Kala, aka: Kālā, Kāla, Kalā; 49 Definition(s)
- In Hinduism
- In Buddhism
- In Jainism
- Relevant definitions
- Relevant text
Kala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Following are the sixty four arts:
However, the list varies from text to text.Source: Google Books: Lalita Sahasranama
Kalā (कला) or Kalādhvā refers to one of the six adhvans being purified during the Kriyāvatī-dīkṣā: an important Śākta ritual described Śāradātilaka-tantra, chapters III-V.—“... Looking with the divine eye he transfers the caitanya of his disciple into himself and unites it with that of his own, thereby effecting a purification of the six adhvans namely: kalā, tattva, bhavana, varṇa, pada, and mantra”.
The word adhvā means ‘path’, and when the above six adhvans (viz. kalā) are purified they lead to Brahman-experience. Dīkṣā is one of the most important rituals of the Śāktas and so called because it imparts divine knowledge and destroys evil.
The Kalās are: Nivṛtti, Pratiṣṭhā, Vidyā, Śānti, and Śāntyatīta mentioned in Śāradātilaka I.26.Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
1) Kalā (कला):—First of the five factors of limitation (kañcuka) that occur in the second stage during the unity of Śiva and Śakti (subject and object). Their unity is initiated upon the cosmic process of creation.
2) Kāla (काल):—Fourth of the five factors of limitation (kañcuka) that occur in the second stage during the unity of Śiva and Śakti (subject and object). Their unity is initiated upon the cosmic process of creation.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Kāla (काल) is the name of a teacher to whom the Kāpālika doctrine was revelead, mentioned in the Śābaratantra. The disciple of Kāla is mentioned as being Hariścandra. The Śābara-tantra is an early tantra of the Kāpālika sect containing important information about the evolution of the Nātha sect. It also lists the twelve original Kāpālika teachers (eg., Kāla). Several of these names appear in the Nātha lists of eighty-four Siddhas and nine Nāthas.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
1) Kalā: is normally the omnipotence of Siva, the power to do anything (Sarva Kartrtva) in this universe and also the Light of His Consciousness. KalA of the individual soul behaves as if its ability is severely restricted by the Maya. There is limited capacity to action, limited capacity for knowing, and impure knowledge. Abhi says that Siva goes into deep sleep (supthasthanin) and thus in his individual soul form, he is incapable of any action. The Kancuka KalA comes to his rescue and gives him a limited capacity for action and a limited knowledge.
2) Kāla: Siva has no Time element in Him; He is eternal. The individual soul has become subject to time, past, present and future.Source: bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism
Kalā (कला), the primary adhvan, has five modes that constitute the entire framework of evolution from the transcendental to the phenomenal. They are:
- śāntyātīta, transcendent pacific;
- śānti, pacific;
- vidyā, knowing;
- pratiṣṭhā, establishing;
- nivṛtti, obscuring.
Corresponding ta the five kalādhavans of siva, divine agency, are five modes of śākti, divine instrumentality:
- parāśakti, transcendent;
- ādiśakti, originant;
- icchāśakti, intentiona1;
- jñānaśakti, knowing (discerning);
- kriyāśakti, active.
Of these, the latter three are modes of causality in cosmic evolution.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)
Kāla (काल) is the name of a deity who was imparted with the knowledge of the Sahasrāgama by Sadāśiva through parasambandha, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The sahasra-āgama, being part of the ten Śivabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.
Kāla in turn transmitted the Sahasrāgama (through mahānsambandha) to Bhīma, who then transmitted it to Dharma who then, through divya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Sahasrāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)
1) Kalā (कला, “membrane”) refers to the intermediary septa (a dividing wall or partition) between dhātu and āśaya. They are seven in number. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.
2) Kāla (काल) is another name (synonym) for Kāsamarda, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Cassia occidentalis (septicweed). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 4.171-172), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Kāla (काल, “time”):—According to position of the sun e.g. summer solstice and winter solstice (uttarāyaṇa and dakṣiṇāyana) the year is divided into two—ādāna and visarga. In the former the sun is dominant and as such draws out the nutrient essence of the living being, while in the latter the moon is predominant releasing the same to them. According to features, tme is divided into three—cold, hot and rainy which have variations in different geographical regions.
