Laghu: 21 definitions
Laghu means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Laghu (लघु) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “light”, “active”, “nimble” etc., and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhitā or the Carakasaṃhitā.
2) Laghu (लघु, “light”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Laghu is the characteristic of a drug referring to its ‘lightness’, while its opposing quality, Guru, refers to its ‘heaviness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine).
The quality of Laghu, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system), while it aggrevates the Kapha (bodily fluids, or ‘phlegm’). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Ether (ākāśa), Air (vāyu) and Fire (agni).Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Laghu (लघु) refers to “light” (e.g., water), as mentioned in verse 5.1-2 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] vitalizing, refreshing, pleasing one’s stomach, satisfying, stimulating one’s intellect, thin, of indistinct taste, savoury, cold, light [viz., laghu], (and) nectar-like (is) Ganges water fallen from the sky; (as it is), however, touched by sun, moon, and wind (in falling), it is largely dependent upon place and time so far as its wholesomeness and unwholesomeness are concerned”.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Laghu (लघु) refers to “light” and represents a particular dietetic effect according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Accordingly, the dietetic effect laghu is associated with the following conditions: Food utensils made of Ketakīpatra (screw pine leaf).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Laghu (लघु).—One of the five sons of Yadu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 69. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 7; Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 2.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Laghu (लघु).—A term used in the sense of light or short as contrasted with गुरु (guru) meaning heavy or long, which is applied to vowels like अ, इ (a, i) etc. cf. ह्रस्वं लघु (hrasvaṃ laghu) P.I. 4. 10;
2) Laghu.—Brevity; brief expression; cf. लघ्वर्थे हि संज्ञाकरणम् (laghvarthe hi saṃjñākaraṇam) M.Bh. on P.I.2,27 Vārt. 6 also संज्ञा हि नाम यतो न लघीयः (saṃjñā hi nāma yato na laghīyaḥ);
3) Laghu.—Small, as qualifying an effort in writing or explaining something as also in utterance; cf. व्योर्लघुप्रयत्नतरः शाकटायनस्य (vyorlaghuprayatnataraḥ śākaṭāyanasya) P.VIII.3.18.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Laghu (लघु) or La refers to the hrasva (short) letter in a verse.—The whole chanda literature has several technical terms, by which it is controlled. Single letters are used to denote a specific instance. The letter ga stands for guru letter while the letter la stands for laghu letter. In a verse the letter which is guru is also known as dīrgha (long) and which is laghu is also known as hrasva (short). The dīrgha letter consists of two mātrās while the hrasva letter consists of one mātrā.
Laghu can be identified as menu, kāhāla (daṇḍa) or śara, and the guru symbols can be identified as the shape of tāṭaṅka, hāra or keyūra.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Laghu (लघु) or Laghusaṃyoga or Laghusañcaya refers to one of the three yogas or saṃyogas: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the laghu-sañcaya is light syllables and quick tempo e.g. ghāṭa maṭa maṭa ghaṭa matthi ghaṭu ghaṭu ghaṭu”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Syllables in a pada are also classified as metrically short (laghu "light") or long (guru "heavy"): a syllable is metrically short only if it contains a short vowel and is not followed by consecutive consonants in the same pada. All other syllables are long, by quality (having a long vowel or diphthong) or by position (being followed by a consonant cluster).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Laghu (लघु, “hot”) refers to one of the eight types of Sparśa (touch), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the touch attribute to the body are called touch (sparśa) body-making karma (e.g., laghu).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
laghu (लघु).—a (S) Light, not heavy. 2 Small or little. 3 Short;--as a vowel. 4 Light, trifling, of little worth or estimation.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
laghu (लघु).—a Light. Small; short. Trifling.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Laghu (लघु).—a. ([ghu] or [ghvī] f.) [लङ्घेः कुः, नलोपश्च (laṅgheḥ kuḥ, nalopaśca) Uṇ.1.29]
1) Light, not heavy; तृणदपि लघुस्तूलस्तूलादपि च याचकः (tṛṇadapi laghustūlastūlādapi ca yācakaḥ) Subhās.; रिक्तः सर्वो भवति हि लघुः पूर्णता गौरवाय (riktaḥ sarvo bhavati hi laghuḥ pūrṇatā gauravāya) Me.2 (where the word means 'contemptible' also); R.9. 62.
2) Little, small, diminutive; धर्मोऽयं गृहमेधिनां निगदितः स्मार्तैर्लघुः स्वर्गदः (dharmo'yaṃ gṛhamedhināṃ nigaditaḥ smārtairlaghuḥ svargadaḥ) Pt.1.253; Śi.9.38,78.
