Agha: 28 definitions


Agha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Agha (अघ).—The name of an asura. This asura was one of the followers of Kaṃsa. According to the instructions of Kaṃsa, Agha once set out to Gokula to kill Śrī Kṛṣṇa. At that time Śrī Kṛṣṇa was playing on the banks of the river Kālindī with other cowherds. Aghāsura watched the games of the children from the sky above. Then he transformed himself into a colossal serpent and lay with his mouth wide open; his open mouth looked like an immense cave. The foul smell coming from his mouth soon spread over the whole place. Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the other children did not know anything about this. In the course of their games they walked into the cave-like mouth of Agha and were soon trapped in his belly. Agha then closed his mouth and all the boys including Śrī Kṛṣṇa were now imprisoned inside his body. Some of the boys died. Realizing the situation Śrī Kṛṣṇa now enlarged his body. His body grew larger and larger until at last it burst open the body of the serpent (Agha). Thus Agha was killed. Śrī Kṛṣṇa then restored the dead boys to life by his divine looks (Kaṭākṣa). This Aghāsura was the brother of Bakāsura and Pūtanā. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 10, Chapter 12).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Agha (अघ) refers to “sin”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.42.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Viṣṇu and other Devas:—“[...] I do not take into account the sin (agha) committed by my children. I have inflicted punishment on those who are afflicted by my illusion. The destruction of the sacrifice of Dakṣa was not done by me. If a person hates another, ultimately it recoils on him alone. No action that involves the affliction of others will be indulged in by me at any time. If anyone hates another it will recoil on him alone”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Agha (अघ).—An asura; friend of Kaṃsa. Appeared in the guise of a boa-constrictor in order to devour Kṛṣṇa, his playmates and cattle in Bṛndāvana. Thinking it to be a part of the landscape of the Bṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa's playmates and cattle entered his wide-open mouth. Kṛṣṇa understood the situation, and after a little hesitation, he also went in and killed him by choking his throat. Agha, however, attained salvation.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 12. 13-38; 13. 4; 14. 60.
Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)

Agha (अघ).—On seeing Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa, the demon Agha thought that the time had come for him to avenge the death of his sister Pūtanā and his brother Baka. To play a nasty trick on the children, he increased the dimension of his body to such an extent that his head was touching almost the clouds while his mouth was kept open like a cavern. Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma were going that way with their cowherd friends. Playfully, the children entered the cave and got panicky. To release them Kṛṣṇa too entered the cave and started to increase the size of his body so much that the demon could not breathe any longer. His final breath escaped from his brahmarandhra, final point on the summit of the head.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Agha (अघ) refers to “faults” (as opposed to Anagha—‘faultless’), as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “Having recited [a particular mantra] along with [the practice of one of the] observances in accordance with the rules, and having bathed [at the end of the observance], one may recite that mantra for attaining supernatural powers. [...] Being thus bathed after the observance [in propitiation] of [his] mantra, invested in the right to [pursue] all [manner of special powers], faultless (anagha), he should then recite [his chosen] mantra according to the rules of his hand-book, without being afraid”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God

Agha is often mistranslated as “sin”. In a Hindu context an agha is an act which is unbeneficial in terms of one’s spiritual evolution and results in further bondage and entrenchment in samsara.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M / N Poverty. Stain, defilement.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Agha (अघ, “agony”) refers to one of the eight kinds of contemplations (anupaśyanā) among the Buddha’s disciples, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XVI). Accordingly, “for them, everything is impermanent (anitya), suffering (duḥkha), empty (śūnya), egoless (anātmaka), like a sickness (roga), an ulcer (gaṇḍa), like an arrow (śalya) stuck in one’s body, like an agony (agha)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Agha (अघ) refers to “sins”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “I bow to all Buddhas, and to the dharma spoken by the Buddha, And to the Sangha perfected in virtue, I bow to the three jewels. The three jewels are my refuge, I confess in proportion to all my sins (agha), Rejoicing in the merit of the world, turning thought to enlightenment”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Agha (अघ) refers to a “bad (birth)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “A bad birth (agha-sūti) is hard to be accomplished even in a dream for him whose judgment, which is extremely skilful at examination like a door-keeper, shines in the mind. Having got rid of the multitude of imaginings, when the steady mind holds onto [its] nature, then it is indeed the best [form of] stopping the influx of karma for a mendicant”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