Again there are six seasons in a year—
Visarga (‘release’) phase:
- Varṣā (‘rainy’),
- Śarad (‘autumn’)
- and Hemanta (‘early winter’).
Ādāna (‘accumulation’) phase:
- Śiśira (‘late winter’),
- Vasanta (‘spring’)
- and Grīṣma (‘summer’).
Kala is a unique Ayurveda concept explained by Sushrutacharya in Sushruta samhita. Seven kalas are present in the body. Kalas are the covering between dhatu and Aashay. These are extremely minute particles and invisible to naked eye, similar to cells. They can be understood by their functions in the body. The specif ic kalas are located at specific sites. We can co-relate kalas as formative elements similar to the cell.
Even though Kalas are explained in embryonic life they are found to be functioning throughout the life. Reference of ‘Kalas’ are also found in kalpa sthana during the treatment (chikitsa) of snake bite. Hence we can say that kalas are present and functioning in the body from the time of birth up t o the end of the life.
We can correlate the kalas structurally with fascia, septum, fibrous membrane; mucous membrane or serous membrane but functionally, we can correlate them with cells or formative elements.Source: Internation Journal of Ayurveda: Basic concept of Kala (membrane)
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Kāla (काल):—Period of 90 minutes is one Kāla (as in kālachakra). The exact lunar transit in one kāla (90min) is 0°50’ arc.Source: Daivi Varnashram: Nakṣatra Gaṇḍānta
Kalā (कला).—A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a muhūrta. 2. In the Jyotiṣa vedāṅga, a time unit equal to 201/20 of a ghaṭikā. 3. Minute of Arc. Note: Kalā is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Kalā (कला):—The basic meaning of kalā is “a part”, especially “sixteenth part of the moon” (e.g. Bṛhadāraṇyakopaniṣad 1.5.14). The moon waxes and wanes in periods of fifteen days; each day it gains or loses one kalā. The sixteenth kalā is the amṛtakalā which never dies, even at the dark of the moon.
Kalā can also mean “tongue” and, in tantric descriptions of the phonematic emanation of reality, “vowel”.Source: Google Books: The Khecarividya of Adinatha
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Kalā (कला) refers to a “unit of the time measure in music” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5.
2a) Kāla (काल) is a Sanskrit word referring to “time”. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.88-93, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga). As such, Brahmā assigned Kāla and Kṛtānta to the door complex (entrance, dvāraśālā). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.
2b) Kāla (काल), as a deity, is to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Kāla).
3) Kala (कल) refers to one of the four kinds of vyañjana (indication), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Vyañjana represents one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), which relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “kala is touching a string simultaneously with the two thumbs”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kāla (काल).—The three kinds of units of measure (kāla) that were employed in the Gandharva Music were:
- laghu (short),
- guru (long)
- and pluta (extended).
Laghu is equal to one matra; Guru to two matras; and Pluta to three matras.Source: Sreenivasarao’s blog: Music of India
Kāla refers to “time-measure” (past, present, and future) and is related to the tradition of Kūttu (dance) as defined in the the first book of the Pañcamarapu (‘five-fold traditional usage’) which deals with niruttam (dance, one of the sixty–four arts) and represents an important piece of Tamil literature.—To keep the rhythm at a particular level and then proceed, to dance the exact dance relevant to its rhythm when rhythm comes to sama, and to dance one or two counts beyond are referred to the past, present and future kālaSource: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kāla (काल, “death and time”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Kālavināyaka, Kālagaṇeśa and Kālavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Kāla is positioned in the North-Eastern corner of the fifth circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “at the steps of Ramaghat, K 24 / 10”. Worshippers of Kāla will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the remover of fear from death and strife”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18843, Lon. 83.00996 (or, 25°11'18.4"N, 83°00'35.9"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Kāla, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purāṇa
Kāla (काल).—One of the eleven rākṣasas facing the eleven rudras in the battle of the gods (devas) between the demons (asuras), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 94. This battle was initiated by Mahiṣāsura in order to win over the hand of Vaiṣṇavī, the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Kāla (काल)—One of the eleven other names of Rudra, according to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa 3.12.12.Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Kalā (कला).—A measure of time. See under Kālamāna.