3) Short, brief, concise; लघुसंदेशपदा सरस्वती (laghusaṃdeśapadā sarasvatī) R.8.77.
4) Trifling, trivial, insignificant, unimportant; कायस्थ इति लघ्वी मात्रा (kāyastha iti laghvī mātrā) Mu.1.
5) Low, mean, despicable, contemptible; Śi.9.23; Pt.1.16; कथं प्रत्याख्यानलघुर्मित्रावसुः पुनरपि मन्त्रयते (kathaṃ pratyākhyānalaghurmitrāvasuḥ punarapi mantrayate) Nāg.2. 1/11.
6) Weak, feeble.
7) Wretched, frivolous.
8) Active, light, nimble, agile; लघु भवत्युत्थानयोग्यं वपुः (laghu bhavatyutthānayogyaṃ vapuḥ) Ś.2.5.
9) Swift, quick, rapid; किंचित् पश्चाद् व्रज लघुगतिः (kiṃcit paścād vraja laghugatiḥ) Me.16; R.5.45.
1) Easy, not difficult; महार्णवपरिक्षेपं लङ्कायाः परिखालघुम् (mahārṇavaparikṣepaṃ laṅkāyāḥ parikhālaghum) (mene) R.12.66.
11) Easy to be digested, light (as food)
12) Short (as a vowel in prosody).
13) Soft, low, gentle.
14) Pleasant, agreeable, desirable; दर्शनेन लघुना यथा तयोः प्रीतिमापुरुभयो- स्तपस्विनः (darśanena laghunā yathā tayoḥ prītimāpurubhayo- stapasvinaḥ) R.11.12,8.
15) Lovely, handsome, beautiful.
16) Pure, clean.
17) Sapless, pithless.
18) Young, younger; दीव्यत्युच्चैर्लघुरघुपतिः किं नु वा स्यात् किमन्यत् (dīvyatyuccairlaghuraghupatiḥ kiṃ nu vā syāt kimanyat) Mv.6.53.
19) Without attendance or retinue; अनोकशायी लघुरल्पप्रचारश्चरन् देशानेकचरः स भिक्षुः (anokaśāyī laghuralpapracāraścaran deśānekacaraḥ sa bhikṣuḥ) Mb.1.91.5. -m. Name of the Nakṣatras Hasta, Puṣya, and Aśvinī. -n.
1) A particular measure of time (= 15 Kāṣthas).
2) Agallochum, or a particular variety of it. -ind.
1) Lightly, meanly, contemptuously; लघु मन् (laghu man) 'to think lightly of, despise, slight'; प्रथमोपकृतं मरुत्वतः प्रतिपत्त्या लघु मन्यते भवान् (prathamopakṛtaṃ marutvataḥ pratipattyā laghu manyate bhavān) Ś.7.1.
2) Quickly, swiftly; लघु लघूत्थिता (laghu laghūtthitā) Ś.4 'risen early'.
-Com. -āśin, -āhāra a. eating little, moderate in diet, abstemious.
-uktiḥ f. a brief mode of expression; Kull. on Ms.5.64.
-utthāna, -samutthāna a. working actively, doing work rapidly.
-kāya a. light-bodied. (-yaḥ) a goat.
1) having a light stomach.
2) having little in the stomach.
-kaumudī Name of an epitome of the सिद्धान्तकौमुदी (siddhāntakaumudī) by Varada-rāja.
-krama a. having a quick step, going quickly.
-khaṭvikā a small bedstead.
-gargaḥ a kind of fish.
-godhūmaḥ a small kind of wheat.
-citta, -cetas, -manas, -hṛdaya a.
1) light-minded, low-hearted, little-minded, mean-hearted; अयं निजः परो वेति गणना लघुचेतसाम् (ayaṃ nijaḥ paro veti gaṇanā laghucetasām) Mb.
3) fickle, unsteady.
-jaṅgalaḥ a kind of quail (lāvaka).
-tālaḥ (in music) a kind of measure.
-dundubhiḥ a kind of drum.
-drākṣā a small stoneless grape.
-drāvin a. melting easily.
-nāman m. agallochum.
-nālikā a musket.
-patrikā the Rochanā plant.
-parṇī, -karṇī Name of a plant (Mar. moravela).
-pāka, -pākin a. easily digested.
-puṣpaḥ a kind of Kadamba.
-pramāṇa a. short.
1) pronounced with slight articulation (as a letter).
