Kara, aka: Kārā, Kāra; 11 Definition(s)

Introduction

Kara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1a) Kara (कर).—(tax) not levied in Śākadvīpa;1 levied by Sagara over the conquered;2 to be levied and taken in instalments; fresh taxes lead to discontent among peoples.3

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 103; 59. 124; 108. 70; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 106.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 49. 7; 52. 41.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 217. 3; 226. 11; 238. 14.

1b) A measurement of length.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 274. 25.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kara (कर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.8, I.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Kāra (कार).—An affix, given in the Prātiśākhya works and,by Kātyāyana also in his Vārttika, which is added to a letter or a phonetic element for convenience of mention; e.g. इकारः, उकारः (ikāraḥ, ukāraḥ) ; cf. वर्णः कारोत्तरो वर्णाख्या (varṇaḥ kārottaro varṇākhyā); वर्णकारौ निर्देशकौ (varṇakārau nirdeśakau) Tai. Pra.I. 16: XXII.4.;cf. also V. Pr. 1.37. It is also applied to syllables or words in a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the word: e. g.' यत एवकारस्तती-न्यत्रावधारणम् (yata evakārastatī-nyatrāvadhāraṇam) Vyak. Paribhāṣā , cf. also the words वकारः, हिंकारःः (vakāraḥ, hiṃkāraḥḥ) (2) additional purpose served by a word such as an adhikāra word; cf. अधिकः कारः, पूर्वविप्रतिषेघा न पठितव्या भवन्ति (adhikaḥ kāraḥ, pūrvavipratiṣeghā na paṭhitavyā bhavanti) M. Bh. on P.I.3.11.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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India history and geogprahy

Kara.—(IE 8-5), explained by a commentator as ‘the dues (bhāga) to be realised by the king for the enjoyment of royal land by using it for cultivation and for grazing cattle’; tax in general. (IE 8-5) rent or tax to be paid in grains when mentioned side by side with hiraṇya. (HRS), tax in general, according to the lexicons; accord- ing to the Arthaśāstra, (1) periodical tax over and above the king's customary grain-share; (2) emergecy tax levied upon the villagers over and above the normal grain-share; (3) tax upon merchants' profits. (EI 29; Chamba; CITD), a tax or impost; royal revenue; rent, dues; toll, tribute. (IE 7-1-2), ‘two’. Note: kara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

kara : (m.) 1. the hand; 2. a ray; 3. a tax; 4. the trunk of an elephant. (adj.), (in cpds.), doing; performing. || kāra (m.), deed; service; act of homage. (adj.), in cpds. such as rathakāra: maker. kārā (f.), a prison; jail.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kārā, (f.) (cp. Sk. kārā) confinement, captivity, jail, in °bhedaka cora a thief who has broken out of jail Vin. I, 75. (Page 210)

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Kāra, (fr. kār-, cp. Vedic kāra song of praise, which is, however, derived fr. kṛ=kir to praise; also Vedic °kāra in brāhma°, fr. kṛ) 1. abs. (a) deed, service, act of mercy or worship, homage: kāra-paṇṇaka J. VI, 24 (vegetable as oblation); appako pi kato kāro devûpapattiṃ āvahati “even a small gift of mercy brings about rebirth among the gods” PvA. 6. —kāraka one who performs a religious duty D. I, 61 (=DA. I, 170). (b) doing, manner, way: yena kārena akattha tena k° pavattamānaṃ phalaṃ “as you have done so will be the fruit” PvA. 45.—2. (-°) (a) the production or application of, i.e. the state or quality of ... : atta° one’s own state =ahaṃ kāra, individuality; para° the personality of others A. III, 337; citti° reflection, thought PvA. 26; see e.g. andha° darkness, sak° homage, etc.—balakkārena forcibly PvA. 68.—(b) as ttg. the item, i.e. particle, letter, sound or word, e.g. ma-kāra the letter m PvA. 52; ca-kāra the particle ca PvA. 15; sa-kāra the sound sa SnA 23.—(c) (adj. -n.) (cp. kara) one who does, handles or deals with: ayakāra iron-smith Miln. 331. (Page 209)

