Soma, Somā: 60 definitions


Soma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Soma (सोम):—Soma was born from Atri’s tears. (Atri is the son of Brahmā). Brahmā appointed Soma the director of the brāhmaṇas, drugs and luminaries. With Tārā he begat a son called Budha. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.14.3-14)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Soma (सोम) and Surā (सुरा): These were the principal drinks of the Ṛgvedic Aryans. Soma was probably a sacrificial drink and it must have originally been a popular drink also, but with the Ṛgvedic people Surā was a more popular drink.

The Vāyu-purāṇa refers to Soma many times and associates it with gods only, thus suggesting that it was not a drink of human beings at all; but we have at one place a reference to a Dealer in Soma who was not invited for śrāddha. This reference suggests that traffic in Soma was regarded with disapproval though such traffic was taking place. The prohibition is equally suggestive of the fact that Soma was primarily used in sacrifices and hence was considered too sacred to be an article for sale.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Soma (सोम).—A son born to fire Bhānu by his third wife Niśā, who had given birth to two sons Soma and Agni and a daughter named Rohiṇī. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 15).

2) Soma (सोम).—One of the eight Vasus. The eight Vasus are Āpa, Dhruva, Soma, Dharma, Anila, Agni, Pratyūṣa and Prabhāsa. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1. 15).

3) Soma (सोम).—A son of Jarāsandha. It is stated in Bhāgavata, Skandha 9, that Jarāsandha had four sons named Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Śrutaśru.

4) Somā (सोमा).—A celestial maid. This celestial beauty performed a dance at the birth festival of Arjuna. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 61).

5) Soma (सोम).—Juice extracted from Soma creeper. It is believed that the devas accept Soma in sacrifices.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Soma (सोम) refers to the “drink of the gods” according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 1377.—Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Soma (सोम).—A son born of Atri's eyes; honoured at birth by Śiva and Umā; borne for 300 years by dik (directions) and when released became an aṃśa of Brahmā who took him in his Vedic chariot of 1000 horses to his loka where Brahmaṛṣis adored him as their king and was praised by mantras; nourished the crying Māriṣā in her babyhood with nectar; presented Pṛthu with undying horses.1 Appealed to Pracetas not to destroy trees and offered their daughter Vārkṣī in marriage to him, married the twenty-seven daughters of Dakṣa; Kṛttikā and other stars as his wives; cursed by Dakṣa he had no issue and was struck with disease propitiated Dakṣa and recovered.2 Appointed by Brahmā as Lord of Plants, Brahmans and stars; worshipped for a life of enjoyments; also called Rājā; father of Budha;3 got rid of his consumption by bathing in the Prabhāsā; worshipped largely in Śālmalidvīpa;4 conquered three worlds and took Tārā, Bṛhaspati's wife by force. Tārā who was pregnant was given back to Bṛhaspati through the intervention of Brahmā. This was Budha.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 15 and 33; 14. 26; 30. 14; 15. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 65. 1-20; Matsya-purāṇa 4. 49; 23. 4-15; 198. 1;
  • 2) Ib. 2. 12; 5. 13; 146. 16. Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 3. 14; 4. 6-16; 6. 2, 23-24; VIII. 4. 21; 5. 34.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 18. 15; X. 84. 47; XI. 16. 16; II. 3. 9; IX. 1. 35; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 65. 46. 48; Matsya-purāṇa 11. 53-4.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 6. 36; V. 20. 11-12.
  • 5) Ib. IX. 14. 2. 14; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 65. 28-44.

1b) (Candra s.v.)—a Lokapāla with his city Vibhāvarī on the north of Meru;1 Lord of stars, and one face of Śiva: served as calf when sages and Pṛthu milked the earth-cow;2 his rays gave rise to certain Apsara clans: Kaśyapa made him king of Brahmans;3 a Śrāddhadeva: Lord of Pitṛs: (1/8) aṃśa of Śiva coming out of the dhāma that issued along with tears of Śiva: Nine women desired and enjoyed his company;4 one of the nine grahas with white colour;5 in the Devāsura wars, was vanquished by māyā of Kālanemī, took part in the Tārakāmaya, helped Varuṇa at the suggestion of Indra;6 the dot in him is the earth's shadow;7 propitiated in the installation of an image and in house building;8 born from the ocean of milk;9 world of;10 nectar of, drunk by Pitṛs and gods;11 feeds rivers by causing rain.12

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 33; 22. 14. 15; Matsya-purāṇa 266. 26.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 46; 26. 41; 27. 112 ff.; Matsya-purāṇa 10. 16.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 80; 7. 22; 8. 3. 77. 36. 204. Matsya-purāṇa 11. 63.
  • 4) Ib. 23-1, 8; 31. 12.
  • 5) Ib. 93. 10-17.
  • 6) Ib. 150. 153; 174. 24; 176. 1-33.
  • 7) Ib. 176. 5.
  • 8) Ib. 265. 39; 253. 27.
  • 9) Ib. 250. 2; 268. 18.
  • 10) Ib. 91. 1-10.
  • 11) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 39, 69-73.
  • 12) Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 14-21.

