Rakta, Raktā: 44 definitions


Rakta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rakt.

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In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Rakta (रक्त):—Sanskrit word for ‘blood’. It is associated with Kāma, which is the second seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra.

2.a) Raktā (रक्ता):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Vahni, the third seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. Another guṇa also named Raktā, is associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Raktā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

3) Raktā (रक्ता):—One of the four female attendant deities associated with Mitra, the central deity of the Mātṛcakra, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. This central deity is named Piṅganātha in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā. She is the goddess of the pītha named Oḍḍiyāna.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Rakta (रक्त) refers to “blood” and is commonly listed among the “five nectars” (pañcāmṛta), according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—The extraction of the five nectars (pañcāmṛta-ākarṣaṇa), as well as other, Kāpālika-type cremation ground practices, also figure in the Brahmayāmala, as Hatley (2007, 143ff.) points out. The five substances are not listed in a systematic way, but they usually seem to include these four: semen (śukra), blood (rakta), fat/marrow (medas) and sneha (see also the entry pañcāmṛta in Tāntrikābhidhānakośa, vol. III).

2) Raktā (रक्ता) (seed-syllabe: caṃ) refers to one of the four Devīs (or Guhyakās) of the pantheon of Mantra-deities, according to the same Brahmayāmala.—Patterning the processes of inner and outer ritual is the Brahmayāmala’s pantheon of mantra-deities, whose core comprises the Four Goddesses or Guhyakās, Four Consorts or Handmaidens [e.g., Raktā], and their lord, Kapālīśabhairava.

2) Rakta (रक्त) refers to “being colored” (as opposed to Arakta—‘being colourless’), according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī 1.181.—Accordingly, “As for the additional arguments refuting [the existence of the external object], they are: the impossibility of the existence of a whole (avayavin) [in its parts]; the fact that the inherence (samavāya) [of the whole in its parts] is not established; the fact that the [external object must] possess some contradictory properties, such as movement and the absence of movement, being covered and being uncovered, being colored and being colourless (rakta-arakta), being differentiated into parts according to [the six] directions, etc.”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Rakta (रक्त) refers to “that which is red” (like a lotus), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.7cd-17ab, while describing the worship of Bhairavī and Bhairava]—“[...] One should always worship [in times of] peace and prosperity, to suppress sickness and vice, [which are] the root cause of wasting away, [and] for the protection of cows, Brahmins, and men. One meditates on [Bhairava] as having equal radiance to snow, jasmine, the moon, or pearls. [He is] as clear as the curved moon and similar to immovable quartz. [He is] clear like the burning of the end of time, resembles a flower on the sacred tree, appears red like innumerable suns or, rather, red like a lotus (raktaraktaṃ vā tamanusmaret ... athavā padmarāgābhaṃ). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Raktā (रक्ता) is another name for Raktaguñjā, one of the two varieties of Guñjā: a medicinal plants identified with Abrus precatorius (Indian licorice or rosary pea) from the Fabaceae or “legume family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.113-116 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Raktā and Raktaguñjā, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (rasashaastra)

Rakta (रक्त) or Raktavedha refers to one of the Eight Vedhas (of piercing the body) (associated with dehasiddhi), according to the Rasārṇava (vere 18.147-49).—[...] There are, indeed, alchemical procedures which transform bodily constituents but do not involve “eating Dhātus” nor moving vitality (and thus seem unrelated to Amanaska 2.32c). One such example is the eight kinds of piercing the body [e.g., rakta-vedha], which are described in connection with dehasiddhi in Rasārṇava.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Rakta (रक्त) is a Sanskrit technical term translating either to the color “red”, or to the concept of being “coloured”, “dyed”, “painted” etc. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita or the Carakasaṃhita.

2) Raktā (रक्ता) is another name (synonym) for Kusumbha, which is the Sanskrit word for Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), a plant from the Asteraceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu, which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Kalamba are eaten as a vegetable (śāka).