— or —

Kara, (fr. kṛ) 1. (adj.) (-°) producing, causing, forming, making, doing, e.g. anta° putting an end to; pabhaṃ causing splendour; pāpa° doing evil; divā° & divasa the day-maker, i.e. the sun; kaṇhabhāva° causing a “black” existence (of pāpakamma) J. IV, 9; padasandhi° forming a hiatus PvA. 52; vacana°, etc. ‹-› 2. (m) “the maker, ” i.e. the hand Mhvs 5, 255—256; 30, 67. —atikaraṃ (adv.) doing too much, going too far J. I, 431; —dukkara (a) difficult to do, not easy, hard, arduous S. I, 7; IV, 260; A. I, 286; IV, 31, 135; V, 202; +durabhisambhavo Sn. 429 701; Ud. 61; (n. nt.) something difficult, a difficult task A. I, 286 (cp. IV. 31); J. I, 395; Miln. 121, dukkara-kārikā “doing of a hard task, ” exertion, austerity M. I, 93; Nd2 262b. —sukara easy to do S. I, 9; II, 181; Dh. 163; Ud. 61; na sukaraṃ w. inf. it is not easy to ... D. I, 250; A. III, 52, 184; IV, 334.

—kaṭaka (m. nt.) a hand-wheel, i.e. a pulley by which to draw up a bucket of water Vin. II, 122; cp. Vin. Texts III, 112; —ja “born of kamma” in karaja-kāya the body sprung from action, an expression always used in a contemptible manner, therefore=the impure, vile, low body A. V, 300; J. I, 5; Vism. 287, 404; DA. I, 113, 217, 221; DhA. I, 10; III, 420; DhsA. 403. karaja-rūpa Vism. 326. —tala the palm of the hand Mhbv 6, 34; —mara “one who ought to die from the hand (of the enemy), ” but who, when captured, was spared and employed as slave; a slave J. III, 147, 361; IV, 220; DhA. III, 487;—°ānītā a woman taken in a raid, but subsequently taken to wife; one of the 10 kinds of wives (see itthi) Vin. III, 140 (=dhajāhaṭā);—gāhaṃ gaṇhāti to make prisoner J. I, 355; III, 361; —mita “to be measured with (two) hands, ” in °majjhā, a woman of slender waist J. V, 219; VI, 457. (Page 195)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

kara (कर).—m (S) Royal revenue, toll, tax, assessment, impost. 2 A settled allowance to certain orders in a village,--to the pāṭīla, kuḷakaraṇī, jōśī &c.; a sum or quantity in general fixed to be given. 3 A hand. 4 Attached to the names of towns, it implies Inhabitant. Ex. kāśīkara, puṇēkara. 5 As the last member of a compound in comp. with Sanskrit words, it implies Agent. Ex. prakāśakara, sukhakara, ānandakara. 6 ind It follows imitative particles. Ex. jhaṭakara, paṭakara, caṭakara, dhaḍakara. 7 f An unlucky day, viz. the day following an eclipse, that of either of the solstices, that of the death of a person in the village, the day of the burning of the hōḷī &c.

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kara (कर).—m unc (karaṇēṃ To do.) A doing; a hand or concern in. Pr. jyālā kara nāhīṃ tyālā ḍara nāhīṃ. 2 Used for karī as in majūrakara, kāṭhakara, pōyakara.

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karā (करा).—See under kanhā.

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karā (करा).—f R Scum or film on the surface of water. 2 m The shooting of corn in the ear (after being stacked or cut).

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kāra (कार).—m A variety of the corn jōndhaḷā q. v. for all the varieties or species.

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kāra (कार).—f m The Trap rock or stone. 2 m (For karāra) Engagement, agreement, settlement. v kara, ṭharava. 3 m R Manure, compost. 4 A particle affixed to a letter in naming it. Ex. a, ka, ga, become akāra, kakāra, gakāra. 5 An affix to Sanskrit words, signifying Maker or doer. Ex. vastrakāra, śastrakāra. 6 (For kahāra) A palanquin-bearer.

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kārā (कारा).—f S A prison. In common use it requires an affix such as āgāra, gṛha &c. 2 Applied fig. to an irksome and confining business or occupation.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kara (कर).—m Tax. A hand. Concern in. f An unlucky day.

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karā (करा).—f Scum or film on the surface of water.

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kārā (कारा).—f kārāgṛha n A prison.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kara (कर).—a. (- or -) [करोति, कीर्यते अनेन इति, कृ-कॄ-अप् (karoti, kīryate anena iti, kṛ-kṝ-ap)] (Mostly at the end of comp.) Who or what does, makes or causes &c.; दुःख°, सुख°, भय° (duḥkha°, sukha°, bhaya°) &c.

-raḥ 1 A hand; करं व्याधुन्वत्याः पिबसि रतिसर्वस्वमधरम् (karaṃ vyādhunvatyāḥ pibasi ratisarvasvamadharam) Ś.1.24.