1c) A son of Sāvitrī and Pṛśni.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 1.

1d) A madhyamādhvaryu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 15.

1e) A Vasu: a son of Dharma and Sudevī; had five sons Varca, Budha, Dhara, Urmī and Kalila.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 21; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 21, 23; 171. 46; 203. 3.

1f) A Sukhā god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1, 18.

1g) The temple of, in the Supakṣa hill.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 63.

1h) A mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.

1i) A son of Atri and Anasūyā.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 8.

1j) A Vasu; the son of Bhagavān Varca.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 110, 112.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Soma (सोम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.30, I.29.3, I.60.17) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Soma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Soma is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.85.12) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Soma (सोम) or Candramas refers to one of the three sons of Atri and Anasuyā: one of the twenty-four daughters of Dakṣa and Prasūti, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Ākūti was married to Ruci and Prasūti to Dakṣa. Dakṣa produced in Prasūti twenty-four daughters. [...] [Anasuyā was given to Atri.]. [...] Atri and Anasuyā gave birth to Durvāsas, Soma and Dattātreya.

2) Soma (सोम) obtained twenty-seven daughters from Dakṣa, in another account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, Dakṣa is spoken of as busy in creation. Ordered by Brahmā he creates the Sages, gods, demons etc. In order to have maithuni sṛṣṭi Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters. [He gave twenty-seven daughters to  Soma].

3) Soma (सोम) also refers to one of the eight Vasus who are the sons of Vasu.—Accordingly, the ten wives of Dharma are [viz., Vasu]. The Vasus were born from Vasu. The eight Vasus are Āpa, Nala, Soma, Dhruva, Anila, Anala, Pratyuṣa and Prabhāsa.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

After conquering the three worlds [the upper, middle and lower planetary systems], Soma, the moon-god, performed a great sacrifice known as the Rājasūya-yajña. Because he was very much puffed up, he forcibly kidnapped Bṛhaspati's wife, whose name was Tārā.

Although requested again and again by Bṛhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods, Soma did not return Tārā. This was due to his false pride. Consequently, a fight ensued between the demigods and the demons.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Somā (सोमा) is another name for Somavallī, a medicinal plant identified with Sarcostemma brevistigma (synonym of Sarcostemma acidum or leafless east-Indian vine) from the Apocynaceae or “dog-away” family of flowering plants, according to verse 3.98-99 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Somā and Somavallī, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Soma (सोम) refers to a commonly used source of animal fat according to the Aṣṭāṅgasaṅgraha Sūtrasthāna VI.113-114, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Somarasa was a very common beverage in Vedic period which is made of Soma plant (Sarcostemma viminalis). It is one of the most acclaimed offerings in śrauta rituals. Even the making of Soma drink (somābhiṣava) is a ritual in these sacrifices. Before crushing it, the plant was washed in water. Soma drink is prepared by grinding Soma creeper with a stone which is known as grāvā.

The preparations referred to in Vedas wherein Soma was mixed were karaṃbha, dhāna, apūpa, pakti, saktu, water and honey. The usage of Soma can also be seen in the texts of classical Sanskrit literature. Drinking Soma juice was referred to in Uttararamacarita. [...] Drinking of Sura is not considered as meritorious as Soma.

2) Soma (सोम) or Somaroga refers to “polyuria” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—Accordingly, the dietetic effect soma-ghna (cures polyuria) is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Pāṭalapatra (patra=leaves).

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Somā (सोमा) is another name for Avalguja (Psoralea corylifolia “Malaysian scurfpea”) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature.