2) Kāla (काल).—(yama) * The god of Death. When the life span of each living being allotted by Brahmā is at an end Yama sends his agents and takes the soul to Yamapurī (the city of Yama). From there, the holy souls are sent to Vaikuṇṭha (Heaven, the abode of Viṣṇu) and the sinful souls to Hell. Genealogy and birth of Yama. From Mahāviṣṇu were descended in the following order—Brahmā, Marīci, Kaśyapa, Sūrya (Sun), Yama (Kāla).
3) Kāla (काल).—A Maharṣi. Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 14, refers to this sage as offering worship to Indra, in Indra’s assembly.
4) Kālā (काला).—A daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. (See under Kālikā).
5) Kāla (काल).—See under the word Kālamāna.
6) Kala (कल).—A group of Manes. This group lives in the Brahmasabhā. (Chapter 11, Śānti Parva).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 34. 70.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 13; 70. 15; Matsya-purāṇa 34. 9.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 216.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 6; 100. 218; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 8; II. 8. 59; VI. 3. 6.
- 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 179; 93. 72; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 19; 13. 14.
1b) A Janapada of the Ketumāla country.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 15.
1c) Digits of Soma recovered by propitiating Dakṣa:1 one-sixteenth part.
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 34. 9; 142. 4.
2a) Kalā (कला).—A svara śakti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 57.
2b) A daughter of Kardama married to Marīci; bore two sons, Kaśyapa and Pūrṇiman.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 24. 22; IV. 1. 13.
3a) Kāla (काल).—Time as the phase of the Universal Spirit.1 Is īśvara, and only rūpabheda.2 Lord of creation and destruction; fearful to look at.3 Vanquished by Kṛṣṇa;4 makes and unmakes things by keeping all things under control.5
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 6. 4; 11. 6; 13. 45; II. 10. 43; VIII. 17. 27.
- 2) Ib. III. 12. 12; 29. 4, 37 & 45; X. 51. 19.
- 3) Ib. IV. 12. 3; Vāyu-purāṇa 32. 11, 22.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 3. 10; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 82; Vāyu-purāṇa 32. 29.
- 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 38. 55-64.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 128; Matsya-purāṇa 93. 14; 213. 5 & 18.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 32. 8-67.
- 3) Ib. 21. 52, 73.
3c) A son of Dhanva; a Vasava; a Viśvedeva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 23, 30; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 23; 203. 4; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 21, 31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 111.
3d) A Bhairva god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 20. 82.
3e) One from brahman; see also Avyakta.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 2. 14, 15 and 27.
3f) A mountain west of the Sitoda lake.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 27.
3g) Division of time—Paramāṇu defined:*
- * 1 Yuga make 5 years.
1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. ch. 11 (whole); Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 58; 13. 109; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 179-82; 97. 30-31.based on Sūrya. 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 24; 53. 39.
4a) Kālā (काला).—A goddess enshrined at Candrabhāgā.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 49.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)
Kāla (काल, “time”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Kāla (काल, “time”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). In the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika philosophy, kāla is admitted as sixth dravya. The reality of kāla as an entity is accepted by this philosophy. It is not perceptible. But it is real and objective. It is known as only one, omnipresent, eternal and the foundation of all events.
Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines kāla as the special cause of the employment of words such as past, present etc. It is a very simple definition and best appropriate for all practical purposes. That action which is already completed, is known as past, which action is going on, that is present and action which has not started yet that is future. Viśvanātha mentions in his work the definition of kāla as: “time is the cause of things that are produced and is considered to be the substratum of the universe. It is the cause of the notion of priority and posteriority. It is converted into a moment etc. owing to its limiting adjuncts. Kāla is the cause of all produced things and it is the foundation of the universe. It is the cause of all effects. Moreover, kāla is the cause of the knowledge of priority and posteriority”.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Kāla (काल, “time”) is a type tuṣṭi (complacence), classified internal (ādhyātmika) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. Tuṣṭi refers to a category of pratyayasarga (intellectual products), which represents the first of two types of sarga (products) that come into being during tattvapariṇāma (elemental manifestations), which in turn, evolve out of the two types of pariṇāma (change, modification).
