa pratyuttara karatō He answers again (impudently); he retorts, recriminates &c.; uṇēṃ uttarānēṃ bōlatō He speaks to disregardfully, slightingly, saucily. 4 A verse or portion of a catch or other piece of light composition. 5 The common difference in arithm. progression. 6 In law. Answer (of the culprit, plaintiff, witness &c.) Four kinds are prescribed:--asandigdha (unequivocal, unambiguous, explicit); anākula (consistent, coherent, not confounded or jumbled); avyākhyāgamya (distinct, intelligible, not needing interpretation); nyāyya (legal, right, proper). For the culprit or defendant four kinds are prescribed:--satyōttara (plea of Guilty); mithyōttara (plea of Not guilty); kāraṇōttara (plea which, whilst it admits the charge, invalidates it); prāṅnyāyōttara (plea that the complainant has before preferred his charge, and has been cast). 7 In law. Replication or reply: as disting. from javāba.

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uttara (उत्तर).—a S In comp. Exceeding or greater: farther or latter: superior, surpassing, excelling. Ex. pañcōttaraśata A hundred and five, krōśōttarayōjana, aṅgulōttarahasta &c.: uttarārdha, uttaraślōka, uttararātra &c.: rājōttarapradhāna, narōttaranārī, gurūttaraśiṣya, svāmyuttara- sēvaka śāstrōttaravēda, jñānōttarabhakti. It is further used in comp. in the manner and with the sense of After; as uttarakāḷa After ages, posterity; uttaravyathā or uttarayātanā After pains; uttaravyaya After expenses; uttarāyuṣya, uttaravaya &c. With uttara in the sense of Exceeding or going beyond, are formed the words ēkōtrā, tihōtrā, cauhōtrā pañcahōtrā &c. expressing the rates of interest (surplusage) upon monies.

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uttara (उत्तर).—prep (S) After. Ex. jyēṣṭhōttara lagnēṃ hōta nā- hīnta; ētaduttara, taduttara After this; after that.

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uttarā (उत्तरा).—f (S) The north. 2 pl The twelfth mansion of the moon.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

uttara (उत्तर).—f The north. n An answer; a defence. prep. After this, after that.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Uttara (उत्तर).—a. [ud-tarap]

1) Being or produced in the north, northern (declined like a pronoun).

2) Upper, higher P.I.1.34 (opp. adhara); उत्तरे-अधरे दन्ताः (uttare-adhare dantāḥ) Śat. Br.; अवनतोत्तरकायम् (avanatottarakāyam) R.9.6; P.II.2.1.

3) (a) Later-latter, following, subsequent (opp. pūrva); पूर्वमेघः, उत्तरमेघः, °मीमांसा (pūrvameghaḥ, uttarameghaḥ, °mīmāṃsā); उत्तरार्धः (uttarārdhaḥ) &c. °रामचरितम् (rāmacaritam) later adventures of Rāma U.1.2; पूर्वः उत्तरः (pūrvaḥ uttaraḥ) former-latter H.1.9; एतानि मान्यस्थानानि गरीयो यद्यदुत्तरम् (etāni mānyasthānāni garīyo yadyaduttaram) Ms.2.136. (b) Future; concluding; °कालः (kālaḥ) subsequent time; °फलम् (phalam); °वचनम् (vacanam) a reply.

4) Left (opp. dakṣiṇa).

5) Superior, chief, excellent; dominant, powerful. आनयेङ्गुदिपिण्याकं चीरमाहर चोत्तरम् (ānayeṅgudipiṇyākaṃ cīramāhara cottaram) Rām.2.13.2; वाद्यमानेषु तूर्येषु मल्लतारोत्तरेषु च (vādyamāneṣu tūryeṣu mallatārottareṣu ca) Bhāg.1.42.36.

6) Exceeding, transgressing, beyond; तर्कोत्तराम् (tarkottarām) Mv.2.6.

