Anubhava, Ānubhāva, Anubhāva: 19 definitions

Introduction

Anubhava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Jaiva-dharma

Anubhāva (अनुभाव) refers to one of the four ingredients of rasa.—Anubhāva refers to those visible symptoms that cause rati to become evident, and by which the bhāvas in the heart are realized. In other words, anubhāva consists of activities such as sidelong glances and hairs of the body standing on end, which are manifest as external bodily transformations, but which actually reveal the bhāvas of the heart. These internal bhāvas are revealed by the following outward expressions of agitation: dancing (nṛtya), rolling on the ground (viluṇṭhana), singing (gīta), crying out loudly (krośana), stretching the body and writhing (tanu-moṭana), roaring (huṅkāra), yawning (jṛmbhana), sighing and breathing deeply (dīrgha-śvāsa), indifference to public opinion (lokānapekṣitā), salivating (lālāsrāva), laughing loudly (aṭṭa-hāsa), dizziness (ghūrṇā), and hiccupping (hikkā).

The anubhāvas that arouse and nourish the vibhāvas then spread throughout the body in the form of udbhāsvara. As soon as the sthāyībhāva in the heart is stimulated by the vibhāva, anubhāva begins its function as another action of the heart. Thus anubhāva is a separate individual ingredient.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Anubhāva (अनुभाव) refers to “consequents”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31 and chapter 7, the “the sentiment (rasa) is produced (rasa-niṣpattiḥ) from a combination (saṃyoga) of Determinants (vibhāva), Consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāri-bhāva)”.

Accordingly, “[the word anubhāva is used] because this anubhāvayati (the spectators) [make them feel afterwards] the effect of the Histrionic Representation by means of Words, Gestures and the Sattva, it is called anubhāva (Consequent). As in it the play (lit. meaning) is anubhāvyate (made to be felt) by means of Words and Gestures, it is called anubhāva, and it relates to words as well as to gestures and movements of major and minor limbs.”

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Anubhāva (अनुभाव, “ensuants”) refers to the “outward manifestation of a person whose heart is full of emotions” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).—For example a side long or oblique glance is known as anubhāva in the sentiment of love. According to Abhinavagupta, the sthāyibhāva residing in a subdued form in the spectators or readers becomes aroused, being nourished by the vibhāvas, anubhāvas etc. transforms into rasa. The audience gets delighted with a continuous feeling of joy, which is known as carvaṇā or rasa. The vibhāvas and anubhāvas which are described by the poet give away their individual character and turn into general character by eliminating from them the character of individuality.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Anubhāva (अनुभाव, “consequents”) refers to one of the three main types of Bhāva (“psychological states of the mind”) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Bhāva infuses the meaning of the play into the hearts of the spectators. There are three states in bhāvas. They are vibhāva (determinant), anubhāva (consequents) and vyabhicāribhāva (transient state). The vibhāvas and the anubhāvas are closely connected to the world that is the human nature.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (A) next»] — Anubhava in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Anubhava (अनुभव, “apprehension”) refers to one of two types of Buddhi (cognition) according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—According to Annaṃbhaṭṭa, buddhi is of two kinds:—smṛti (remembrance) and anubhava (apprehension). Anubhava is that knowledge which is other than remembrance (smṛti). Thus it is a presentative knowledge. Anubhava is again divided into valid (yathārtha) and non-valid (ayathārtha). Valid knowledge is called pramā and the non-valid knowledge is called apramā.

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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Hindu Ritual at the Margins

Anubhāva (अनुभाव) is a technical Sanskrit term drawn from the classical dramatic tradition; it means the natural expression of some inner state (bhāva).

Source: Google Books: Mysticism, Fullness of Life

Anubhava (Sanskrit): experience, direct vision.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Anubhava (अनुभवः; anubhavaḥ) means–"direct perception or cognition", This word is derived from अनु (anu) (meaning–'after' or 'in consequence of') + भ(भु)व (bhava) (meaning-'causing' or 'experiencing').

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Anubhava (अनुभव, “experience”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—What is meant by experience (anubhava or anubhāga)? It is the distinctive and variegated ripening of the karmas producing feeling.

There are of two types of experience (anubhava or anubhāga), namely: own nature and other’s nature. What is meant by own nature’s experience? The karmas ripening for fruition in the same category (e.g. knowledge obscuring ripening to yield effects of knowledge obscuring karmas only and not of feeling etc karmas) as they were bonded is called own nature’s experience. What is meant by other’s nature experience? The karmas ripen for fruition in the different species than the one they were bonded due to other’s nature is called other’s nature experience (e.g. transformation is possible between any two sub species of the same main type of karma except life span determining karmas; conduct and faith deluding karmas yielding results due to other’s nature is possible). 

