Rakta, aka: Raktā; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Rakta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Rakta in Shaivism glossaries]

1) Rakta (रक्त):—Sanskrit word for ‘blood’. It is associated with Kāma, which is the second seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra.

2.a) Raktā (रक्ता):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Vahni, the third seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. Another guṇa also named Raktā, is associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Raktā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

3) Raktā (रक्ता):—One of the four female attendant deities associated with Mitra, the central deity of the Mātṛcakra, according to the Kubjikāmatatantra. This central deity is named Piṅganātha in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā. She is the goddess of the pītha named Oḍḍiyāna.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Rakta in Ayurveda glossaries]

1) Rakta (रक्त) is a Sanskrit technical term translating either to the color “red”, or to the concept of being “coloured”, “dyed”, “painted” etc. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita or the Carakasaṃhita.

2) Raktā (रक्ता) is another name for Guñjā, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 3.112-114), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

3) Raktā (रक्ता) is another name (synonym) for Kusumbha, which is the Sanskrit word for Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), a plant from the Asteraceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu, which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Kalamba are eaten as a vegetable (śāka).

4) Rakta (रक्त) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of aquatic bird. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Rakta is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

[Rakta in Purana glossaries]

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Raktā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

(Source): Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Rakta (रक्त).—A son of Mahiṣāsura. He had two sons called Bala and Atibala. He had also a number of mighty army generals like Dhūmrākṣa and thousand akṣauhiṇīs under each general. (Skanda Purāṇa, 7. 1. 119).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1) Rakta (रक्त).—The thirtieth Kalpa; Brahmā got a son red in colour, dress and eyes; finding him to be Mahādeva, Brahmā bowed to him and contemplated upon Vāmadeva; Śarva appeared to him and made aṭṭahāsa when were born four sons beginning with Viraja.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 21-30.

2) Raktā (रक्ता).—A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 12.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Rakta in Natyashastra glossaries]

1) Rakta (रक्त, “reddened”) refers to a specific “color of the face” which form part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. According to its instructions, this facial color should be use when “in intoxication and in the Heroic (vīra), the Terrible (bhayānaka) and the Pathetic (karuṇa) Sentiments (rasa)”.

2) Rakta (रक्त, “red”) refers to one of the found original (natural) colors (varṇa), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. From these colors come numerous derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “Aṅgāraka (Maṅgala = Mars) should be painted red (rakta)”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Raktā (रक्ता) refers to one of the twenty-two quarters tones (śruti) existing within an octave, according to the Saṅgīta-ratnākara (“ocean of music and dance”). This work is an important Sanskrit treatise dealing with ancient Indian musicology (gāndharva-śāstra), composed by Śārṅgadeva in the 13th century and deals with both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Raktā has a frequency of 367.9109Hz.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Rakta in Shilpashastra glossaries]

1) Raktā (रक्ता, “beloved”).—Illustration of Raktā-śruti according to 15th century art:—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a vīṇā with both hands. The colour of her bodice is green and the scarf is rosy with a crimson-coloured design; the lower garment is white with a black-coloured design and golden dots, and yellow-coloured border.

2) Rakta (रक्त) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Rakta (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A viṇā is held with both hands.

The illustrations (of, for example Raktā and Rakta) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[Rakta in Vyakarana glossaries]

Rakta (रक्त).—lit. coloured i.e.coloured by nasalization; a term used by ancient grammarians for a nasa-Iized letter (अनुनासिक (anunāsika)); cf रक्तसंज्ञो नुनासिकः (raktasaṃjño nunāsikaḥ) R.Pr.r.17on which Uvvata comments :--अनुनासिको वर्णो रक्त इत्युच्यते (anunāsiko varṇo rakta ityucyate); also cf. अरक्तसंध्येत्यपवाद्यते पदं (araktasaṃdhyetyapavādyate padaṃ) R. Pr, XI. 18, where unnasalized आ (ā) is stated as अरक्तसंधि (araktasaṃdhi) and illustrated by the commentator by quoting the passage मन्द्रमा-वरेण्यम् (mandramā-vareṇyam) as contrasted with अभ्र औ अपः । (abhra au apaḥ |)

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Rakta in Jainism glossaries]

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a river mentioned as flowing through Airāvata together with the Raktodā river. Airāvata is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Rakta (रक्त) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Rakta] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

(Source): archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Raktā (रक्ता) is the name of a river that, coupled with the Raktodā river, separates the Airāvata region. Airāvata refers to one of the regions of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. The Raktā river flows eastwards. The Raktā and Raktodā rivers and have 14000 tributaries.