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)
Kāla (काल, “time”) refers to one of the six factors through which positive ethical precepts (regarding Dharma) are conditioned. The discerning student is required to distinguish between grades of vidhi or to compare their levels of authority or applicability. The primary distinction is derived from their motivation and goals, thus producing the concepts of puruṣārtha and kratvārtha.Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Kāla (काल).—Time notion in general expressed in connection with an activity in three ways: past, present and future.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Kala (कल).—A fault of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounced; cf. संवृतः कलो ध्मातः (saṃvṛtaḥ kalo dhmātaḥ) ... रोमश इति (romaśa iti) cf.also निवृत्तकलादिकामवर्णस्य प्रत्यापत्तिं वक्ष्यामि (nivṛttakalādikāmavarṇasya pratyāpattiṃ vakṣyāmi) M.Bh. Āhnika 1.
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Kāla (काल).—Notion of time created by different contacts made by a thing with other things one after another. Time required for the utterance of a short vowel is taken as a unit of time which is called मात्रा (mātrā) or कालमात्रा (kālamātrā), lit. measurement of time; (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels being looked upon as possessed of three degrees ह्रस्व,दीर्घ (hrasva, dīrgha),& प्लुत (pluta) measured respectively by one, two and three mātrās; cf. ऊकालो (ūkālo)Sझ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (jhrasvadīrghaplutaḥ) P.I.2.27; (3) time notion in general, expressed in connection with an activity in three ways past (भूत (bhūta)), present (वर्तमान (vartamāna)), and future (भविष्यत् (bhaviṣyat)) to show which the terms भूता, वर्तमाना (bhūtā, vartamānā) and भविष्यन्ती (bhaviṣyantī) were used by ancient grammarians; cf the words पूर्वकाल, उत्तरकाल (pūrvakāla, uttarakāla); also cf. पाणि-न्युपज्ञमकालकं व्याकरणम् (pāṇi-nyupajñamakālakaṃ vyākaraṇam) Kāś. on P. II. 4.21 ; (4) place of recital (पाठदेश (pāṭhadeśa)) depending on the time of recital, cf. न परकालः पूर्वकाले पुनः (na parakālaḥ pūrvakāle punaḥ) (V.Pr.III. 3) a dictum similar to Pāṇini's पूर्वत्रा-सिद्धम् (pūrvatrā-siddham) P. VIII.2.1.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Kāla (काल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.33, I.65, I.60.20) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kāla) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Kālā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.12, I.65).Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Katha (narrative stories)
1) Kāla (काल) is the name of a Brāhman from a former Kalpa, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 45. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya said to king Candraprabha in a temple in Pātāla: “in a former Kalpa there was a certain Brāhman, of the name of Kāla. He went to the holy bathing-place Puṣkara and muttered prayers day and night. While he was muttering, two myriads of years of the gods passed away. Then there appeared a great light inseparable from his head, which, streaming forth in the firmament like ten thousand suns, impeded the movement of the Siddhas and others there, and set the three worlds on fire”.
The story of Kāla was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
2) Kāla (काल) is the name of an Asura who was reborn as Vītabhīti: one of Sūryaprabha’s friends, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 45. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Maya, Sunītha and Sūryaprabha: “... and the other Asuras, who were your companions, have been born as his friends; for instance,... his present friend Vītabhīti was in a former birth a foe of the gods, named Kāla”.