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30); Ayurveda

Soma (सोम) refers to a plant, which is supposed to be bought from northern barbarians, is botanically described in an Ayurvedic extract, quoted in the Dhūrtasvāmi-bhāṣyaṭīkā, as: “the creeper called Soma is dark, sour, without leaves, milky, fleshy on the surface, producing phlegm and vomiting, food for goats”. This passage, quoted from some Ayurvedic text, is still the only one which gives an approximative description of the Soma-plant. Dr. Hooker says that the predicates 'sour and milky' point to Sarcostemma, but the question is not decided yet.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Soma (सोम) is the Sanskrit name for a deity to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (e.g., to Soma).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Soma (सोम, “monday”) corresponds with the moon and refers to the second of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. It is also known by the name Candra or Śaśi. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (e.g., soma) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Soma (सोम) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Soma] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Soma as a doorway deity is associated with the Nakṣatra called Mṛgaśīrṣaka and the consequence is sampatkara. [...] The Mayasaṃgraha (verse 5.156-187) describes a design for a 9-by-9-part pura, a residential complex for a community and its lead figure. [...] This record lists a place for the treasury at Soma and Ṛgi (somadvaye).

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Soma (सोम) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the northern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Soma).

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Soma (सोम) or Somagranthi refers to the “Knot of the Moon (soma)” and represents one of the “sixteen knots” (granthi), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(1) The Knot called Ananta, which is HAṂSA, should be placed (on the body). It is at the middle toe of the sixteen parts (of the body).The Knot of Time is below the ankle. [...] (8) (The Knot) called Brahmā is in the penis (svādhiṣṭhāna) and (9) the Knot of the Moon (soma) is in the stomach. [...]”.

2) Somā (सोमा) is the name of the Tendril (valli) associated with Pūrṇagiri, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Soma (सोम) refers to one of the twelve yugas of Jupiter’s cycle, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The twelve yugas of Jupiter’s cycle are known as belonging to the Devas 1. Viṣṇu, 2. Jupiter, 3. Indra, 4. Agni (fire), 5. Tvaṣṭā, 6. Ahirbudhnya, 7. The Pitṛs, 8. Vāsudeva, 9. Soma (the Moon), 10. Indrāgni, 11. Aśvinideva, 12. Bhaga (the Sun)”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Soma (सोम) refers to the Moon, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Names of grahas]—The nine grahas are enumerated in the week-day order plus Rāhu and Ketu. This verse is indispensable since in the rest of this section this order is presupposed and the nine grahas are referred to only by this order instead of by their names. The names are standard ones: Sūrya (Sun), Soma (Moon), Mahīputra (the son of the earth, i.e., Mars), Somaputra (the son of the Moon, i.e., Mercury), Bṛhaspati (Jupiter), Śukra (Venus), Śanaiścara (Saturn), Rāhu, and Ketu.

Source: Tithikarmaguṇa in Gārgīyajyotiṣa

Somā (सोमा) or Somatithi is the name of the sixth of fifteen tithis (cycle of time) according to the Gārgīyajyotiṣa while the Śārdūlakarṇāvadāna considers Aśiti as the sixth. The associated deity for Somā or Aśiti according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā is Skanda. A tithi was defined as one thirtieth of a synodic month (c. 29.5 days), resulting in an average tithi being slightly less than a day.

Accordingly, “(21) The sixth tithi is called Somā (Vṛddhi?/Māsā?). It is auspicious for firm acts. One should engage in agricultural works, build houses and temples for deities. (22) One should build or take refuge in buildings such as the city-gates. Journey should be avoided. The deity for this tithi is Kumāra (Skanda)”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Soma (सोम).—A ritual beverage used in some ancient Vedic sacrifices. Note: Soma is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Soma (सोम).—(or सोमयार्य (somayārya)) name of the writer of a gloss named त्रिभाष्यरत्न (tribhāṣyaratna) on the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Soma (सोम) refers to the “juice of the Soma-plant”, mentioned as an example of a gift  used in a Yajña (sacrifice), in the Āpastamba-yajña-paribhāṣā-sūtras 1.—“yajña [viz., iṣṭi], sacrifice, is an act by which we surrender something for the sake of the gods. Such an act must rest on a sacred authority (āgama), and serve for man’s salvation (śreyortha). The nature of the gift is of less importance. It may be puroḍāśa, cake; karu, pulse; sāṃnāyya, mixed milk; paśu, an animal; soma, the juice of the Soma-plant, &c.; nay, the smallest offerings of butter, flour, and milk may serve for the purpose of a sacrifice”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Soma (सोम) is explained to mean sa-umā, i.e. “with/accompanied by Umā” (with reference to the fact that a male Kāpālika normally had a consort, just as Śiva is accompanied by Umā), according to commentaries on the Prabodhacandrodaya of Kṛṣṇamiśra (itself dating from 1041–1073). [...] The sa-umā explanation of soma higlights an important trait of the Kāpālikas, namely that they were exceptional in the Atimārga in that male and female initiates performed rituals together and were obviously not required to maintain celibacy, unlike (most probably) the ascetics of the Pāśupata and Lākula groups.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Soma (सोम) is another name for Deveśa or Amṛteśa, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.5-11, while explaining the universality of Amṛteśa]—“[...] Thus, in this way, Deveśa [is found in all] Āgamas. He gives of all Sādhakas the benefits [of worship] from all directions [i.e., no matter what their tradition]. Because of him, splendid gems light up [differently] under different conditions, giving the fruits of all Āgamas in all streams. Thus, he is Śiva, Sadāśiva, Bhairava, Tumburu, Soma, and Sūrya, with his own form arising bearing no form”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Soma (सोम) represents the number 1 (one) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 1—soma] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts (shilpa)