Which species of the karma can yield experience by own nature? All species yield experience due to their own nature only. Lifespan determining karmas; conduct and faith deluding karmas yield experience due to their own nature alone. The fruition of sub- human and human life is not possible from infernal life. Similarly conduct deluding karmas cannot yield experience of faith deluding karmas and vice versa. Which species of karmas can yield experience of other’s nature? Except lifespan determining karmas, conduct and faith deluding karmas; all sub species of same type of karmas can produce experience of other sub species nature.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Anubhava in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ānubhāva : (m.) power; splendour; majestic.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Anubhāva, (fr. anubhavati) orig. meaning “experience, concomitance” and found only in cpds. as —°, in meaning “experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience of, accordance with”, e.g. maha° sensation of greatness, rājâ° s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with kingship, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expressions of distinction there arises the meaning of anubhāva as “power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc.” & as such it was separated from the 1st component and taken as ānubhāva with ā instead of a, since the compositional character had obliterated the character of the a. As such (ānubhāva abs.) found only in later language. — (1) anubhāva (-°): mahānubhāva (of) great majesty, eminence, power S.I, 146 sq.; II, 274; IV, 323; Sn.p. 93; Pv.II, 112; PvA.76. deva° of divine power or majesty D.II, 12; devatā° id. J.I, 168; dibba° id. PvA.71, 110. rājā° kingly splendour, pomp D.I, 49; J IV 247; PvA.279 etc. —anubhāvena (Instr. —°) in accordance with, by means of J.II, 200 (aṅgavijjā°); PvA.53 (iddh°), 77 (kamma°), 148 (id.), 162 (rāja°), 184 (dāna°), 186 (puñña°). yathânubhāvaṃ (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (1 can); after ability, according to power S.I, 31; Vv 15 (= yathābalaṃ VvA.25). — (2) ānubhāva majesty power, magnificence, glory, splendour J.V, 10, 456; Pv.II, 811; VvA.14; PvA.43, 122, 272. See also ānu°. (Page 40)

— or —

Ānubhāva, (the dissociated composition form of anubhāva, q. v. for details. Only in later language) greatness, magnificence, majesty, splendour J.I, 69 (mahanto); II, 102 (of a jewel) V.491; DhA.II, 58. (Page 101)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

anubhava (अनुभव).—m (S) Experience; knowledge of through personal experience or observation. 2 Enjoyment or fruition; possession and use of.

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anubhāva (अनुभाव).—m S Dignity, majesty, authority, power, greatness. 2 One of the classes of bhāva (See bhāva, vibhāva, vyabhicārabhāva, sthāyībhāva) It is defined as rasācīṃ kāryēṃ The external signs of any sentiment or mental state; corporeal expression of passion or emotion; indication by action, gesture, or look.

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anubhava (अनुभव).—. Add:--3 Par excellence, Divine knowledge or intelligent fruition of God. Ex. gurūviṇa anubhava kaisā ṭhasē ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

anubhava (अनुभव).—m (also anubhūti f) Experience. Enjoyment or fruition, possession and use of.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Anubhava (अनुभव) or Anubhāva (अनुभाव).—&c. See under अनुभू (anubhū).

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Anubhava (अनुभव).—

1) Direct perception or cognition, knowledge derived from personal observation or experiment, notion, apprehension, the impression on the mind not derived from memory, one of the kinds of knowledge; सर्वव्यवहारहेतुर्ज्ञानं बुद्धिः । सा द्विविधा स्सृतिरनुभवश्च । संस्कारमात्र- जन्यं ज्ञानं स्मृतिः । तद्भिन्नं ज्ञानमनुभवः (sarvavyavahāraheturjñānaṃ buddhiḥ | sā dvividhā ssṛtiranubhavaśca | saṃskāramātra- janyaṃ jñānaṃ smṛtiḥ | tadbhinnaṃ jñānamanubhavaḥ) which again is यथार्थ (yathārtha) right & अयथार्थ (ayathārtha) wrong. See T. S.34. (The Naiyāyikas recognize pratyakṣa, anumāna, upamāna and śābda as the four sources of knowledge; the Vedāntins and Mīmāṃsakas add two more arthāpatti and anupalabdhi; the Vaiśeṣikas and Bauddhas admit the first two only, the Sāṅkhyas exclude upamāna, while the Chārvākas admit pratyakṣa only. Other sections of philosophical schools add three more to the six sources of knowledge recognised by the Mīmāṃsakas; -saṃbhava 'equivalence'; aitihya 'fallible testimony', and ceṣṭā 'gesture'.)