The story of Kāla was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kāla, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Kāla (काल, “time”):—One of the epiteths of Yama, the vedic God of death, who is the embodiment of Dharma. Yama rules over the kingdom of the dead and binds humankind according to the fruits of their karma.Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Kalā means performing art in Sanskrit.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
The concept of kalā is refractory to easy understanding. Sometimes it means just ‘force’ which evolves into the world under the direction of Parashiva; sometimes it is said to be the purer form of the Shakti, the raw material of the world. Occasionally it stands for the spiritual force, which makes a mystic (śivayogi) what he is. While most of Vachana-writers recognise only five kalās, namely,
- śānti-kalā and
Tōntada Siddhalinga śivayogi recognises a sixth, namely, śāntyatītottarā-kalā.Source: Lingayat: Kalas and Shakti
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Kala - Son of Anathapindika - As he showed no signs of piety his father, feeling very distressed, made a solemn promise to give him a thousand if he kept the fast day. Kala won the money, and the next day he was promised a thousand if he would listen to the Buddha preaching and learn a single verse of the Dhamma. He listened to the Buddhas sermon, but by the will of the Buddha he could not keep in mind a single verse until the sermon came to an end. He then became a sotapanna and accompanied the Buddha and the monks to his fathers house. There, when in the presence of them all Anathapindika gave Kala the money, he refused to accept it, and the Buddha explained what had happened. DhA.iii.189ff
2. Kala - An Elder. A certain woman ministered to him as though he were her son, but when she expressed her desire to see the Buddha, Kala tried to dissuade her from doing so. One day she visited the Buddha without telling Kala of her intention, and when he learnt where she had gone he hurried to the Buddha and tried to prevent him from preaching to her, in case she should stop caring for him. DhA.iii.155f
3. Kala - Minister of Pasenadi. He was grieved when the king spent his fortune in giving alms to the Buddha and his monks at the Asadisa dana ; the Buddha, knowing his thoughts, spoke but a single stanza by way of thank offering at the end of the dana lest Kalas head should split in seven pieces in anger. When the king learnt, on inquiry, why the Buddha had so acted, he dismissed Kala from his service. DA.ii.654f; DhA.iii.186-8; also ii.89.
4. Kala - An Elder of Kosala. He joined the Order in his old age and lived in the forest with his friend Junha. Once the question arose between them as to which part of the month was cold, and being unable to decide the question, they sought the Buddha, who preached to them the Maluta Jataka (q.v.). (J.i.165)
5. Kala. The name given by his wife to the Ajivaka Upaka (ThigA.i.223) because he was dark in complexion (ThigA.i.226).
6. Kala - King of the Nagas; see Mahakala.
7. Kala - A young stag, son of the Bodhisatta; a previous birth of Devadatta. The story is given in the Lakkhana Jataka. J.i.142f
8. Kala - See Kalahatthi.
9. Kala - One of the Nirayas. J.vi.248.
10. Kala - A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in a list of Pacceka Buddhas. M.iii.70; ApA.i.107.
11. Kala - Brother of Pasenadi, king of Kosala. Dvy.153.
12. Kala - See also Cullakala, Maha Kala and Kaludayi.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
M (Moment, period). / time (how many)Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
Kala means time.Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Kāla (काल) is another name for Vaivasvata: protector deity of the southern cremation ground.—Yama is associated with the south and with the sun (vivasvat, descended from Sūrya), hence he is also Vaivasvata (Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 34) or “Yamavaivasvata”. He is also god of death, Kāla, whose agents brings departed souls to Yamapurī. Iconographically, the Śmaśānavidhi describes Yama as mounted on a buffalo (mahiṣārūḍha), black, red-eyed, fat, fearsome, holding a stick/cudgel (daṇḍa) and a skull bowl.Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Kalā (कला) refers to knowledge regarding the “sixty-four arts”, having its roots in the four Vedas, according Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Accordingly, at the time of the Buddha, the knowledge regarding the “sixty-four arts” (kalā) was commonly exchanged between Brahmins and cow-herders.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)
Kāla (काल) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to both the Digambara and Śvetāmbara traditions of Jainism. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).
The deities such as Kālas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara traditionSource: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Kāla (काल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Kāla] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Time; Also see: Kala Dravya.Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism
Kāla (काल, “time”).—What is the meaning of ‘continuity /time’ (kāla)? Duration of the existence of an entity is called time.