Soma (सोम) refers to one of the Parivāra-Devatās (“attendant deities”) according to chapter 22 (Kriyāpāda) of the Padmasaṃhitā: the most widely followed of Saṃhitā covering the entire range of concerns of Pāñcarātra doctrine and practice (i.e., the four-fold formulation of subject matter—jñāna, yoga, kriyā and caryā) consisting of roughly 9000 verses.—Description of the chapter [parivāra-vidhi]: Iconometry continues, this chapter being given over to rules for the attendant deities [parivāra-devatā]: [e.g., Soma] [...]. Then the discussion turns to the vehicles of the gods, namely Brahmā’s Swan and Rudra’s Ox, etc. (61b-64).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Soma (सोम) was the famous plant which was used for the preparation of the libation of Soma made at the Vedic sacrifice. Its importance is sufficiently shown by the fact that the whole of the ninth Maṇḍala of the Rigveda, and six hymns in other Maṇḍalas, are devoted to its praise.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Soma is the name of Chandra, the moon. It is also the name of the intoxicating drink that is offered to the Vedic Gods. The Rig Veda sometimes addresses Soma, the drink as a seperate deity in its own right.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Soma was a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the subsequent Vedic and greater Persian cultures. It is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, whose Soma Mandala contains 114 hymns, many praising its energizing qualities. In the Avesta, Haoma has the entire Yašt 20 and Yasna 9-11 dedicated to it.

It is described as being prepared by extracting juice from the stalks of a certain plant. In both Vedic and Zoroastrian tradition, the name of the drink and the plant are the same, and also personified as a divinity, the three forming a religious or mythological unity.

In the Vedas, the drink, and the plant refer to the same entity. Drinking Soma produces immortality (Amrita, Rigveda 8.48.3). Indra and Agni are portrayed as consuming Soma in copious quantities. The consumption of Soma by human beings is well attested in Vedic ritual.

etymology: Soma (Sanskrit: सोम sóma), or Haoma (Avestan), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-.

Both Soma and the Avestan Haoma are thought to be derived from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-. The name of the Scythian tribe Hauma-varga is related to the word, and probably connected with the ritual. The word is derived from an Indo-Iranian root *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) "to press", i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant.[4] According to Mayhofer, the root is Proto-Indo-European (*sew(h)-)[5]

Source: Encyclopedia Mythica: Soma

1) As a drink, Soma is the ambrosia of the gods. It was due to this influence that they could rise above all obstacles to achieve their goals. Indra was a great drinker of the substance; before his confrontation with Vritra, he drank rivers of it to gain the strength needed to overcome the fearsome dragon. Agni also consumed it in large amounts. Soma was what gave the Vedic gods their immortality. This drink is the same as Haoma in Persian mythology.

2) As the moon, Soma became equated with the god Chandra, who originally was the moon deity. The moon was considered the cup which held the drink Soma for the gods, and one reason that the moon waxed and waned was due to this fact. When the moon waned, it was because the gods were drinking down all the Soma; as it waxed, the god was re-creating himself, only to be consumed again once the cup was again full.

Source: Sreenivasarao’s blog: Who was Uddalaka Aruni? – Part One

Soma plant.—Many books have been written identifying its source from the birch forests of Siberia to China, Iran, Turkmenistan, India etc. It appears that Soma was a generic term and verities of creepers were called by that name. The Soma of the Rig Veda was mountainous creeper. And, Most scholars argue that Homa plant of the Iranian Avesta differs in many respects from the Soma of the Rig Veda, though both have certain common features

David Frawley also says ‘The Rig Veda describes Soma as a watery plant, growing near water (RV .8 .91.1) and as flowing with a milky juice’. The Somas in India, according to him, were mainly special powerful plants growing in mountain lakes and riverine regions of Himalayas. He also rejects Ephedra of Afghanistan and Iran being Soma; because Ephedra is a dry plant with very little juice. The Indian Soma plant is just not one particular plant; and therefore search for one single plant might be ‘misleading’.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Soma. See Sutasoma.