2) Experience; अनुभवं वचसा सखि लुम्पसि (anubhavaṃ vacasā sakhi lumpasi) N.4.15.

3) Understanding.

4) Result, consequence.

Derivable forms: anubhavaḥ (अनुभवः).

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Anubhāva (अनुभाव).—

1) Dignity, consequence or dignity of person, majestic lustre, splendour, might, power, authority. (parimeyapuraḥsarau) अनुभावविशेषात्तु सेनापरिवृताविव (anubhāvaviśeṣāttu senāparivṛtāviva) R.1.37; संभावनीयानुभावा अस्याकृतिः (saṃbhāvanīyānubhāvā asyākṛtiḥ) Ś.7; अनुभावसौभाग्यमात्रपरिशेष- धूसरश्री (anubhāvasaubhāgyamātrapariśeṣa- dhūsaraśrī) U.1,3;6.2;41,4.22, K.18,24; V.1; तवानुभावोऽयमवेदि यन्मया (tavānubhāvo'yamavedi yanmayā) Ki.1.6; Dk.29,113; दिव्यौषध्या जयति महिमा कोऽप्यचिन्त्यानुभावः (divyauṣadhyā jayati mahimā ko'pyacintyānubhāvaḥ) | Mv.6.53; अहो महानुभावः पार्थिवो दुष्यन्तः (aho mahānubhāvaḥ pārthivo duṣyantaḥ) Ś.3 of great might or power; जाने वो रक्षसाक्रान्तावनुभावपराक्रमौ (jāne vo rakṣasākrāntāvanubhāvaparākramau) R.1.38,2.75 greatness (dignity) &c., valour; न निहन्ति धैर्यमनुभावगुणः (na nihanti dhairyamanubhāvaguṇaḥ) Ki.6.28; महानुभावप्रकृतिः कापि तत एवागतवती (mahānubhāvaprakṛtiḥ kāpi tata evāgatavatī) Māl.1 very noble or dignified.

2) (In Rhet.) An external manifestation or indication of a feeling (bhāva) by appropriate symptoms, such as by look, gesture &c., called by some ensuant (bhāvabodhaka-na); भावं मनोगतं साक्षात् स्वगतं व्यञ्जयत्नि ये । तेऽनुभावा इति ख्याताः (bhāvaṃ manogataṃ sākṣāt svagataṃ vyañjayatni ye | te'nubhāvā iti khyātāḥ); यथा भ्रूभङ्गः कोपस्य व्यञ्जकः (yathā bhrūbhaṅgaḥ kopasya vyañjakaḥ); उद्बुद्धं कारणं स्वैः स्वैर्बहिर्भावं प्रकाशयन् । लोके यः कार्यरूपः सोऽ- नुभावः काव्यनाट्ययोः (udbuddhaṃ kāraṇaṃ svaiḥ svairbahirbhāvaṃ prakāśayan | loke yaḥ kāryarūpaḥ so'- nubhāvaḥ kāvyanāṭyayoḥ) || S. D.162,163. &c.; धिगेव रमणीयतां त्वदनुभावभावादृते (dhigeva ramaṇīyatāṃ tvadanubhāvabhāvādṛte) Māl.9.35.

3) Firm opinion or resolution, determination, belief; अनुभावांश्च जानासि ब्राह्मणानां न संशयः (anubhāvāṃśca jānāsi brāhmaṇānāṃ na saṃśayaḥ) Mb.3.24.8. अनुभाववता गुरुस्थिरत्वात् (anubhāvavatā gurusthiratvāt) Ki.13.15. cf. अनुभावः प्रभावे च सतां च मतिनिश्चये (anubhāvaḥ prabhāve ca satāṃ ca matiniścaye) Ak. also Nm.

Derivable forms: anubhāvaḥ (अनुभावः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ānubhāva (आनुभाव).—m. (= Pali id., Sanskrit anu°) dignity, power, greatness: SP 175.8 (verse) upapannu tasyo ayam ānubhāvo. Here ā could be m.c., but it is regular in Pali in prose as well as verse (see CPD s.v. anubhāva); the explanations in PTSD s.v. and Geiger 24 do not satisfy me.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anubhava (अनुभव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. Conclusive judgment, understanding, impression, the exercise of the intellect, independent of memory; also anubhūti. 2. Result, consequence. E. anu, bhū to be, and ac aff.

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Anubhāva (अनुभाव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. Indication of passion, by look or gesture. 2. Dignity, authority, consequence. 4. Firm opinion, belief, knowledge. 4. Certainty, ascertainment. E. anu, and bhāva the essence or being; according to the internal feelings.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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