According to Tattvārthasūtra 1.8, “the categories and their details are undefrstood in detail in terms of existence, number (enumeration), place or abode, extent of space touched (pervasion), continuity /time (kāla), interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparison”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Kāla (काल) refers to one of the two Indras (lords) of the Piśāca class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a main division of devas (celestial beings) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.6. Kāla and Mahākāla are the two lords in the class ‘goblin’ peripatetic celestial beings.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Kāla (काल, “time”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—Now many types of time (kāla) are there? There are two types of time, namely transcendental and practical time. What are the characteristics of the transcendental and practical types of time? The characteristic of transcendental time is vartanā. The characteristics of practical time are pariṇāma, kriyā, paratva and aparatva. How many types of practical time are there? It is of three types namely past, present and future.
According to, “time (kāla) also is a substance (dravya)”. What is duration of the substance time (kāla)? It is of infinite period duration. Why is time also said to be substance? Time is called a substance because all the characteristics of a substance are found in it. What is the peculiar characteristic of time? Hour, minutes etc are the characteristics of practical time while its ability to support change /transformation of all other substances is the characteristic from transcendental viewpoint. What are the distinguishing and generic attributes of time? Ability to support change /transformation of all other substances is its distinguishing attribute while absence of consciousness, taste, touch etc are its generic attributes long with all the generic attributes of a substance.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
kala : (m.) a sweet low sound. || kalā (f.), a fraction of a whole; an art. kāla (m.), time. kāḷa (adj.), black; dark. (m.), black colour.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Kalā, (1a). a small fraction of a whole, generally the 16th part; the 16th part of the moon’s disk; often the 16th part again subdivided into 16 parts and so on: one infinitesimal part (see VvA. 103; DhA. II, 63), in this sense in the expression kalaṃ nâgghati soḷasiṃ “not worth an infinitesimal portion of”=very much inferior to S. I, 19; III, 156=V. 44=It. 20; A. I, 166, 213; IV, 252; Ud. 11; Dh. 70; Vv 437; DhA. II, 63 (=koṭṭhāsa) DhA. IV, 74.—
(1b). an art, a trick (lit. part, turn) J. I, 163. -kalaṃ upeti to be divided or separated Miln. 106; DhA. I, 119; see sakala.—In cpd. with bhū as kalī —bhavati to be divided, broken up J. I, 467 (=bhijjati). Cp. vikala. (Page 198. Kāḷa, see kāla 1. (Page 212)
2) Kāla, (and Kāḷa) — Preliminary. (2a). dark (syn. kaṇha, which cp. for meaning and applications), black, blueblack, misty, cloudy. Its proper sphere of application is the dark as opposed to light, and it is therefore characteristic of all phenomena or beings belonging to the realm of darkness, as the night, the new moon, death, ghosts, etc.
(2b). the morning mist, or darkness preceding light, daybreak, morning (cp. E. morning=Goth. maúrgins twilight, Sk. marka eclipse, darkness; and also gloaming= gleaming=twilight), then: time in general, esp. a fixed time, a point from or to which to reckon, i.e. term or terminus (a quo or ad quem).
3) Kāḷa, dark, black, etc., in enumn of colours;
4) Kāla time, etc.;
(4.a) Morning: kāle early Pv. II, 941 (=pāto PvA. 128), kālassa in the morning (Gen. of time), early VvA. 256. Cp. paccūsa-kāle at dawn DhA. III, 242. Opposed to evening or night in kāḷena in the morning Pv. I, 63 (opp. sāyaṃ). Kāle juṇhe by day and by night Nd2 631.
(4.b) time in general;
(4.c) Time in special, either (1) appointed time, date, fixed time, or (2) suitable time, proper time, good time, opportunity. Cp. Gr. kairiζ and w(=ra; or (3) time of death, death. ‹-›
Proper time, right time: also season, as in utu° favourable time (of the year);
- The day, as appointed by fate or kamma, point of time (for death), the “last hour”;
Note: this is an except of the full article on Kalā, Kāla, Kāḷa.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
kala (कल).—m (S) Inclination, bearing, tendency; bent or leaning towards lit. fig.; inclining or propension of mind or will; bent of genius or disposition. 2 Turn or commencement of decline (of the day, a malady, a paroxysm, a flood or any exorbitance). v khā. kala pāhūna vāgaṇēṃ g. of o. To conduct one's self with obsequious conformity to the will of; to steer according to the wind. 2 To observe the bearing and requirement of the times &c.