2) indolent, lazy.
-badaraḥ, -badarī f. a kind of jujube.
-bhavaḥ humble birth or origin.
-bhāvaḥ ease, facility.
-bhojanam a light repast.
-māṃsaḥ a kind of partridge.
-mātra a. having small property.
-mūlam the lesser root of an equation.
-mūlakam a radish.
-meruḥ (in music) a kind of measure.
-layam a kind of fragrant root (vīraṇamūla).
-rāśi a. composed of fewer terms (as the side of an equation)
-vāsas a. wearing light or pure clothes; Ms.2.7.
-vikrama a. having a quick step, quick-footed.
1) ill-behaved, low, vile.
2) light, frivolous.
3) mismanaged, ill-done.
-vedhin a. making a clever hit.
-śekharaḥ (in music) a kind of measure.
-sattva a. weak or fickle-minded.
1) rising quickly.
2) swift of foot; अलघुना लघुसमुत्थानेन सैन्यचक्रेणाभ्यसरम् (alaghunā laghusamutthānena sainyacakreṇābhyasaram) Dk.2.3.
-sāra a. worthless, insignificant.
1) light-handed, clever, dexterous, expert; शिक्षाविशेषलघुहस्ततया निमेषात् तूणीचकार शरपूरितवक्त्ररन्ध्रान् (śikṣāviśeṣalaghuhastatayā nimeṣāt tūṇīcakāra śarapūritavaktrarandhrān) R.9.63.
2) active, agile. (-staḥ) an expert or skilful archer.
See also (synonyms): laghvī.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Laghu (लघु).—mfn. (-ghuḥ-ghuḥ or ghvī-ghu) 1. Light, not heavy. 2. Swift, quick. 3. Sapless, pithless. 4. Beautiful, pleasing. 5. Small, little. 6. Light, vain, frivolous. 7. Insignificant, mean, low. 8. Weak, feeble. 9. Clean, pure. 10. Short, (as a vowel.) 11. Easy. 12. Soft. 13. Young. 14. Pure. 15. Brief. n. Adv. (-ghu) Quickly, swiftly. Subst. (-ghu) 1. A black kind of Aloe-wood or Agallochum. 2. The root of the Andropogon muricatum. f.
(-ghuḥ) A plant, (Trigonella corniculata.) f. (-ghvī) 1. A slight or delicate woman. 2. A small light carriage. E. laghi to go, Unadi aff. ku, and the nasal not inserted.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Laghu (लघु).—i. e. laṅgh + u, I. adj., f. ghu and ghvī, comperat. laghutara and laghīyaṃs, superl. laghutama and laghiṣṭha, 1. Light, [Pañcatantra] 76, 18; easy, [Pañcatantra] 202, 4; laghīyaṃs, Very light, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 119. 2. Insignificant, [Pañcatantra] 68, 6; 172, 4 (innoxious). 3. Quick, [Pañcatantra] 55, 11. 4. Beautiful. 5. Clean, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 70. 6. Little, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 301; small, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 38; narrow, [Pañcatantra] 170, 24. 7. Young, [Pañcatantra] 253, 13; younger, [Pañcatantra] 220, 3. 8. Feeble, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 209; [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 28. 9. Mean, lev, [Cāṇakya] 68 in Berl. Monatsb. 1864, 411; living in a low position, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 71. 10. Vain, frivolous. 11. Short, as a vowel, Śrut. 3. 12. A way of flying (of birds), [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 57. Ii. acc. sing. n. ghu, adv. Quickly, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 81, 13 ([Prakrit]). Iii. f. ghvī. 1. A delicate woman. 2. A light carriage.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Laghu (लघु).—([feminine] laghvī & laghu) swift, quick, light, easy, soft, gentle (sound), pleasant; insignificant, small, low, mean; short (prosod.), young or younger.
