Parusha, Parūṣa: 21 definitions


Parusha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Parūṣa can be transliterated into English as Parusa or Parusha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Paruṣa (परुष).—A Rākṣasa (demon). He was one among the twelve demons who supported Khara when the latter fought against Śrī Rāma. (Sarga 26, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Parūṣa (परूष) refers to Grewia asiatica, and is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., parūṣa (Grewia asiatica)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., picumandabīja (nimb tree)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Paruṣa (परुष):—Rough; the property of the substance which causes hardness

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Paruṣa (परुष) refers to a “sharp-rayed lunar disc”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the lunar disc be of ashy colour, of sharp rays [i.e., paruṣa] or red, or rayless, or red black, or appear broken there will be fear of hunger, of war, of disease and of robbers. If the lunar disc should appear white and of the colour of the snow, of Kunda, of Kumuda and of crystal he brings prosperity on the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Paruṣa (परुष) refers to “harsh (words)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, they [the twenty-four types of pratibhāna—‘eloquence’] are accomplished by means of the following twenty-four preparations (parikarma). What are the twenty-four? [...] (13) he becomes one who has unassailable eloquence since he never despise the poor, the suffering and the unprotected; (14) he becomes one who has imperishable eloquence on teaching the analysis of words since he applies himself to the dharma of others and gives imperishable treasures; (15) he becomes one whose eloquence is luminous and splendid since he is endowed with the actions of true words, complete words, and no harsh word (paruṣa-vacana); [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Paruṣa (परुष) refers to “harsh (speech)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Speech that is untrue [and] harsh (paruṣa), that is the abode of censure [and] gives instruction about the wrong path, is to be considered to produce bad influx of karma. One who is restrained continually accumulates good karma by the activity of the body through his body which is well-controlled or by abandoning the body”.

Synonyms: Kaṭhora.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Parusa in India is the name of a plant defined with Grewia asiatica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices.

2) Parusa in Indonesia is also identified with Abrus precatorius It has the synonym Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight, nom. illeg. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1995)
· Familles des Plantes (1763)
· Revue de zoologie et de botanique africaines (1932)
· Commentariorum de Plantis Africae Australioris (1836)
· Systema Naturae, (1767)
· Contributions from the United States National Herbarium (1905)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Parusa, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parūṣa (परूष).—a S Harsh, rough, violent--speech. 2 Cruel, rugged, savage--a person or an act.

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parūsa (परूस).—n An enclosure around a house; a compound or yard, esp. the back part.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paruṣa (परुष).—a Harsh, rough. Cruel, rugged.

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parusa (परुस).—n An enclosure around a house.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paruṣa (परुष).—a. [pṝ-uṣan]

1) Hard, rough, rugged, stiff (opp. mṛdu or ślakṣṇa); परुषं चर्म, परुषा माला (paruṣaṃ carma, paruṣā mālā) &c.

2) Harsh, abusive, severe, unkind, cruel, stern (as words); (vāk) अपरुषा परुषाक्षरमीरिता (aparuṣā paruṣākṣaramīritā) R.9.8; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.5; said also of a person; स्निग्धे यत् परुषासि (snigdhe yat paruṣāsi) Gītagovinda 9; Y.1.31.

3) Harsh or disagreeable to the ear (as a sound &c.); तेन वज्रपरुषस्वनं धनुः (tena vajraparuṣasvanaṃ dhanuḥ) R.11.46; Meghadūta 63.

4) Rough, coarse, rough to the touch, shaggy (as hair); शुद्धस्नानात् परुष- मलकम् (śuddhasnānāt paruṣa- malakam) Meghadūta 92.

5) Sharp, violent, strong, keen, piercing (wind &c.); निर्गच्छतस्तु शक्रस्य परुषः पवनो ववौ (nirgacchatastu śakrasya paruṣaḥ pavano vavau) Rām.7.28. 28; परुषपवनवेगोत्क्षिप्तसंशुष्कपर्णः (paruṣapavanavegotkṣiptasaṃśuṣkaparṇaḥ) Rs.1.22;2.28.

6) Gross.

7) Dirty.

8) Spotted, variegated.

9) Ved. Knotted.

1) Similar; L. D. B.

-ṣam A harsh or abusive speech, abuse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paruṣa (परुष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ) 1. Harsh, abusive, (speech.) 2. Rough, rugged. 3. Severe, cruel, unkind. 4. Variegated in colour. 5. Shaggy, rough to the touch. 6. Sharp, piercing. n.