3) Rakta (रक्त) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of aquatic bird. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Rakta is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Raktā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rakta (रक्त).—A son of Mahiṣāsura. He had two sons called Bala and Atibala. He had also a number of mighty army generals like Dhūmrākṣa and thousand akṣauhiṇīs under each general. (Skanda Purāṇa, 7. 1. 119).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Rakta (रक्त) refers to “red (clouds)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Sitā said to Śiva:—“[...] the most unbearable season of the advent of clouds (ghanāgama or jaladāgama) has arrived with clusters of clouds of diverse hues, and their music reverberating in the sky and the various quarters. [...] With the clusters of clouds dark, silvery and red (rakta) in colour clinging to the Mandara mountain (peak), Himālaya appears as the ocean of milk with the birds of diverse colours”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Rakta (रक्त).—The thirtieth Kalpa; Brahmā got a son red in colour, dress and eyes; finding him to be Mahādeva, Brahmā bowed to him and contemplated upon Vāmadeva; Śarva appeared to him and made aṭṭahāsa when were born four sons beginning with Viraja.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 21-30.

2) Raktā (रक्ता).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 12.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Rakta (रक्त, “reddened”) refers to a specific “color of the face” which form part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. According to its instructions, this facial color should be use when “in intoxication and in the Heroic (vīra), the Terrible (bhayānaka) and the Pathetic (karuṇa) Sentiments (rasa)”.

2) Rakta (रक्त, “red”) refers to one of the found original (natural) colors (varṇa), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. From these colors come numerous derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “Aṅgāraka (Maṅgala = Mars) should be painted red (rakta)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Raktā (रक्ता) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Raktā has a frequency of 367.9109Hz.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Rakta (रक्त) or “red (colour)” is associated with Raudra or the “furious sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa relates that raudra is the sentiment that arises from anger. Krodha is the sthāyibhāva of raudra-rasa. Rakta i.e., red is the colour and Rudra is the God of this sentiment.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

1) Raktā (रक्ता, “beloved”).—Illustration of Raktā-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā with both hands. The colour of her bodice is green and the scarf is rosy with a crimson-coloured design; the lower garment is white with a black-coloured design and golden dots, and yellow-coloured border.

2) Rakta (रक्त) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Rakta (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is held with both hands.

The illustrations (of, for example Raktā and Rakta) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Rakta (रक्त).—lit. coloured i.e.coloured by nasalization; a term used by ancient grammarians for a nasa-Iized letter (अनुनासिक (anunāsika)); cf रक्तसंज्ञो नुनासिकः (raktasaṃjño nunāsikaḥ) R.Pr.r.17on which Uvvata comments :--अनुनासिको वर्णो रक्त इत्युच्यते (anunāsiko varṇo rakta ityucyate); also cf. अरक्तसंध्येत्यपवाद्यते पदं (araktasaṃdhyetyapavādyate padaṃ) R. Pr, XI. 18, where unnasalized आ (ā) is stated as अरक्तसंधि (araktasaṃdhi) and illustrated by the commentator by quoting the passage मन्द्रमा-वरेण्यम् (mandramā-vareṇyam) as contrasted with अभ्र औ अपः । (abhra au apaḥ |)

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Raktā (रक्ता) (or Raktacāmuṇḍā) is the name of a Goddess, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accoridngly, “[The Goddess] went a great distance to the western Himagahvara where there is a village in the forest called Olambikā. (The goddess there is) Raktā who wears red clothes and, immersed in blood, craves sex. She resides there in a canyon within a deep cave. Everything was made of (her) yoga as long as she stayed (there)”.

2) Raktā (रक्ता) (or Kujā) is the name of the Goddess (devī) associated with Oḍḍiyāna, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to chapter 10 of the according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—If the scheme in the Yogakhaṇḍa is not the first example of this model, the other most likely candidate is found in chapter ten of the Kularatnoddyota, which is an early Tantra of the Kubjikā corpus. [...] In this set-up each of the four sacred seats corresponds to a cosmic age and has a tree, creeper, cave, monastery,  goddess [i.e., Raktā], Siddha, and guardian of the field. The layout can be tabulated as follows.

3) Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of the Goddess associated with Oḍiyāna, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.

4) Raktā (रक्ता) refers to one of the thirty-two Bhairavīs (also Dūtis) embodying the syllables of the goddess’s Vidyā, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The thirty-two Bhairavīs [i.e., Raktā] are the consorts of the Bhairavas presiding over the sonic energies of the thirty-two syllables of her Vidyā.

5) Raktā (रक्ता) is the consort of Vidyānanda.—After Abhinava has listed the Yuganāthas, their consorts and disciples who are worshipped in the Siddhacakra, he says that “there are other teachers and their consorts mentioned in the Kālīkula” (Tantrāloka 29.43ab) [...] Jayaratha quotes the Devīpañcaśataka (verse 3.15cd-17ab) as an example of a Kālīkrama Tantra in which they are mentioned. They are: [e.g., Vidyānanda and Raktā;] [...] (preamble to Tantrāloka verse 29.43-46ab).

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Raktā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Raktā (रक्ता) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Raktā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Raktā (रक्ता) (also Kheṭaka) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Raktā has 11 mātrās in each of its four lines (SIS, ISI, S).

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rakta (रक्त) refers to the “red” type of solar spots (ketus), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] A single spot will bring on famine; if two or more spots should appear, the reigning prince will die; if they should appear white, red [i.e., rakta], yellow or black then the Brāhmaṇas, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas or the Śūdras will suffer respectively. Only those parts of the earth will suffer in the corresponding parts of which on the solar disc the spots happen to appear”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Rakta (रक्त) refers to “manning (the hawk)” (i.e., the process of taming a bird), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the training of hawks]: “[...] Whether it is ‘manned’ (rakta) or not (aparaktatva) is to be known by its actions. When it stands on one leg with the eyes closed, when it preens or ‘ reforms’ its feathers, when it ‘mantles’ with its wings, or looks with a gentle eye at its master, then it is known to be ‘manned’ (rakta), otherwise not (virakta). When the hawk is seen to be manned (rakta) it should be lured in a creance to a piece of meat from increasing distances. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Rakta (रक्त) or refers to the “red” variety of Avalokiteśvara (Lokeśvara) which is known as Raktalokeśvara, having his Sādhana described in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—Two Sādhanas in the Sādhanamālā are devoted to his [i.e., Raktalokeśvara’s] worship, but the two Dhyānas describe two widely different forms of the god.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Rakta (रक्त) refers to the “red” (colour), according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī by Vilāsavajra, which is a commentary on the Nāmasaṃgīti.—Accordingly, [while describing Ādibuddha]—“[...] [The Ādibuddha] has five faces. [...] [His five faces] have five [different] colours: dark blue for the east [and forward-facing face], yellow for the south, red for the west (raktapaścimena raktam), [and] green for the north. On the top, he has a white face, the face of [the deity] Paramāśva. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Rakta (रक्त) refers to “red”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Beginning with the East, dark blue, dark green, red (rakta) and yelow, Kākāsyā, Ulūkāsyā, Śvānāsyā, Śūkarāsyā, Yamadāhī, Yamadūtī, Yamadaṃṣṭrī, Yamamathanī, vajra-arise, vajra-bind Hūṃ!”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Rakta (रक्त) refers to the “red color”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...]  [The Causal Vajra-holder] is white in color, [has] four faces, [has] three eyes [on each], [has] twelve arms, is devoted to the yoga of union with wisdom (his female consort), and is adorned with youthful ornaments. [His four faces are], counterclockwise, white, green, red (rakta), and yellow [in color, respectively] [śvetaharitaraktañca pītāvarteṣu vāmatah]. [He has] twisted locks of hair and has a crossed vajra and a crescent moon on the face (head). [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a river mentioned as flowing through Airāvata together with the Raktodā river. Airāvata is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Rakta (रक्त) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Rakta] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Raktā (रक्ता) and Raktodā are two great rivers situated in the Airāvata zone of Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In Bharatakṣetra there are the great rivers, Gaṅgā and Sindhu; in the zone named Haimavata, Rohitā and Rohitāṃśā; in the Harivarṣaka zone, the rivers Harit and Harikāntā; in the Mahāvidehas the best rivers Śītā and Śītodā Narakāntā and Narīkāntā in the zone Ramyaka; Svarṇakūlā and Rūpyakūlā in the zone Hairaṇyavata; Raktā and Raktodā in the zone Airāvata. The first of each pair (i.e., Raktā) flows to the east and the second (i.e., Raktodā) to the west. The great rivers Gaṅgā and Sindhu are each attended by 14,000 best rivers. Each pair of the others is attended by twice as many rivers as the preceding pair up to Śītā and Śītodā. The northern rivers (north of Videha) are equal to the southern. Śītā and Śītodā, however, are attended by 532,000 rivers each”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a river that, coupled with the Raktodā river, separates the Airāvata region. Airāvata refers to one of the regions of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. The Raktā river flows eastwards. The Raktā and Raktodā rivers and have 14000 tributaries.