2. Soma

A deva to whom sacrifice is offered; he is generally mentioned with Varuna, Pajapati and Yama (D.i.244;ii.259; J.v.28; vi.201, 568,571).

In the Atanatiya Sutta (D.iii.204) he is spoken of as a Yakkha chief.

He is identified with the Moon god of later literature (E.g., Cv.lxii.5; lxiii.14), the founder of the Somavamsa (dynasty).

3. Soma. A Yavapala who offered grass for his seat to Kassapa Buddha. BuA.218; cf. Mtu.iii.105,106.

4. Soma - Friend of Somadatta (5).

-- or --

1. Soma Theri. She was the daughter of the chaplain of King Bimbisara. When she grew up, she saw the Buddha on his first visit to Rajagaha and became a lay disciple. Later she joined the Order, developed insight, and became an arahant.

One day, as she was spending her siesta at the foot of a tree in Andhavana, Mara, wishing to interrupt her privacy, approached her, invisible in the air, and teased her, remarking on the two finger consciousness of women. (The Commentary explains that women, when boiling rice, cannot tell if it is cooked without testing it between two fingers, hence the expression). Soma rebuked him, saying that the fact of being a woman was no obstacle to the comprehension of the Dhamma. (This incident is given also at S.i.129).

In the time of Sikhi Buddha Soma was born into the family of an eminent nobleman and became the chief consort of King Arunava. (Thig.vs.60-62; ThigA.66f). The rest of her story is identical with that of Abhaya Theri (q.v.). She is evidently identical with Uppaladayika of the Apadana. Ap.ii.601f.

2. Soma. Sister of Sakula and queen of Pasenadi. She was a devout follower of the Buddha. M.ii.125; MA.ii.757; she is probably the eminent lay woman referred to at A.iv.347.

3. Soma. An eminent Theri of Ceylon, expert in the Vinaya. Vin.xviii.14.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1a) Soma (सोम) is the name of a Bodhisattva mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Soma).

1b) Soma (सोम) is also the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

1c) Soma (सोम) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

2) Somā (सोमा) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

1) Soma (सोम) (in Chinese: Sou-mo) refers to one of the fifty-five kingdoms enumerated in chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective districts.—In Soma, the following deities are appointed (among others): The Devaputra Ratnakeśa; the Gandharva Madhumanta; the Kinnara Uttamasūtra [?]; the Yakṣa Upapañcaka; the Nāgarāja Kāla; the Asura Manojña; the Kumbhāṇḍa Kieou-lo-p'o; the Goddesses Sītā and Po-tch'a.

1b) Soma (सोम) [?] (in Chinese: Sou-mo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Mṛgaśiras or Mṛgaśirasnakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18.

2a) Soma (सोम) is the name of a Yakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Śaya.

2b) Soma (सोम) is also the name of a Yakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Avanti.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Soma (सोम) refers to a species of Anudiśa gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition where the Anudiśa heaven is one of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka).

2) Soma (सोम) is the father of Svayambhū: the third Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The stories of king Soma, queen Pṛthvī and their son, Svayambhū are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Soma (सोम) or Padmāvatī is the father of Munisuvrata: the twentieth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Regarding the Jina’s parentage, we are informed that his father named Sumitra was the king of Magadha. His mother had the name of Soma (Padmāvatī according to some books). His dynasty is called the Harivaṃśa. The capital was at Rājagṛha. His name originated from the fact that he kept noble vows (Suvrata, good vows) devoutly and he was a Muni or a Saint.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Soma (सोम) is the father of Puruṣottama: one of the nine black Vāsudevas, according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine black Vāsudevas, enjoyers of three parts of the earth, with half so much power as the Cakrins. [...] In this same city (i.e., Dvāravati), the one named Puruṣottama, fifty bows tall, son of Soma and Sītā, with a life of thirty lacs of years while the Jina Ananta is living, will go to the sixth hell at the end of his life.”.

2) Somā (सोमा) is the wife of a Brāhman named Dāmodara from Sāligrāma, according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, as Ajita narrated, “[...] Not very far from this city is a large village granted to Brahmans, named Sāligrāma. There lived the head of the Brāhmans, named Dāmodara, and his wife Somā. They had a son Śuddhabhaṭṭa who married Sulakṣaṇā, the daughter of Siddhabhaṭṭa. Sulakṣaṇā and Śuddhabhaṭṭa grew up and enjoyed pleasures suitable to their position, as they liked. In course of time their parents died, and their fathers’ money also disappeared. Sometimes he would lie down at night, hungry in the midst of plenty”.