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kalā (कला).—f (S) An art (as writing, reading, singing, riding); a mechanical art, of which sixty-four are enumerated. See causaṣṭakalā. 2 The art (as of an ingenious contrivance); the plan of its construction, the mode of its operation, the manner of applying or using it; the secret trick, key, spring, turning pin. 3 Skill, ingenuity, cleverness. Ex. tukā mhaṇē hyācī kōṇa jāṇē kalā || vāgavī pāṅguḷā pāyāṃviṇēṃ. 4 A digit, or one-sixteenth of the moon's diameter. Used in translations for Phase. 5 A division of time; nearly equal to 8 seconds. 6 A 1&2044;60th or minute of a degree. 7 (A sixteenth or a smaller part.) A whit, jot, tittle, grain, particle. 8 Freshness, clearness, comeliness, grace, lustre (of the countenance or person): also cleanness, tidiness, trimness (of places). Pr. gharācī kaḷā āṅgaṇa sāṅgatēṃ.
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kaḷa (कळ).—f Sharp lancinating pain (in the head, belly, or trunk gen.) v uṭha, hō See dhamaka.
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kaḷa (कळ).—f (kalā S) Any little contrivance wherewith to shut and open, to close and unclose; as a stopcock, doorball or lockhandle &c. 2 The art, plan, trick, secret (of a machine or device). See kalā for this sense. kaḷa dābaṇēṃ To press the spring; to touch the home or seat or prime fountain of.
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kaḷa (कळ).—f (kalaha S) Quarreling, brawling, contending. v kāḍha. Pr. bōlatā kaḷa dhutā maḷa Quarrel is aggravated by speaking (answering again): dirt is brought out by washing.
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kaḷā (कळा).—m (kalī S) A large kaḷī or bud: an ornamental bud-form knob (as that of the handle of cauphulā &c. &c.): a large kaḷī in some other senses. See kaḷī, of which word this is the intensive or enhancing form. 2 From kalā and used in all its senses.
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kāla (काल).—n The tender core of the lower part of the stem of kēḷakūla.
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kāla (काल).—m (S) Time. 2 Season or fit time. 3 A calamitous period. 4 A name of Yama, the Judge of the dead or Death personified; and applied to any thing formidable, endangering life, as a serpent, tiger &c.; to any danger; and to death or dissolution, or to the hour of it. 5 The will or decrees of the Supreme Being. kāladēśatārtamya karaṇēṃ & kāla dēśa pāhūna karāvēṃ or varttāvēṃ To act with regard to the proprieties of time, place, and circumstances. kāla sādhaṇēṃ To bring about or hit the favorable or fit time.
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kāla (काल).—n & ad Yesterday.
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kālā (काला).—m (kālaviṇēṃ) Bread, rice &c. squeezed up into a mass with buttermilk or curds. 2 A preparation from pompion-scrapings variously peppered and salted. 3 Elliptically for dahīṅkālā.
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kāḷa (काळ).—m See kāla and its numerous compounds. 2 (kāla Death.) A term for a widely-consuming or destroying person or thing. Ex. hī mulagī kharcāsa kāḷa āhē; hā tupāsa kāḷa-tēlāsa kāḷa-lāka- ḍāsa kāḷa &c. Pr. kuṛhāḍīcā dāṇḍā gōtālā kāḷa. Pr. khāṇyālā kāḷa bhūmīlā bhāra. Pr. māratyācā gulāma paḷatyācā kāḷa. kāḷōkāḷa bhaviṣyati (A phrase from the Sanskrit kālēkālē bhaviṣyati) It will be some time or other. kāḷācī gāṇḍa māraṇēṃ To kill time. kāḷācyā tōṇḍī dēṇēṃ or ghālaṇēṃ (& v i -paḍaṇēṃ-jāṇēṃ-sāmpaḍaṇēṃ) or kāḷācyā dāḍhēnta dēṇēṃ &c. To give, bring, sink &c. into the jaws of death, the brink of the grave &c. To cast (or fall) into great peril or evil; to kill or to die. kāḷāvara dṛṣṭa dēṇēṃ or ṭhēvaṇēṃ To have regard to one's destiny or necessity; to conform to one's condition or circumstances. kāḷa ālā hōtā paṇa vēḷa ālī navhatī (Death came, but not the Time. A paronomasia upon kāḷa in its two senses.) Escape from some extreme peril. kāḷa vinmukha hōṇēṃ, kāḷānēṃ ghēraṇēṃ, or vēḍhā ghāḷaṇēṃ To be adverse; to beleaguer &c.--one's fortune. kāḷānēṃ ōḍhaṇēṃ or bōlāviṇēṃ Expresses the drawing of destiny (to the death or evil appointed). kāḷānēṃ hātīṃ dharaṇēṃ To become favorable unto. kāḷānēṃ māgēṃ pāhaṇēṃ To change unfavorably; to turn against.