Jambūdvīpa (where flows the Raktā river) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Rakta (रक्त, “red”) refers to one of the five types of Varṇa (color) and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the colour attributes to the body are called colour body-making karma (rakta).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Rakta in India is the name of a plant defined with Abrus precatorius in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Abrus maculatus Noronha, nom. nud. (among others).

2) Rakta is also identified with Aphanamixis polystachya It has the synonym Amoora rohituka (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. (etc.).

3) Rakta is also identified with Carthamus tinctorius.

4) Rakta is also identified with Crocus sativus It has the synonym Geanthus autumnalis Raf. (etc.).

5) Rakta is also identified with Plumbago indica It has the synonym Thela coccinea Loureiro (etc.).

6) Rakta is also identified with Plumbago zeylanica It has the synonym Plumbago scandens L. (etc.).

7) Rakta is also identified with Tecomella undulata It has the synonym Tecoma undulata G. Don (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Biochem. Syst. Ecol. (2000)
· Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden (1985)
· Life Sci. (2004)
· Fieldiana, Botany (1966)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1983)
· Flore Forestière de la Cochinchine (1895)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Rakta, for example pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rakta (रक्त).—n (S) Blood. rakta pāḍaṇēṃ To force out blood (as by a mantra &c.) rakta lāvūna ghāyāḷānta jāṇēṃ-śiraṇēṃ-paḍaṇēṃ To assume and display the signs and tokens of having been valiantly engaged in battle. raktācēṃ pāṇī karaṇēṃ (To turn one's blood into water.) To waste or weaken one's self by toil, exertion, earnest care &c.

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rakta (रक्त).—a S Blood-colored, blood-red: also red in general.

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rakta (रक्त).—p S Colored, dyed, stained. 2 Attached to; fond of; affected with love or interest towards.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rakta (रक्त).—n Blood. a Red. p Coloured. Attach- ed to. raktācēṃ pāṇī karaṇēṃ Waste one's self by toil, exertion, &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rakta (रक्त).—p. p. [rañj-karaṇe ktaḥ]

1) Coloured, dyed, tinged, painted; आभाति बालातपरक्तसानुः (ābhāti bālātaparaktasānuḥ) R.6.6.

2) Red, crimson, blood-red; सान्ध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः (sāndhyaṃ tejaḥ pratinavajapāpuṣparaktaṃ dadhānaḥ) Meghadūta 36; so रक्ताशोक, रक्तांशुक (raktāśoka, raktāṃśuka) &c.