7) More, more than (generally as the last member of a comp. with numerals); षडुत्तरा विंशतिः (ṣaḍuttarā viṃśatiḥ) 26; अष्टोत्तरं शतं (aṣṭottaraṃ śataṃ) 18; दशनागबलाः केचित् केचिद्दशगुणोत्तराः (daśanāgabalāḥ kecit keciddaśaguṇottarāḥ) Rām.5.43.22.

8) Accompanied or attended with, full of, consisting chiefly of, followed by (at the end of comp.); राज्ञां तु चरितार्थता दुःखोत्तरैव (rājñāṃ tu caritārthatā duḥkhottaraiva) Ś.5; चषकोत्तरा (caṣakottarā) R.7.49; अस्रोत्तर- मीक्षिताम् (asrottara- mīkṣitām) Ku.5.61; उत्सवोत्तरो मङ्गलविधिः (utsavottaro maṅgalavidhiḥ) Dk.39,166; K.311; H.1.15; प्रवाल °पुष्पशय्ये (pravāla °puṣpaśayye) R.6.5 over spread with; धर्मोत्तरम् (dharmottaram) 13.7 rich in; 18.7; कम्प ° (kampa °) 13.28;17.12; 19.23.

9) To be crossed over.

-raḥ 1 Future time, futurity.

2) Name of Viṣṇu.

3) Name of Śiva.

-rā 1 The north; अस्त्युत्तरस्यां दिशि देवतात्मा (astyuttarasyāṃ diśi devatātmā) Ku.1.1.

2) A lunar mansion.

3) Name of the daughter of Virāṭa and wife of Abhimanyu.

4) Name of a plant (Mar. piṃparī).

-ram 1 An answer, reply; प्रचक्रमे च प्रतिवक्तुमुत्तरम् (pracakrame ca prativaktumuttaram) R.3.47; उत्तरादुत्तरं वाक्यं वदतां संप्रजायते (uttarāduttaraṃ vākyaṃ vadatāṃ saṃprajāyate) Pt.1.6; a reply is suggested to a reply वचस्तस्य सपदि क्रिया केवलमुत्तरम् (vacastasya sapadi kriyā kevalamuttaram) Śi.

2) (In law) Defence, a rejoinder.

3) The last part or following member of a compound.

4) (In Mīm.) The fourth member of an अधिकरण (adhikaraṇa) q. v. the answer.

5) The upper surface or cover.

6) Conclusion.

7) Remainder, rest, what followed or took place next; शान्तमथवा किमिहोत्तरेण (śāntamathavā kimihottareṇa) U.3.26.

8) Superiority, excellence.

9) Result, the chief or prevalent result or characteristic.

1) Excess, over and above; see above (uttara a. 8).

11) Remainder, difference (in arith.).

12) A rectangular moulding (Mānasāra 13.67.)

13) The next step, further action; उत्तरं चिन्तयामास वानरो मरुतात्मजः (uttaraṃ cintayāmāsa vānaro marutātmajaḥ) Rām.5.13.59.

14) A cover (ācchādana); सू ()स्करं सोत्तरबन्धुरेषम् (skaraṃ sottarabandhureṣam) Mb.6.6.9.

-ram ind.

1) Above.

2) Afterwards, after; तत उत्तरम्, इत उत्तरम् (tata uttaram, ita uttaram) &c. शापं तं तेऽभिविज्ञाय कृतवन्तः किमुत्तरम् (śāpaṃ taṃ te'bhivijñāya kṛtavantaḥ kimuttaram) Mb.1.36.1.

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Uttara (उत्तर).—a.

1) Crossing over.

2) To be crossed over, as in दुरुत्तर (duruttara).

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Uttāra (उत्तार).—a.

1) Surpassing others, excellent, preeminent.

2) Having the eye-balls turned up (as eyes).

-raḥ 1 Transporting over, conveying.

2) Fording, crossing; सुखोत्तारताम् (sukhottāratām) K.326.

3) Landing, disembarking.

4) Delivering, rescuing.

5) Getting rid of.

6) Vomiting.

7) Instability.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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