Jambūdvīpa (where flows the Raktā river) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Rakta (रक्त, “red”) refers to one of the five types of Varṇa (color) and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the colour attributes to the body are called colour body-making karma (rakta).

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Rakta in Marathi glossaries]

rakta (रक्त).—n (S) Blood. rakta pāḍaṇēṃ To force out blood (as by a mantra &c.) rakta lāvūna ghāyāḷānta jāṇēṃ-śiraṇēṃ-paḍaṇēṃ To assume and display the signs and tokens of having been valiantly engaged in battle. raktācēṃ pāṇī karaṇēṃ (To turn one's blood into water.) To waste or weaken one's self by toil, exertion, earnest care &c.

--- OR ---

rakta (रक्त).—a S Blood-colored, blood-red: also red in general.

--- OR ---

rakta (रक्त).—p S Colored, dyed, stained. 2 Attached to; fond of; affected with love or interest towards.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rakta (रक्त).—n Blood. a Red. p Coloured. Attach- ed to. raktācēṃ pāṇī karaṇēṃ Waste one's self by toil, exertion, &c.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Rakta in Sanskrit glossaries]

Rakta (रक्त).—p. p. [rañj-karaṇe ktaḥ]

1) Coloured, dyed, tinged, painted; आभाति बालातपरक्तसानुः (ābhāti bālātaparaktasānuḥ) R.6.6.

2) Red, crimson, blood-red; सान्ध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः (sāndhyaṃ tejaḥ pratinavajapāpuṣparaktaṃ dadhānaḥ) Me.36; so रक्ताशोक, रक्तांशुक (raktāśoka, raktāṃśuka) &c.

3) Enamoured, impassioned, attached, affected with love; यावद् वित्तौपार्जनसक्तस्तावन्निजपरिवारो रक्तः (yāvad vittaupārjanasaktastāvannijaparivāro raktaḥ) Charpaṭa-Pañjarikā 3; अयमैन्द्रीमुखं पश्य रक्तश्चुम्बति चन्द्रमाः (ayamaindrīmukhaṃ paśya raktaścumbati candramāḥ) Chandr.5.58 (where it has sense 2 also).

4) Dear, liked, beloved.

4) Lovely, charming, sweet, pleasant; श्रोत्रेषु संमूर्छति रक्तमासां गीतानुगं वारिमृदङ्गवाद्यम् (śrotreṣu saṃmūrchati raktamāsāṃ gītānugaṃ vārimṛdaṅgavādyam) R.16.64; रक्तं च नाम मधुरं च समं स्फुटं च (raktaṃ ca nāma madhuraṃ ca samaṃ sphuṭaṃ ca) Mk. 3.4.

6) Fond of play, sporting, playful.

7) Nasalized (said of a vowel).

-ktaḥ 1 Red colour.

2) Safflower.

3) Name of Śiva.

4) Name of a tree (hijjala).

5) The planet Mars.

-ktā 1 Lac.

2) The plant गुञ्जा (guñjā).

3) One of the 7 tongues of fire.

4) (In music) Name of a श्रुति (śruti).

-ktam 1 Blood; रक्तं सर्वशरीरस्थं जीवस्याधारमुत्तमम् (raktaṃ sarvaśarīrasthaṃ jīvasyādhāramuttamam) Bhāva P.

2) Copper.

3) Cinnabar.

4) Saffron.

5) Vermilion.

6) Dried Emblic Myrobalan; L. D. B.

7) A disease of the eyes.

8) The menstrual fluid.

9) Red sandal; रक्तं पीतं गुरु स्वादु छर्दितृष्णास्रपित्तनुत् । पित्तनेत्रहितं वृष्यं ज्वरव्रण- विषापहम् (raktaṃ pītaṃ guru svādu charditṛṣṇāsrapittanut | pittanetrahitaṃ vṛṣyaṃ jvaravraṇa- viṣāpaham) Bhāva P.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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