3) Enamoured, impassioned, attached, affected with love; यावद् वित्तौपार्जनसक्तस्तावन्निजपरिवारो रक्तः (yāvad vittaupārjanasaktastāvannijaparivāro raktaḥ) Charpaṭa-Pañjarikā 3; अयमैन्द्रीमुखं पश्य रक्तश्चुम्बति चन्द्रमाः (ayamaindrīmukhaṃ paśya raktaścumbati candramāḥ) Chandr.5.58 (where it has sense 2 also).

4) Dear, liked, beloved.

4) Lovely, charming, sweet, pleasant; श्रोत्रेषु संमूर्छति रक्तमासां गीतानुगं वारिमृदङ्गवाद्यम् (śrotreṣu saṃmūrchati raktamāsāṃ gītānugaṃ vārimṛdaṅgavādyam) R.16.64; रक्तं च नाम मधुरं च समं स्फुटं च (raktaṃ ca nāma madhuraṃ ca samaṃ sphuṭaṃ ca) Mk. 3.4.

6) Fond of play, sporting, playful.

7) Nasalized (said of a vowel).

-ktaḥ 1 Red colour.

2) Safflower.

3) Name of Śiva.

4) Name of a tree (hijjala).

5) The planet Mars.

-ktā 1 Lac.

2) The plant गुञ्जा (guñjā).

3) One of the 7 tongues of fire.

4) (In music) Name of a श्रुति (śruti).

-ktam 1 Blood; रक्तं सर्वशरीरस्थं जीवस्याधारमुत्तमम् (raktaṃ sarvaśarīrasthaṃ jīvasyādhāramuttamam) Bhāva P.

2) Copper.

3) Cinnabar.

4) Saffron.

5) Vermilion.

6) Dried Emblic Myrobalan; L. D. B.

7) A disease of the eyes.

8) The menstrual fluid.

9) Red sandal; रक्तं पीतं गुरु स्वादु छर्दितृष्णास्रपित्तनुत् । पित्तनेत्रहितं वृष्यं ज्वरव्रण- विषापहम् (raktaṃ pītaṃ guru svādu charditṛṣṇāsrapittanut | pittanetrahitaṃ vṛṣyaṃ jvaravraṇa- viṣāpaham) Bhāva P.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rakta (रक्त).—mfn.

(-ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) 1. Dyed, tinged, coloured, stained. 2. Red, of a red colour. 3. Fond of, attached to, affected with love or interest towards any object. 4. Pure, purified. 5. Sporting, engaging in play or pastime. m.

(-ktaḥ) Red, the colour. n.

(-ktaṃ) 1. Blood. 2. Saffron. 3. Copper. 4. Minium. 5. Vermilion. 6. The fruit of the Flacourtia cataphracta. f.

(-ktā) 1. Passionate, attached. 2. Pleasant, charming. 3. The Gunja plant, (Abrus precatorious.) 4. Lac. 5. Bengal madder. E. rañj to colour or dye, &c., aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rakta (रक्त).—[adjective] dyed, coloured, red, charming, beautiful, excited, agitated, impassioned, fond of ([locative], [genetive], or —°), delighted with ([instrumental]), loving, enamoured. [feminine] ā lac; [neuter] blood, *saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rakta (रक्त):—[from raj] mf(ā)n. coloured, dyed, painted, [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc. (cf. [Pāṇini 4-2, 1])

2) [v.s. ...] reddened, red, crimson, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (said of 5 or 7 parts of the body which ought to be red, [Mahābhārata iv, 253; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lxviii, 84])

3) [v.s. ...] ‘coloured or modified by nasalization’, nasalized (said of a vowel), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya] (cf. raṅga)

4) [v.s. ...] excited, affected with passion or love, impassioned, enamoured, charmed with ([instrumental case]), attached or devoted to, fond of ([locative case] [genitive case] or [compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] beloved, dear, lovely, pleasant, sweet, [Kāvya literature]

6) [v.s. ...] fond of play, engaging in pastime, sporting, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] m. red colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] safflower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Barringtonia Acutangula, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

11) [v.s. ...] of the planet Mars, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

12) Raktā (रक्ता):—[from rakta > raj] f. lac (= lākṣā), [Suśruta]

13) [v.s. ...] Abrus Precatorius (or its seeds as a measure or weight, = raktikā), [Caraka]

14) [v.s. ...] Rubia Munjista, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] Echinops Echinatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 7 tongues of fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

18) Rakta (रक्त):—[from raj] n. blood, [Manu-smṛti; Harivaṃśa] etc.