Source: HereNow4U: Lord Śrī Pārśvanātha

Soma (सोम) was the son of king of Kṣitipratiṣṭhita, Mahīdhara and queen Revatī. His wife’s name was Campakamālā. He also had a son who died at the age of four. His wife was sick, too and died. After these two deaths he became detached. Inspired by the Lord’s discourse he accepted the path of restraint and became the fifth Gaṇadhara.

Source: HereNow4u: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)

Soma (सोम) was the son of king of Mahīdhara.—[...] The ‘Śrī Pāsanāha Cariyaṃ’ gives the following description of Lord Pārśvanātha’s Gaṇadharas (principal disciples).—“[...] Soma was the son of king of Kṣitipratiṣṭhita, Mahīdhara and queen Revatī. His wife's name was Campakamālā. He also had a son who died at the age of four. His wife was sick, too and died. After these two deaths he became detached. Inspired by the Lord's discourse he accepted the path of restraint and became the fifth Gaṇadhara”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Soma.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘one’. Note: soma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Soma in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Peganum harmala L. from the Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop) family having the following synonyms: Peganum dauricum. For the possible medicinal usage of soma, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Soma [सोमा] in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Cynanchum acidum (Roxb.) Oken from the Apocynaceae (Oleander) family having the following synonyms: Sarcostemma acidum, Asclepias acida, Sarcostemma brevistigma.

Soma [सोमा] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Soma [सोम] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Periploca aphylla Decne. from the Apocynaceae (Oleander) family.

Soma [सोमा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf from the Ephedraceae (Joint-Pine) family.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Soma in India is the name of a plant defined with Eleusine coracana in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cynosurus coracanus L. (among others).

2) Soma is also identified with Ephedra gerardiana It has the synonym Ephedra gerardiana var. congesta C.Y. Cheng (etc.).

3) Soma is also identified with Pennisetum glaucum It has the synonym Cenchrus spicatus (L.) Cav. (etc.).

4) Soma is also identified with Rumex patientia It has the synonym Lapathum hortense Lam. (etc.).

5) Soma is also identified with Ruta graveolens It has the synonym Ruta hortensis Mill..

6) Soma is also identified with Sarcostemma acidum It has the synonym Asclepias acida Roxburgh (etc.).

7) Soma is also identified with Sarcostemma intermedium.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Linnaea (1853)
· A Manual of Botany (1840)
· Econ. Bot. (1977)
· Rhodora (1916)
· Herbário Português (1914)
· J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., Ser. B, (1984)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Soma, for example diet and recipes, chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

soma : (m.) the moon.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sōma (सोम).—m (S) The moon. 2 The moon-plant, Asclepias acida or aphylla: also the juice of it. 3 A form of leucorrhœa. See dhupaṇī. 4 (By abridgment for sōmayāga) A sacrifice at which the juice of Asclepias acida is drunk. 5 A name of Shiva.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sōma (सोम).—m The moon. A name of Shiva.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Soma (सोम).—[sū-man Uṇādi-sūtra 1.139]

1) Name of a plant, the most important ingredient in ancient sacrificial offerings.

2) The juice of the plant; as in सोमपा, सोमपीथिन् (somapā, somapīthin); Ms. 3.257.

3) Nectar, beverage of the gods; अलब्धभागाः सोमस्य केवलं क्लेशभागिनः (alabdhabhāgāḥ somasya kevalaṃ kleśabhāginaḥ) Bhāgavata 8.1.23.

4) The moon. [In mythology, the moon is represented as having sprung from the eye of the sage Atri; (cf. R.2.75) or as produced from the sea at the time of churning. The twenty-seven asterisms--mythologically represented as so many daughters of Dakṣa q. v. -are said to be his wives. The phenomenon of the periodical waning of the moon is explained by a myth which states that his nectareous digits are drunk up by different gods in regular rotation, or by the invention of another legend which says that the moon, on account of his particular fondness and partiality for Rohiṇī, one of the 27 daughters of Dakṣa, was cursed by his father-in-law to be consumptive, but that at the intercession of his wives the sentence of eternal consumption was commuted to one of periodical consumption. Soma is also represented as having carried off Tārā, the wife of Bṛhaspati, by whom he had a son named Budha, who afterwards became the founder of the lunar race of kings; see Tārā (b) also.]; पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः (puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 15.13.

5) A ray of light.

6) Camphor.

7) Water.

8) Air, wind.

9) Name of Kubera.

1) Of Śiva.

11) Of Yama.