agha : (nt.) 1. the sky; 2. grief; pain; 3. sin; misfortune.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Agha, 2 (m. nt.) (the etym. suggested by Morris J.P.T.S. 1889, 200 (with ref. to M.I, 500, which belongs under agha1) is untenable (to Sk. kha, as a-kha = agha, cp. Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etym. of Bdhgh. offer any clue (= a + gha from ghan that which does not strike or aghaṭṭaniya is not strikeable DhsA.326, cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 & J.IV, 154 aghe ṭhitā = appaṭighe ākāse ṭhitā the air which does not offer any resistance). On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness, as seen from the phrase lokantarikā aghā asaṃvutā andhakārā D.II, 12; S.V, 454, and BSk. aghasaṃvṛta M Vastu I.240, adj. dark M Vastu I.41; II, 162; Lal Vist 552) the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss of space D.II, 12; S.V, 45; Vv 161 (aghasi gama, Loc. = vehāsaṃ gama VvA.78); J.IV, 154; Dhs.638 (+ aghagata); Vbh.84 (id.).

2) Agha, 1 (nt.) (cp. Sk. agha, of uncertain etym.) evil, grief, pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22; M.I, 500 (roga gaṇḍa salla agha); A.II, 128 (id.); J.V, 100; Th.2, 491; Sdhp.51. — adj. painful, bringing pain J.VI, 507 (agha-m-miga = aghakara m. C.). —bhūta a source of pain S.III, 189 (+ agha & salla). (Page 5)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

āgha (आघ).—See āga &c. āghāḍā, ā- ghāḍī, āghāḍī pichāḍī, āghēḍā See under अ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

agha (अघ).—n Sin, fault, offence.

--- OR ---

aghā (अघा).—a All, the whole.

--- OR ---

aghā (अघा).—a All, the whole mass.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Agha (अघ).—a. [agh-kartari ac]

1) Bad, sinful, evil, wicked; अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति (aghāyurindriyārāmo moghaṃ pārtha sa jīvati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 3.16.

-gham [agh bhāve ac]

1) Sin; अघं स केवलं भुङ्क्ते यः पचत्यात्मकारणात् (aghaṃ sa kevalaṃ bhuṅkte yaḥ pacatyātmakāraṇāt) Ms. 3.118, Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 3.13; अघौघविध्वंसविधौ पटीयसीः (aghaughavidhvaṃsavidhau paṭīyasīḥ) Śiśupālavadha 1.18, हरत्यघं सम्प्रति हेतुरेष्यतः (haratyaghaṃ samprati hetureṣyataḥ) 26; °मर्षण (marṣaṇa) &c.; misdeed, fault, crime; श्रेयान् द्विजातिरिव हन्तुमघानि दक्षम् (śreyān dvijātiriva hantumaghāni dakṣam) Śiśupālavadha 4.37 sins and griefs also.

2) An evil, mishap, misfortune, accident, injury, harm; न वधूष्वघानि विमृशन्ति धियः (na vadhūṣvaghāni vimṛśanti dhiyaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 6.45. do not think of doing harm or evil; क्रियादघानां मघवा विघातम् (kriyādaghānāṃ maghavā vighātam) 3.52; अघोपघातं मघवा विभूत्यै (aghopaghātaṃ maghavā vibhūtyai) 11.8; प्रजानां तमघावहम् (prajānāṃ tamaghāvaham) R.15.51,19.52, See अनघ (anagha).

3) Impurity (aśaucam); अनुरुन्ध्यादघं त्र्यहम् (anurundhyādaghaṃ tryaham) Manusmṛti 5.63; न वर्धयेदघाहानि (na vardhayedaghāhāni) 84. न राज्ञामघदोषोऽस्ति (na rājñāmaghadoṣo'sti) 93;

4) Pain, suffering, grief, distress; उपप्लुतमघौघेन नात्मानमवबुद्ध्यसे (upaplutamaghaughena nātmānamavabuddhyase) Rām.2.7.14, Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.237.19. Bhāg 1.14.2. दयालुमनघस्पृष्टम् (dayālumanaghaspṛṣṭam) R.1.19 not subject to grief.