19) [v.s. ...] a [particular] disease of the eyes, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

20) [v.s. ...] the menstrual fluid, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] copper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] vermilion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) [v.s. ...] cinnabar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] the fruit of Flacourtia Cataphracta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) [v.s. ...] = padmaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rakta (रक्त):—[(ktaḥ-ktā-ktaṃ) a.] Dyed; red; fond of; pure; sporting. m. Red colour. n. Blood; saffron; copper; vermilion. f. Gunja; lac; madder.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rakta (रक्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ratta, Rattā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rakta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rakta (रक्त) [Also spelled rakt]:—(nm) blood; (a) red; saffron; attached; ~[kṣīṇatā] anaemia; ~[cāpa] blood pressure; ~[ja] born of blood; ~[] redness; ruddiness; -[nirmāṇa] sanguification; ~[pāta] bloodshed; shedding of blood; •[pūrṇa] sanguinary; accompanied with blood-shed; ~[pāyī] blood-sucker; blood-sucking; -[pipāsā] blood-thirst; -[pipāsu] blood-thirsty, sanguinary; ~[pūrṇa] full of blood, bloody; ~[raṃjita] bloody; sanguinary; causing blood-shed; ~[varṇa] red; ~[vasana] saffron-robed; an ascetic; -[saṃbaṃdha] consanguinity; blood relation; ~[strāva] haemorrhage, flow of blood; —[kī nadī bahānā] to shed a stream of blood; —[meṃ honā] to be in the blood.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rakta (ರಕ್ತ):—

1) [adjective] coloured; painted with a colour; dyed.

2) [adjective] having or being of the colour red; reddened; crimson.

3) [adjective] having deep affection; very fond; loving.

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Rakta (ರಕ್ತ):—

1) [noun] the colour of blood; red colour.

2) [noun] deep affection; fondness; love.

3) [noun] a man having deep affection, love for another person or thing.

4) [noun] the red fluid circulating in the arteries and veins of animals; blood.

5) [noun] the paste made by grinding the wood of red sandal tree (Pterocarpus santalinus of Papilionaceae family).

6) [noun] the tree itself.

7) [noun] the plant Echinops echinatus of Asteraceae family.

8) [noun] the plant Rubia cordifolia ( = R. munjista) of Rubiaceae family.

9) [noun] the plant Abrus precatorius of Papilionaceae family.

10) [noun] its red seed (used as a weight for weighing precious things as gold).

11) [noun] the plant Carthamus tinctorium of Asteraceae family; safflower.

12) [noun] (myth.) name of one of the seven tongues of fire.

13) [noun] the menstrual fluid.

14) [noun] ರಕ್ತದ ಒತ್ತಡ [raktada ottada] raktada ottaḍa the pressure exerted by the blood against the inner walls of the blood vessels, esp. the arteries or the heart; blood pressure; ರಕ್ತ ಕುದಿ [rakta kudi] rakta kudi (wrath, ire) to be aroused greatly; ರಕ್ತ ಹೀರು [rakta hiru] rakta hīru to drink blood; 2. (fig.) to cause great pain to; to torture; 3. to get (money, etc.) by violence, threats, misuse of authority, etc.; to extort; ರಕ್ತ ಹೆಪ್ಪುಗಟ್ಟಿಸು [rakta heppugattisu] rakta heppu gaṭṭisu to horrify or terrify someone; to curdle (someone’s) blood; ರಕ್ತ ಹೆಪ್ಪುಗಟ್ಟು [rakta heppugattu] rakta heppu gaṭṭu to be horrified or terrified; to get one’s blood curdled.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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