2) A ray of light, beam; यमुद्धर्तुं पूषा व्यवसित इवालम्बितकरः (yamuddhartuṃ pūṣā vyavasita ivālambitakaraḥ) V.4.34; also प्रतिकूलतामुपगते हि विधौ विफलत्वमेति बहुसाधनता । अवलम्ब- नाय दिनभर्तुरभून्न पतिष्यतः करसहस्रमपि (pratikūlatāmupagate hi vidhau viphalatvameti bahusādhanatā | avalamba- nāya dinabharturabhūnna patiṣyataḥ karasahasramapi) Śi.9.6 (where the word is used in sense 1 also).

3) The trunk of an elephant; सेकः सीकरिणा करेण विहितः (sekaḥ sīkariṇā kareṇa vihitaḥ) U.3.16; Bh.3.2.

4) A tax, toll, tribute; युवा कराक्रान्तमहीमृदुच्चकैरसंशयं संप्रति तेजसा रविः (yuvā karākrāntamahīmṛduccakairasaṃśayaṃ saṃprati tejasā raviḥ) Śi.1.7; (where kara means 'ray' also) (dadau) perhaps in this sense the word is used in neuter gender also. निर्ल्लज्जो मम च करः कराणि भुङ्क्ते (nirllajjo mama ca karaḥ karāṇi bhuṅkte) Pañch.2.3. अपरान्तमहीपालव्याजेन रघवे करम् (aparāntamahīpālavyājena raghave karam) R.4.58; Ms.7.128.

5) Hail.

6) A particular measure of length equal to 24 thumbs.

7) The asterism called हस्त (hasta).

8) A means or expedient.

9) A doer.

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Kāra (कार).—a. (- f.) [कृ-घञ् (kṛ-ghañ)] (At the end of comp.) Making, doing, performing, working, maker, doer, author; ग्रन्थकारः (granthakāraḥ) author; कुम्भकारः, सुवर्णकारः (kumbhakāraḥ, suvarṇakāraḥ) &c. &c.

-raḥ 1 Act, action; as in पुरुषकार (puruṣakāra).

2) A term denoting a sound or a word which is not inflected; as अकार (akāra) Ms.2.76,125; ककार, फूत्कार (kakāra, phūtkāra) &c.

3) Effort, exertion; 'कारौ वधे निश्चये च बले यत्ने रतावपि (kārau vadhe niścaye ca bale yatne ratāvapi)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ). Śi.19.27.

4) Religious austerity.

5) A husband, lord; master.

6) Determination.

7) Power, strength.

8) A tax or toll.

9) A heap of snow.

1) The Himālaya mountain.

11) Water produced by hail.

12) Killing, slaughter.

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Kārā (कारा).—

1) Imprisonment, confinement.

2) A prisonhouse, a jail; Mv.6.25.

3) Part of a lute below the neck.

4) Pain, affliction.

5) A female messenger.

6) A female worker in gold.

7) A sound.

8) An instrument for drawing the sound of the lute.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kara (कर).—(-kara) (m. or nt.; apparently related to Sanskrit and Pali kaṭaka; also karaka; see next), ring on which the alms- bowl is fastened; only in pātra-kara-vyagra-hasta: Divy 48.21; 159.9; 281.24; Av i.347.10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kara (कर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) Who or what does, makes or causes, as kiṅkaraḥ a servant, who does anything; bhayaṅkaraḥ frightful, what causes fear; upakaraḥ who gives aid: apakaraḥ who does ill, &c. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A ray of light, a sun or moonbeams. 2. Royal revenue toll, tax, impost, &c. 3. The hand. 4. Hail. 5. An elephant’s trunk. E. kṛñ to do, &c. ṭa or ap aff.

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Kāra (कार).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Who or what does any act, (but used chiefly in composition with other words:) the agent, a maker or doer; as kumbhakāra a potter, a maker of earthen vessels. svarṇakāra a goldsmith, &c. m.

(-raḥ) 1. Act, action. 2. Killing, slaughter. 3. Certainty. 4. Effort, exertion. 5. Religious austerity. 6. A heap of snow, or a mountain covered with it. 7. Tax, toll, royal revenue. 8. A master, a lord. f.

(-rā) 1. A prison. 2. Binding, confinement. 3. A female messenger. 4. The part of a lute below the neck. 5. A female worker in gold, (hemakārikā.) 6. Pain, affliction. E. kṛñ to make, to do, with ghañ or aṇ affix, in the latter case the fem. affix is ṅīṣ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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