12) Name of Sugrīva.

13) (As the last member of comp.) Chief, principal, best; as in नृसोम (nṛsoma) q. v.

14) An ape.

15) One of the Manes.

16) the vessel (nāḍī) 'Iḍā'; यत्र तद् ब्रह्म निर्द्वन्द्वं यत्र सोमः सहाग्निना । व्यवायं कुरुते नित्यं धीरो भूतानि धारयन् (yatra tad brahma nirdvandvaṃ yatra somaḥ sahāgninā | vyavāyaṃ kurute nityaṃ dhīro bhūtāni dhārayan) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.2.1 (com.).

17) Monday.

-mā The soma plant.

-mam 1 Rice gruel.

2) Sky, heaven.

Derivable forms: somaḥ (सोमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Soma (सोम).—name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 236.17 and 25.

--- OR ---

Somā (सोमा).—(1) name of a Śākyan girl (a brahman's daughter): Avadāna-śataka ii.20.1 ff.; (2) name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 243.34.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Soma (सोम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. The moon. 2. Kuvera. 3. A monkey chief. 4. Air, wind. 5. Yama. 6. One of the demi-gods called Vasus. 7. Siva. 8. The moon-plant, (Asclepias acida, or Sarcostema viminalis.) 9. The acid juice of the Sarcostema. 10. A drug of supposed magical properties. 11. Water. 12. Nectar, the liquor of immortals. 13. Camphor. 14. A deified progenitor. 15. A mountain or mountainous range, the mountains of the moon. 16. The best, chief, (as the last member of a compound.) n.

(-maṃ) 1. Rice-water or gruel. 2. Heaven, sky, æther. E. ṣū to bear, (as young,) or to sprinkle, Unadi aff. man .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Soma (सोम).—i. e. 1. su + ma, I. m. 1. The acid juice of the Sarcostema viminalis, Chr. 292, 10 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 10; [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 9, 20. 2. Sarcostema viminalis, Mahābhārata 14, 274; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 346; personified, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 111; 112. 3. Nectar, the beverage of the immortals. 4. Water. 5. The moon, Chr. 27, 8. 6. Kuvera, the god of wealth; Yama, the god of death; Śiva. 7. Air, wind, 8. Camphor. 9. A mountainous range. Ii. n. 1. Rice-gruel. 2. Sky.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Soma (सोम).—[masculine] the Soma (plant or juice, often personified as a god); the moon or the god of the moon.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Soma (सोम) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—śr. Oppert. Ii, 5365.
—Āpast. and—[commentary] by Nṛsiṃha. B. 1, 152.

2) Soma (सोम):—son of Hari, grandson of Nāḍiga, father of Mahādeva, father of Dharaṇigoṇiga, father of Acyuta (Rasasaṃgrahasiddhānta). W. p. 299.

3) Soma (सोम):—poet. Śp. p. 96. [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] See Kavirājasoma.

4) Soma (सोम):—of Benares: Horāsetu.

5) Soma (सोम):—son of Mudgala: Rāgavibodha music.

6) Soma (सोम):—father of Vāgbhaṭa (Vāgbhaṭālaṃkāra).

7) Soma (सोम):—as an author of a smṛti, quoted by Hemādri in Pariśeṣakhaṇḍa 2, 733. 734. 737.

8) Soma (सोम):—Tribhāṣyaratna.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Soma (सोम):—1. soma m. ([from] √3. su) juice, extract, ([especially]) the juice of the Soma plant, (also) the Soma plant itself (said to be the climbing plant Sarcostema Viminalis or Asclepias Acida, the stalks [aṃśu] of which were pressed between stones [adri] by the priests, then sprinkled with water, and purified in a strainer [pavitra]; whence the acid juice trinkled into jars [kalaśa] or larger vessels [droṇa]; after which it was mixed with clarified butter, flour etc., made to ferment, and then offered in libations to the gods [in this respect corresponding with the ritual of the Iranian Avesta] or was drunk by the Brāhmans, by both of whom its exhilarating effect was supposed to be prized; it was collected by moonlight on certain mountains [in, [Ṛg-veda x, 34, 1], the mountain Mūja-vat is mentioned]; it is sometimes described as having been brought from the sky by a falcon [śyena] and guarded by the Gandharvas; it is personified as one of the most important of Vedic gods, to whose praise all the 114 hymns of the 9th book of the [Ṛg-veda] besides 6 in other books and the whole, [Sāma-veda] are dedicated; in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few of the latest hymns of the [Ṛg-veda] [although not in the whole of the 9th book] as well as sometimes in the [Atharva-veda] and in the [Brāhmaṇa], Soma is identified with the moon [as the receptacle of the other beverage of the gods called Amṛta, or as the lord of plants cf. indu, oṣadhi-pati] and with the god of the moon, as well as with Viṣṇu, Śiva, Yama, and Kubera; he is called rājan, and appears among the 8 Vasus and the 8 Loka-pālas [Manu-smṛti v, 96], and is the reputed author of [Ṛg-veda x, 124, 1, 5-9], of a law-book etc.; cf. below), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the moon or moon-god (See above)