5) Passion. cf. अंहोदुःखव्यसनेष्वघम् (aṃhoduḥkhavyasaneṣvagham) Nm.

-ghaḥ Name of a demon, brother of Baka and Pūtanā and commander-in-chief of Kaṃsa. [Being sent by Kaṃsa to Gokula to kill Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma he assumed the form of a huge serpent 4 yojanas long, and spread himself on the way of the cowherds, keeping his horrid mouth open. The cowherds mistook it for a mountain cavern and entered it, cows and all. But Kṛṣṇa saw it, and having entered the mouth so stretched himself that he tore it to pieces and rescued his companions.]

-ghā The Goddess of sin; (pl.) the constellation usually called Maghā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Agha (अघ).—m. (= Pali id.), (1) sky, atmosphere; only in aghaniṣṭha, q.v.; (2) in the lokāntarikā (q.v.) passage, aghā aghasaṃvṛtā(ḥ) or aghasphuṭā(ḥ) (or other [compound]) means miseries (? miserable) and enclosed by (full of, or the like) miseries; so essentially Senart, Mahāvastu i note 405 f. We could perhaps recognize the first agha as an adj. (so in Rig Veda and once in BhāgP.); but it seems more likely that it is the more familiar noun, which especially in Pali often means misery. In the Pali version (Critical Pali Dictionary s.v. ^2agha, end) we should read aghā aghasaṃvutā, as Senart perceived (texts asaṃvutā, a very old corruption); or at least, that [Page005-b+ 71] must have been the original version. The Critical Pali Dictionary assumes an otherwise unknown adj. agha, aerial, without support, which is inappropriate and implausible.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agha (अघ).—n.

(-ghaṃ) 1. Sin. 2. Pain. 3. Passion. m.

(-ghaḥ) Name of a demon; the general name of Kansa. a. agha to go, and aca affix, removed by charity, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agha (अघ).— (from a vb. aṅgh, see aṃkas), n. 1. Sin, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 118. 2. Impurity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 63.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agha (अघ).—[adjective] evil, bad, sinful (also aghala); [neuter] evil, sin, harm, impurity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Agha (अघ):—[from agh] mfn. bad, dangerous, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] sinful, impure, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of an Asura, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] n. evil, mishap, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

5) [v.s. ...] m. sin, impurity, [Manu-smṛti] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] pain, suffering, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Aghā (अघा):—[from agha > agh] f. [plural] the constellation usually called Maghā, [Ṛg-veda x, 85, 13.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Agha (अघ):—I. n.

(-gham) 1) Sin.

2) Pain, suffering.

3) Passion, as love, hatred.

4) Impurity (see aśauca). E. han with ā, krit aff. ḍa, the preposition being made short (or better aṃh or aṅgh, kṛt aff. ac.) See aṃhas, aṅghas and aṅgha. Ii. 1. m. f. n.

(-ghaḥ-ghā-gham) One afflicted with sin, pain, passion, impurity (see the preceding). 2. m.

(-ghaḥ) Name of a demon, the general of Kaṃsa. 3. f.

(-ghā) 1) The goddess of Sin.

2) pl. f.

(-ghāḥ) The constellation, more usually known under the name of maghāḥ q. v. E. agha (sin &c.), taddh. aff. ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Agha (अघ):—[(t-ka) aghayati] 10. a. To sin.

2) (ghaṃ) 1. n. Sin; pain; m. A demon.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Agha (अघ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Agha, Aha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Agha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Agha (अघ) [Also spelled agh]:—(nm) a sin, misdeed: ~[marṣaṇa] purification, expiation/expiatory; purifying.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Agha (अघ) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Agha.

2) Āghā (आघा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ākhyā.

3) Āghā (आघा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Āghrā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Agha (ಅಘ):—

1) [noun] an offence against religious or moral law; transgression of the law of a god; sin.

2) [noun] unhappy or unpleasant state resultant of some loss, disappointment or regret; sorrow; grief.

3) [noun] a situation affected by or caused by worry, pain, difficulty or danger.

4) [noun] religious defilement caused by birth or death in a family.

5) [noun] the cycle of birth, death and rebirth of an individual soul.

6) [noun] (myth.) name of a demon (known as ಅಘಾಸುರ [aghasura]).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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