(-ṣaṃ) 1. Harsh and contumelious speech, abuse. 2. Yellow Barleria. m.

(-ṣaḥ) A sort of tree, (Xylocarpus granatum.) E. pṝ to fill or satisfy, uṣan Unadi aff.

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Parūṣa (परूष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) The Parush tree: see paruṣa; also with kan added parūṣaka. E. pṝ-ūṣan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paruṣa (परुष).—i. e. parus + a, adj., f. ṣā. 1. Knotty, huge, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 142. 2. Variegated, spotted. 3. Soiled, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 71, 34. 4. Rough, rugged, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 4, 308. 5. Harsh, Mahābhārata 1, 7090. 6. Severe, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1314. 7. Coarse, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 309.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paruṣa (परुष).—([feminine] old paruṣṇī) knotty (reed), bristly, shaggy (hair); spotted, many-coloured, dirty; piercing, keen, rough, harsh. —[masculine] reed, arrow; [feminine] paruṣṇī cloud, [Name] of a river; [neuter] sgl. & [plural] harsh language.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paruṣa (परुष):—[from paru] a mf(ā)n. (older f. paruṣṇī) knotty (as reed), [Atharva-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] spotted, variegated, dirty-coloured, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] hard, stiff, rugged, rough, uneven, shaggy, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] intertwined with creepers (as a tree), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

5) [v.s. ...] piercing, keen, sharp, violent, harsh, severe, unkind, [ib.] (am ind.)

6) [v.s. ...] m. a reed, [Atharva-veda]

7) [v.s. ...] an arrow, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Lāṭyāyana]

8) [v.s. ...] Grewia Asiatica or Xylocarpus Granatum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a demon, [Suparṇādhyāya]

10) Paruṣā (परुषा):—[from paruṣa > paru] f. a kind of riddle, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) Paruṣa (परुष):—[from paru] n. harsh and contumelious speech, abuse, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] the fruit of Grewia Asiatica or Xylocarpus Granatum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a species of Barleria with blue flowers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Parūṣa (परूष):—[from paru] m. Grewia Asiatica (from the berries of which a cooling beverage is prepared) or Xylocarpus Granatum, [Suśruta]

15) Paruṣa (परुष):—c See under paru.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paruṣa (परुष):—(ṣaṃ) 1. n. Harshness, abuse. m. Yellow barleria (Hylocarpus granatum.) a. Harsh, abusive; rough, severe; variegated.

2) Parūṣa (परूष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. The Parush tree.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paruṣa (परुष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Parusa, Pharusa, Pharusaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parusha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parusha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parūṣa (परूष):—(a) hard, harsh, severe; unpleasant; rough; unkind, cruel, pitiless; hard-hearted; —[vacana] harsh/rough words, unpleasant utterance; hence [parūṣā] (feminine form) see [parūṣa] a shrew.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Parusa (परुस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paruṣa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paruśa (ಪರುಶ):—[noun] = ಪರುಸ [parusa].

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Paruṣa (ಪರುಷ):—[noun] = ಪರುಸ [parusa].

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Paruṣa (ಪರುಷ):—

1) [adjective] characterised by violent action, motion, agitation, disturbance or irregularity; rough.

2) [adjective] harsh or grating to the ears; grating.

3) [adjective] willfully or knowingly causing pain or distress to others; cruel; ruthless; merciless.

4) [adjective] having a very thin edge or fine point; keen; sharp.

5) [adjective] frightening; terrifying; frightful.

6) [adjective] hard to solve or explain; puzzling; knotty.

7) [adjective] soiled; unclean; dirty.

8) [adjective] having or consisting of spots of different colours; variegated.

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Paruṣa (ಪರುಷ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being rough; roughness.

2) [noun] an enemy; a foe; an antagonist; an adversary.

3) [noun] the act or an instance of stealing; theft; larceny.

4) [noun] courage; bravery; boldness.

5) [noun] gold.

6) [noun] the quality or state of being clean; cleanliness.

7) [noun] harsh and contumelious speech.

8) [noun] (gram.) any of the harsh letters as ಕ, ಚ, ಟ, ತ, ಪ, [ka, ca, ta, ta, pa,] etc.

9) [noun] (rhet.) a kind of rhyming with aspirated letters as ಖ, ಘ, ಛ, ಝ, [kha, gha, cha, jha,] etc.

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Parusa (ಪರುಸ):—

1) [noun] a touching or being touched; a physical contact; a touch.

2) [noun] a kind of stone believed to convert any base metal into gold by its physical contact.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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