— [neuter] [adverb], [with] man slight, despise ([with] kṛ mock, scoff*).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Laghu (लघु):—mf(vī, or u)n. (a later form of raghu, q.v.) light, quick, swift, active, prompt, nimble, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (also said of a [particular] mode of flying peculiar to birds, [Pañcatantra]; applied to the Nakṣatras Hasta, Aśvinī, and Puṣya, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā])
2) light, easy, not heavy or difficult, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
3) light in the stomach, easily digested, [Suśruta]
4) easy in mind, light-hearted, [Harivaṃśa; Kālidāsa]
5) causing easiness or relief, [Sāṃkhyakārikā]
6) well, in good health, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) unimpeded, without attendance or a retinue, [Mahābhārata iii, 8449]
8) short (in time, as a suppression of the breath), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
9) (in prosody) short or light (as a vowel or syllable, opp. to guru)
10) (in gram.) easily pronounced or articulated (said of the pronunciation of va, as opp. to madhyama and guru)
11) small, minute, slight, little, insignificant, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
12) weak, feeble, wretched, humble, mean, low (said of persons), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
13) young, younger (See -bhrātṛ)
14) clean, pure (See -vāsas)
15) soft, gentle (as sound), [Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
16) pleasing, agreeable, handsome, beautiful, [Mahābhārata; Kālidāsa]
17) m. bdellium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) (u) f. Trigonella Corniculata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) n. a [particular] measure of time (= 15 Kāṣṭhās= 1/15 Nāḍikā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) a [particular] species of Agallochum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) the root of Andropogon Muricatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) ind. lightly, quickly, easily etc., [Śakuntalā] (laghu-√man, to think lightly of [Śakuntalā])
23) cf. [Greek] ἐ-λαχύς; [Latin] lĕvis for lēvis, lenhuis; [Lithuanian] lengvŭs, lĕngvas; [Anglo-Saxon] lungre, ‘quickly’; [English] lungs, ‘lights.’
24) Laghū (लघू):—[from laghu] in [compound] for laghu.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Laghu (लघु):—(a) tiny, small, little, short;light; acute (as [koṇa]); insignificant; low, mean; reduced; ~[karaṇa] reduction; abridgement; ~[kāya] tiny, of tiny form; ~[koṇa] acute angle; ~[gaṇaka] logarithm; ~[citra] miniature; ~[cetā] low-minded, mean, parochial; -[taṃtrikā] nervule; ~[tama] minimum, lowest; smallest; •[samāpavartya] least common multiple (l.c.m.); ~[tara] smaller; lower; ~[tā/tva] insignificance; smallness; meanness; humiliation; •[kī bhāvanā] inferiority complex; ~[peśī] a follicle; ~[mati] fool, foolish; blockheaded; ~[rūpa/rūpī ~rūpacitra] miniature; -[rūpaka] a skit; ~[śaṃkā] urine; making water, urinating; •[karanā] to piss, to urinate; -[saṃskāraṇa] abridged edition, miniform; -[saptarṣi] ursa minor.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+239): Laghu acarya, Laghu nighantusara, Laghu saptashati, Laghu-Adanika, Laghubadara, Laghubhagavata, Laghubhaskariya, Laghubhava, Laghubhavaprakashika, Laghubhojana, Laghubhratri, Laghubhuj, Laghubhushanadarpana, Laghubhushanakanti, Laghubhutadruma, Laghubindushekhara, Laghubodha, Laghubodhini, Laghubrahmavaivarta, Laghubrahmi.
Full-text (+524): Laghukrita, Laghugarga, Laghukarana, Laghukri, Laghulaya, Laghuvasas, Laghumamsa, Laghishtha, Laghvahara, Laghuhasta, Laghustava, Parilaghu, Laghiyas, Alaghu, Nadika, Laghuhastavat, Laghuprayatnatara, Laghuvrittyavacurika, Laghuharitasmriti, Laghupanditiya.
Search found 37 books and stories containing Laghu, Laghū; (plurals include: Laghus, Laghūs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Twenty general physical attributes < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
The theory of five physical substances (pañcabhūta-siddhānta) < [Chapter 3 - Fundamental Theories]
Enumeration of attributes (guṇa) < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 3.4.35 < [Part 4 - Parenthood (vātsalya-rasa)]
Verse 3.4.31 < [Part 4 - Parenthood (vātsalya-rasa)]
Verse 3.3.121 < [Part 3 - Fraternal Devotion (sakhya-rasa)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Treatment for fever (93): Tridosha-davanala-kalamegha rasa < [Chapter II - Fever (jvara)]
Treatment for fever (3): Meghanada rasa < [Chapter II - Fever (jvara)]
Part 23 - Treatment of Udara-roga (20): Udara-martanda rasa < [Chapter VI - Diseases affecting the belly (udara-roga)]
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 3a - Guṇa (1): Mādhurya < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 4 - Style of the Maṅkhakośa text < [Chapter V - The Maṅkhakośa]
Part 4a - Chandas (1): Vṛtta type of metre (akṣarachandas) < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 2 - Purification of tuttha < [Chapter V - Uparasa (5-6): Tuttha and Sasyaka (copper sulphate)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)