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kāḷā (काळा).—a (kalā S) Black. kāḷēṃ karaṇēṃ (For tōṇḍa kāḷēṃ karaṇēṃ) To take one's self off; to make one's self scarce: also to run off into concealment; to abscond. kāḷyācē pāṇḍharē hōṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's black hairs turning gray; to be getting old. pāṇḍhaṛyāñcē kāḷē hōṇēṃ g. of s. To turn back, in hoary age, to the lewd courses of youth. 2 To decline from one's integrity or propriety.
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kāḷā (काळा).—m (Because black.) A covert term for the marking nut.
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kāḷā (काळा).—m (kālā. So named because he is black.) A name of terror or of disdain for Yama. Ex. manānta parama hōtasē kaṣṭī || mhaṇē kāḷyānēṃ ithēṃ ghētalī pāṭhī ||. Also a name of the black idol viṭhṭhala at Panḍharpur. Ex. kāḷyāpuḍhēṃ nṛtya karīta || agaḍadhūta miḷavūniyā ||. Applied also angrily or scornfully to the god Krishn̤a.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kala (कल).—m Inclination, bearing, tendency; turn of decline (of the day, &c.)., kala pāhūna vāgaṇēṃ Steer according to the wind. kala khāṇēṃ To be on the decline- a malady, &c.
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kalā (कला).—f Skill. An art. A digit. A division of time. Amiminute (of an arc).
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kaḷa (कळ).—f Sharp, lancinating pain. Any little contrivance. The secret of a machine. Quarrelling. kaḷa lāvaṇēṃ Breed a quarrel. kaḷa dābaṇēṃ To press the spring, to touch the home.
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kaḷā (कळा).—m A large bud. f An art, &c. See kalā.
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kāla (काल).—m Time, season; app. to anything endangering life-as a tiger, &c.; to death. ad Yesterday.
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kālā (काला).—m Bread, rice, &c., squeezed up into a mass with curds.
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kāḷa (काळ).—m A term for a widely-consuming person or thing. See kāla. kāḷa ālā hōtā paṇa vēḷa ālī navhatī Just had a narrow escape from some disaster.
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kāḷā (काळा).—a Black. kāḷēṃ karaṇēṃ Take one's self off; abscond. kāḷyācē pāṇḍharē hōṇēṃ Be getting old.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
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Search found 112 books and stories containing Kala, Kālā, Kāla or Kalā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 7 - The glory of Time (kāla) < [Section 7.1 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (1)]
Chapter 8 - The span of life of the trinity < [Section 7.1 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (1)]
Chapter 5 - The Principles of Śiva cult < [Section 7.1 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (1)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 5 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 4 - Śaiva Philosophy according to Bhoja and his commentators < [Chapter XXXVIII - Śaiva Philosophy in some of the Important texts]
Part 4 - Mataṅga-parameśvara-tantra < [Chapter XXXIV - Literature of Southern Śaivism]
Part 5 - Pauṣkarāgama < [Chapter XXXIV - Literature of Southern Śaivism]
Lalitopakhyana (Lalita Mahatmya) (by G.V. Tagare)
Tarasara Upanishad of Shukla-Yajurveda (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)