3) a Soma sacrifice, [Aitareya-āraṇyaka]

4) a day destined for extracting the Soma-juice, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

5) Monday (= soma-vāra), [Inscriptions]

6) nectar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) air, wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) a drug of supposed magical properties, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) a [particular] mountain or mountainous range ([according to] to some the mountains of the moon), [ib.]

12) a [particular] class of Pitṛs ([probably] for soma-pā), [ib.]

13) Name of various authors (also with paṇḍita, bhaṭṭa, śarman etc.; cf. above), [Catalogue(s)]

14) = somacandra, or somendu, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan]

15) Name of a monkey-chief, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Somā (सोमा):—[from soma] f. the Soma plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata]

18) [v.s. ...] of a river, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] of a queen, [Inscriptions]

20) Soma (सोम):—n. rice-water, rice-gruel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) heaven, sky, ether, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) mfn. relating to Soma ([probably] [wrong reading] for sauma), [Kāṭhaka]

23) 2. soma mfn. ([probably]) together with Umā, [Indische Studien by A. Weber]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Soma (सोम):—(maḥ) 1. m. The moon; Kuvera; monkey chief; wind; Yama; demigod; moon-plant, Asclepias; its juice; water; nectar; camphor; mountain. n. Rice gruel; sky.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Soma (सोम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Soma, Somā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Soma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Soma (सोम) [Also spelled som]:—(nm) the moon; Monday; the moon-creeper yielding an intoxicating juice which was drunk at sacrifices ([yajña]) in ancient times; ~[kara] moon-rays; -[pātra] a peg, wine glass; ~[pāna] drinking of [somarasa; ~pāyī] one who drinks ~[rasa; ~yajña] the [yajña] which was performed with [soma] juice; ~[rasa] the intoxicating juice of the [soma] creeper; ~[latā / latikā / vallarī /vallikā / vallī] a creeper from which an intoxicating juice was extracted for [yajña] and drinking; ~[vaṃśa] the lunar dynasty of kshatriyas in ancient India; ~[vaṃśīya] of the lunar race; ~[vatī/vārī amāvasyā] the [amāvasyā] i e. last day of the dark half of a month falling on a Monday.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Soma (सोम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Soma.

2) Soma (सोम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saumya.

3) Somā (सोमा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Somā.

4) Somā (सोमा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saumyā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sōma (ಸೋಮ):—

1) [noun] the plant Ephedra distachya ( = E. vulgaris) of Ephedraceae family.

2) [noun] the vine Rubia cordifolia ( =R.munjista) of Rubiaceae family; munjeet.

3) [noun] the creeper Sarcostemma acidum ( = S. brevistigma) of Asclepiadaceae family; sour creeper.

4) [noun] the juice extracted from the stalks of this plant used in religious sacrifices for offering it to the deities and also drunk.

5) [noun] another creeper Sarcostemma interedium of Asclepiadaceae family.

6) [noun] ambrosia, the food of gods.

7) [noun] the moon.

8) [noun] a volatile, crystalline ketone, with a strong characteristic odour, derived from the camphor tree; camphor.

9) [noun] water.

10) [noun] air; wind.

11) [noun] Śiva.

12) [noun] a multitude of sages.

13) [noun] Yama, the God of Righteousness.

14) [noun] a ray of light.

15) [noun] a monkey.

16) [noun] Kubēra, the regent of Wealth.

17) [noun] name of one of the eight Vasus, a semi divinities.

18) [noun] Monday, the second day of the week.

19) [noun] rice gruel.

20) [noun] name of a particular astral tube, in the body, carrying prāṇa (nerve current).

21) [noun] name of one of Śaiva clans.

22) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number one.

23) [noun] (pros.) a metrical food consisting of three syllables, the first being long and the others short ones (-uu).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Soma (सोम):—n. 1. moon; 2. (Rig-Veda) the liquid pressed from a soma plant; offered to the gods; and consumed by the priests; 3. Monday; adj. 1. lazy; slothful; slack; inactive; 2. (person) carefree; careless; negligent;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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